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n EDO? I20b623 M 

California State Library 

Received ..APR 1894 

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ILVI. No. 1. 



Office, 220 Market St. 

Olives and Palms at San Fernando. 

engraving presents some exceedingly interesting 
es of the Mission horticulture of California.- Toe 
is all the more interesting, as it pertains to a Mission 
oi wiiich comparatively little has been printed. Those 
Missions which lie nearest to centers of present popula- 
tion or to popular resorts naturally engage most attention, 
but there are others just as picturesque and interesting. 
One of these is the Mission of San Fernando shown in the 

Those who speed along the San Fernando valley on the 
railway, and see the large area of desert vegetation and 
sand wash on its eastern edge, have no idea of the rich 
valley in which the padres made their establishment, grew 

fine gardens, vine- . 

yards and orchards 
and built up their 
enterprise in their 
usual way. During 
more recent years, 
too, the San Fer- 
nando valley has 
been famed as the 
great granary of the 
south, the yield up- 
on its many thou- 
sands of acres con- 
stituting quite an 
element in the grain 
output of the State. 

The latest devel- 
opment of the San 
Fernando valley is 
evidently in the line 
of fruit-growing. 
For some years the 
orchard area has 
been increasing, and 
the relurns have 
seemed to warrant 
extension of or- 
chard-planting en- 
terprises. For this 
reason there is now 
quite a disposition 
toward i m p ro ve- 
ment of San Fer- 
nando lands, and an organization for that purpose is new 
being promoted at Los Angeles. It is called the Los An- 
geles Olive-Growers' Association. We are indebted to 
this association for the glimpse at the old Mission plant- 
ings as they may now be seen. Both the olives on the left 
and the California fan palm on the right show their 
age, but the palm adds natural beauty to its antiquity, 
for its growth has not been disturbed. The old olives have 
no doubt undergone the pollarding which the seekers 
after olive cuttings gave all the old Mission trees about 
ten years ago. It is to this that their stumpy appear- 
ance is due. 

It will be poetic justice to see the San Fernando lands 
wrested from the grain-grower and returned to horticul- 
ture. The old orchards after Mission days, in fact, after 
American occupation, were of considerable moment. One 
of the first considerable products of dried fruit in Califor- 
nia came from this Mission, the fruit being chiefly pears, 
handled with Indian labor, by Don Andres Pico, at that 
time owner of the Mission lands. 

In the distance in the engraving the roof and the upper 
part of the corridor of the old Mission can be descried. 
The architecture was less ambitious than in other Mission 

buildings, but its size and the stability of the construction 
are good points. 

It looks now as though the Riverside Fruit Exchange 
will be able to maintain an organization in future that will 
embrace about 80 or more per cent of the orange-growers 
of that region. The past year's unprofitable experience 
seems to have given a perfect demonstration of the need 
of thorough organization rather than to have pointed out 
the futility of attempts to control the market and to con- 
vince orangemen that their interests are identical and can 
be served best by marketing through similar channels and 
by similar methods. The Riverside Exchange was for 
some years a fine example of the benefits of intelligent co- 
operation. Dissension entered, and it failed to accom- 

loads. Tbe shipments of cherries to date this year amount 
to 1,465,870 pounds. Last year the total shipment was 
973,005 pounds. California cherries seem to be finding a 
good market, notwithstanding the great increase and the 
hard times. Who was it said something about over- 
production ? 


plish anything. Profiting by past experience, it seems 
likely that the exchange will be the agent of profit and 
prosperity to the whole community of Riverside. The way 
to co-operate is to co-operate. 

The World's Fair management seems to have made 
a serious mistake in at least one respect; it has granted 
to private individuals exclusive privileges for sale of cer- 
tain commodities, and use and rental of other necessary 
things on the grounds that it should by all means have re- 
tained to itself. The result is exactly what might have 
have been expected, viz., universal complaint of exorbi- 
tant charges by concessionaires. One instance of gouging 
comes home to California. The cold-storage-fruit charges 
are so high as to be prohibitive. The California fruit 
exhibitors have met and formally protested, but, as Cali- 
fornia knows, protesting by resolution against a monopoly 
has about as much effect as a pope's bull against a comet. 
The comet never diverges an inch from its erratic orbit. 
Meanwhile, it is paid that the fruit exhibit of California is 
suffering very severely. 

Thb shipment of cherries overland from San Jose 
last week amounted to 444,775 pounds, in all eighteen car- 

A State road convention has been called to meet in 
Sacramento, September 7th. The call is issued by the 
Sacramento County Humane Society, and is supplemented 
by a letter of Governor Markham, who says he will nom- 
inate twenty delegates from the State at large. The con- 
vention will be composed of county supervisors, three 
county delegates, each county surveyor and two delegates 
of each chamber of commerce, board of trade, municipal 

body, transportation 
company, grange, 
agricultural associa- 
tion, wheelmen's 
club, humane so- 
ciety and other or- 
ganizations immedi- 
ately interested in 
good road agitation. 
The call is quite 
long and recites 
seven classes of pur- 
poses of the pro- 
posed meeting. It 
sets out some sur- 
prising statistics of 
waste by reason of 
uneconomic meth- 
ods of road con- 
struction and ad- 
ministration. It ap- 
peals to the press 
to give publicity to 
the call and to 
awaken interest in 
the approaching 
meeting. It is pro- 
vided that each 
county cast only fif- 
teen votes and or- 
ganizations not con- 
fined to counties 
two votes each. It 
is to be hoped that there will be a large attendance. The 
purpose of the convention is most praiseworthy, and de- 
serves attention from all interested in the subject. 

One of the healthiest signs of the times is the 
tendency among fruit-producers to work together in the 
matter of marketing their product. Co-operation has 
long been talked about to no definite end, but its recent 
success in Santa Clara county, at Yuba City and elsewhere 
has demonstrated what may be done when people go about 
it in the right way. The fruit-growers of Santa Rosa have 
just taken up this question, and at a meeting held on last 
Saturday they made a beginning toward practical organiza- 
tion. Another meeting will be held on Saturday of this 
week, and it is hoped to get the new co-operative society 
ready for practical operation during the coming season. 

The Poultrymen's Union of Petaluma, whose pur- 
poses were some weeks since described at length in the 
Rural Prrss, has perfected its organization, and is get- 
ting ready for active business. The purpose of the union 
is co-operative. It is designed to buy feed cheaper and 
sell poultry and eggs to better advantage. The Petaluma 
Union will no doubt serve a useful purpose. 




July 1, 1893. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., San Francisco., Col. 

Annual Subscription Rate Three Dollars • year. While this notlc 
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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing in extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at 8. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

Any subscriber sending an inquiry ou any subject to the Rural Press, with 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 

ALFRED HOLM AN General Manager 

San Francisco, July i, 1893. 


ILLUSTRATIONS — The Old Olive Orchard and California Fan Palm 
at the Mission of San Fernando, 1. 

EDITORIALS.— Olives and Palms at San Fernando; Miscellaneous, 1. 
The Week;A Reform Which Looks Backward:The Stringency and the 
Fruit Market. 2. From an Inde endent Standpoint, 3. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Activity In the San Jose Fruit Canneries.'S. Fruit 
Products and the Tariff; A New cherry; Value of a Brand; Drying 
Peaches; To Destroy Linnets, 4. ...,„, 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Success In Co-operation; Crystallized Fruit; 
Fruit Packing lor Profit. 5. 

THE DAIRY. — Increasing the Milk Yield, 6. 

POULTRY YARD. — Poultry vs. Fruit; Raising Chickens on Farm, 5. 
That Sleepy i dsease : Ode to the Hen ; N o Lice on the Chick ; A Foolish 
Prf-Judice: The Droppings, 6. 

THE VINEYARD.— Success of Resistant Vines, 6. 

HORTICULTURE.— Spray for the Codlin Moth; Two Conventions of 
Fruit-Growers; Points from a Practical Pear-Drier, 6. Florida Orange 
<!rop of 1892-93 Astonishing Fecundity of the Aphis: Wooly Aphis in 
the Orchards; Big Yields from Single Cherry Trees; Pruning Orange 
Trees; No Coulure Says Prof. Sanders; Bi-Sulphide of Carbon for 
Gophers; Chinese Labor In Orchards, 7. Analyses of Figs and Fig 
Soils. 8. 





PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — From Worthy Master Davis; From Mr. 

Ohleyer; From Pesoadero; Bennett Valley Grange, 14. 




Hay Presses— Truman, Hooker & Co 20 

Windmills— R. F. Wilson, Stockton 20 

Liniment— H H Moore & Sous, Stockton ^0 

Fruit Dryer— Paraffine Paint Co 18 

Fruit Grader — G. G. Wlckson & Co 19 

Artificial Limbs— Menzo Spring 19 

See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Amid crash of broken banks and in the grasp of financial 
stringency, the days are tripping gaily along to the Na- 
tional Birthday. While one man wonders how he will 
-»et money enough to harvest his crop, another puts a 
nortgage on his farm to pay his way to the World's Fair. 
Vhile it is solemnly declared that money cannot be had 
d start canneries, dress-coated committees are meeting 
and declaring that it is easy to get a million dollars to 
bring a fraction of the European merchandise from 
Chicago to San Francisco. And when we tire of the de- 
tails of wildcat banking and impossible enterprises, we 
plunge the last fiber of our gray matter into the exploits 
of train-robbers and prison-breakers. Truly, this is a 
great age and we are a great people. 

It does seem as though the time3 were out of joint. A 
wet winter and the soil hard and dry; heavy bloom and 
light fruit; great anticipations of a summer full of interest 
and activity because of the World's Fair and yet the fair 
might almost as well be in Madagascar so far as Cali- 
fornians as a whole are concerned. But we have one 
blessing which neither off-seasons nor business depression 
nor high railway rates can rob us. It is the Fourth of 
July. Let us be thankful for it. 

The Stringency and the Fruit Market. 

The canned-fruit product of California for 1893 will 
probably be light. The reasons are two: The financial 
stringency and the volume of carried-over stock. One 
trouble with the canning business is that it is necessary 
to make a large outlay of cash before returns come in. 
For instance, Mr. Skinner, of the Marysville cannery, de- 
clares that, even at the lightest seasons, $117,000 in cash 
must be paid out by his concern before one cent cornea 
back. In past seasons, canners have had little trouble in 
securing all needed assistance from banks. But the pres- 
ent loans are being very much limited, and it may be that 
some canneries will not be able to start up at all. But, 
notwithstanding the present depression of the industry, 
one thing should not be lost sight of. Canneries which 
have established the value and quality of their products 
will probably turn out nearly an average pack. It is in- 
teresting to note, as shown in another column, that the 
San Jose canneries are beating their record at the opening. 

It is probable that we are just at this moment under the 
heaviest shadow in this matter and it is fortunate it comes 

so early in the season. It might be more serious if it fell 
later, although we are aware that present friction must 
necessarily restrict the season's work. We anticipate that 
the present depression will soon be followed by a reaction 
which will restore a degree of confidence in staple food 
supplies, although general investments and luxuries may 
be much loDger unthought of. For this reason we expect 
that the canners may feel warranted in doing more than 
now seems possible and thus care for a considerable amount 
of fruit before the season closes. It will not be the first 
time that canners have done more than they expected to 
do at the opening of the season, although we confess the 
present situation is graver than conditions which have 
sometimes discouraged them. We have not seen it claimed 
that the visible supply of canned goods in the United 
States could meet the demand longer than December. 
Consequently there will be eight or nine months of 1894 
to supply from this year's pack. If there should be any 
such decrease in the product as is now talked of, there will 
be a famine in canned goods before the pack of 1894 can 
begin. It seems to us that this view of the future will 
lead Eastern dealers to proceed with some show of busi- 
ness, and this will be farther promoted by the faot that 
they can probably get very favorable quotations from our 
packers. For all the present darkness we believe that any 
man who has canned fruits to sell in the winter and spring 
of 1894 will be glad of it. In fact it is even possible that 
the present situation may help some canners to secure 
cheap fruit. 

But though such a degree of hopefulness seems war- 
ranted, producers have, of course, to face the present situ- 
ation and prepare to make the best of it. Fortunately the 
recourse to drying is still open. The sun will shine for 
all, and, by using wisely all available energy, the grower 
can cheaply produce a splendid food supply which will be 
ultimately all the more valuable if the supply of canned 
fruit should run light. It looks now as though large pro- 
ducers who need advances to meet the cost of handling 
the fruit even for sun drying might have difficulty in ob- 
taining it, but even in this we anticipate some relief from 
the present darkness. Even a small degree of confidence 
will let loose money enough for wages, though funds for 
increased facilities and improvements may not be had this 
season. The smaller producer who relies largely upon his 
own labor and that of his family will command the situa- 
tion, and will get a fair reward for his effort. 

We have not spoken of Eastern shipment of ripe fruits. 
So far as it can be carried, it is of course a great advan- 
tage. Fortunately sales thus far have as a rule been good 
and may continue. AH the fruit which can be sold in this 
way, even with a small profit, should be thus disposed of, 
but only favored localities are accessible to this trade. 
Drying is the sheet anchor of the California fruit industry, 
and there is greater need than ever that the best methods 
should be the property of all. To this end we hope to 
make a contribution in a special edition on fruit-drying, 
which is now nearly ready. 

A Reform Which Looks Backward. 

Chicago, June 24.— A special from Washington says : Secre- 
tary of Agriculture Morton's policy is the reverse of that of 
Rusk. The latter's constant effort was to expand the work of 
the Department and give it the widest possible scope. Morton 
is trying to limit it to strictly governmental functions. He 
thinks meat inspection does not warrant the expense in view 
of the returns, and has cut off nearly 250 employes in the 
Bureau of Animal Industry since he took hold, saving the 
Government about $200,000 "per annum. He has caused to be 
prepared a statement showing the cost of the microscopical 
examination of pork at Chicago. Kansas City, Indianapolis, 
South Omaha, Pittsburg and Nebraska Citv. It shows the 
total value of pork exports to countries requiring the inspec- 
tion for the 11 months ending May 31st was $3,577,745, and 
the cost of inspection $239,000, while Great Britain alone, 
which requires no inspection, bought of us $34,000,000, or 
nearly ten times as much, without any expense to the United 
States. Morton has addressed the German Government on 
the subject to show our inspection does not affect our trade in 
that country, as even our inspected meats are not admitted 
till inspected by Germany. 

We are not sure that the above paragraph from the 
Associated Press dispatches correctly represents Mr. Sec- 
retary Morton. We hope that it does not, and we there- 
fore comment upon the misfortune it would portend if it 
were a true reflection of his policy and purposes. 

Mr. Morton must know that for years farmers and 
farmers' organizations have been earnestly seeking from 
the Government some share in the expenditures for the 
upbuilding of the industrial interests of the country which 
should in some degree reflect the dignity of the agri- 
cultural industries and enable them to attain the propor- 
tions and prosperity which are their due. For years the 
farmers of the country saw vast sums of Government 
money expended for other public interests, while their 
representative at Washington enjoyed neither funds nor 
honor. Within a decade there has been notable advance- 
ment of agriculture in public esteem, in official dignity and 
in means of carrying forward measures for the elevation 
of farming intellectually and commercially, and for the 
elucidation of obscure matters which are important factors 

in agricultural success. Now, having secured such con- 
sideration from the throng ot professional and commercial 
men who make our laws, we are called upon to con- 
template a man who wears the honors thus secured dis- 
posed to make a virtue of turning back into the treasury 
money appropriated for the advancement of agriculture. 
Can it be that the earnest appeals, the urgent reso- 
lutions, the carefully-prepared memorials, through which 
the agriculturists secured some respectable consideration 
from Congress, were all false claims? What else can we 
conclude when the chief representative of agriculture folds 
up his portfolio and, by unexpended funds, tells his asso- 
ciates in the Cabinet that Congress was foolish in making 
provision for the promotion of agriculture? 

We understand, of course, that the farmer desires, of all 
things, care and economy in the expenditure of public 
money, but his complaint for a generation has been that 
all other interests had patrimony and he parsimony. He 
knows that millions have been lavished upon affairs which 
enriched other classes and impoverished him. He has 
congratulated himself of late that his interests were secur- 
ing promotion and extension through Government enter- 
prise, but now he finds himself in danger of falling beneath 
a reform movement which it has been reserved for his ov 
representative to inaugurate. He has for years called for 
mercy in the halls of his enemies; now he needs mercy in 
the house of his friends. 

We do not know whether those pork-inspectors could 
tell trichinae from rattlesnakes. Granted that they could 
not, and that they should all be run through a lightning 
slaughtering establishment. Secretary M»rton would have 
served the agriculture of the country well in dismember- 
ing them. But that does not seem to be the point. The 
argument is that so much meat is sold to countries not re- 
quiring inspection that it is not worth while to carry on 
inspection for the small customers who require it. Can it 
be that Mr. Morton does not know that the entrance of 
our pork products into France and Germany has been 
urgently sought for years, and that only very recently and 
through inspection have the gates been opened ? Is it 
any wonder that the early trade with countries which have 
been long closed should be small ? Is it not a gratifying 
and encouraging fact that it has so soon reached such fig- 
ures, and what does the saving of money which Congress 
has appropriated in the expectation of building up and 
extending that trade signify ? Evidently it would be the 
costliest saving the country ever made if it should endan- 
ger this meat traffic with the great, hungry continent of 
Europe. In this trade now lies the greatest chance of re- 
ducing the drain of gold from American banks. The less 
hog we give them the more gold they will exact. 

But Mr. Morton will write to Germany that the Congress 
of the United States is foolish to spend money to inspect 
pork for their ports. We do not know just how the 
German will look upon this new exposition of Yankee 
thrift, but we can imagine he will reply in diplomatic 
phrase that if it costs so much, we can keep the pork. 

As we remarked at the outset, we sincerely hope the 
dispatches misrepresent Mr. Morton's methods and 
policies. The country is getting an idea that he is narrow 
and unable to grasp the great affairs entrusted to his care. 
This should be checked if it be a misapprehension. The 
Secretary of Agriculture has work which can well employ 
the broadest, deepest mind. There are reforms, improve- 
ments, extensions which will redound to the prosperity of 
the country through the elevation of agriculture and pro- 
motion of its highest interests. There are needs to be 
met which will require the greatest economy and the 
closest husbanding and adjustment of his resources. 
It is not a wise executive who turns back to the treasury 
money appropriated for the extension of important inter- 
ests; it is wise, rather, to expend it economically and effec- 
tively, and to accomplish the results which are sought. 
We hope this is really Mr. Morton's motive and ambition, 
and in such a course we will strengthen his hands in every 
possible way; but to return to the treasury money appro- 
priated for specific and promising agricultural extension 
and advancement, while other governmental departments 
are using their uttermost farthing in the promotion of 
other interests, seems a strange course for the farmers' 
representative to adopt. We sincerely trust that in this 
matter the dispatches misrepresent Secretary Morton. 

Fig-growbrs have often wondered how their fruit com- 
pared chemically with imported figs and how the fig soils 
of Smyrna compare with soils on which we are growing 
figs in this State. The University Experiment Station 
Bulletin on Page 8 gives the results of careful analyses 
and investigations recently completed at the State Uni- 
versity. The portion in this week's Rural refers chiefly 
to the examination of the figs ; next week the comparative 
view of Asia Minor and California soils will be given. 
These matters will interest horticulturists who desire to 
look deeply into things. 

July 1, 1893. 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

All ordinary subjects of public interest are subordinated 
just now to the money situation. In ten days there has been 
something like a panic in the country with the usual ac- 
companiments of bank suspensions and commercial fail- 
ures. In San Francisco the Pacific and the Home Savings 
banks have gone under, and in Los Angeles and other 
southern towns there have been a score of similar failures- 
As we write (on Wednesday) it is assumed that the worst 
is passed, but it is impossible to borrow a dollar for any 
purpose from the city banks. The " money market " is 
tighter than at any time since the failure of the Bank of 
California, in August, 1875. With all the ordinary 
sources of relief closed, there is likely to be a series of 
business failures, both in the city and in the interior. The 
stringency is certain to seriously affect the industry of the 
State during the season just now at hand. Since all se- 
curity is declined at the banks, nobody can do anything in 
an industrial way unless he has actual money in hand. 
Every grain bag in this market is " in bank;" that is, not 
to be had without money — not notes or ordinary securities, 
but actual money. In one instance, in the neighborhood 
of Hanford, harvesting operations have been stopped for 
the want of bags. Some fruit-canners, who usually borrow 
money for the season's work, cannot, as matters now stand, 
find accommodation; and it looks very much as if some of 
them would be unable to operate this season. Some of the 
older and stronger of these establishments expect to run as 
light as possible, but others, viz: the San Jose canneries, 
as described in another column, are preceeding with full 
force. But despite this exception, every line of business 
is more or less affected. Stagnation and want of confi- 
dence rule the time; and it looks as if we were in for a hard 

In connection with the present situation, the views of 
President Cleveland have especial interest. In a recent 
interview he said that he intended to call a special session 
of Congress not later than September 15th, and even 
earlier if unexpected contingencies should make it neces- 
sary. He further said: 

" While there has been no mystery norsecrecy in regard to my 
intention in this matter, I think it not amiss that our people 
should be informed authoritatively that the time is at hand 
when their representatives in Congress should be called upon to 
deal with the financial condition, which is a great menace to 
the country's welfare and prosperity. 

" It is well for the people to take up the subject for themselves 
and arrive at their own conclusions as to the merits of a finan- 
cial policy which obliges us to purchase idle silver bullion with 
gold taken from our reserve. One does not need the eye of a 
financier to see that this gold thus subtracted from the Govern- 
ment's stock is eagerly seized by other nations for the purpose 
of strengthening their credit at our expense. 

" It does not need the art of statesmanship to de'ect the 
danger that awaits the continuance of this operation. Already 
the timidity of capital is painfully apparent and none of us can 
fail to see that fear and apprehension in monetary circles will 
ultimately bring suffering to every humble home in our land. 

" I think that between now and the meeting of Congress 
much depends upon the action of those engaged in financial 
operations and business enterprises. Our vast natural resources 
and credit are abundantly sufficient to justify them in the utmost 
faith and confidence. If instead of being frightened they are 
conservative, and if instead of gloomily anticipating immediate 
disaster they will perform their patriotic duty, they will at the 
same time protect their own interests. The things just now 
needed are coolness and calmness in financial circles and study 
and reflection among our people." 

Evidently Mr. Cleveland believes that the want of con- 
fidence back of the present money trouble is due to the 
silver question; and he distinctly announces his judgment 
that the silver-purchase law should be repealed. On the 
other hand, the silver advocates claim that the present 
stress grows out of the lack of a sufficient quantity of 
money in the country, and their remedy would be to open 
the mints to the free coinage of silver. Both these theories 
are based upon the idea that the prevailing trouble is 
purely an American matter. They fail, apparently, 
to connect our financial stringency with recent 
colossal failures in Australia and with similar stringency 
all the world over. 

In our view of it, the trouble here and elsewhere grows 
out of the slow but steady contraction in gold. That 
metal is in reality (no matter what anybody may say to 
the contrary) the measure of all value; and as it grows 
scarcer and therefore dearer, the value of other things 
relatively declines. Thus, although the productive areas 
of the earth grow wider and more prolific, the values of 
things steadily decline. The men who hold the money of 
the world (the gold metal by which values are measured, 
or securities valued by the gold metal standard) get more 
year by year for their money, while the producers of com- 
modities get less year by year. This process has been go- 
ing on for a long time and it has now, in our judgment, 
reached a point where it must stop or lead to universal 
bankruptcy. What is needed, as we look at it, is a new 
and stable measure of value — in other words, an honest 
dollar. We are not arguing for free silver coinage in the 
United States; that would be only local treatment for an 
all-the-world disease, and would be a grievous blunder. 

The thing needed, we believe, is the establishment by the 
consent and co-operation of all the nations of a new measure 
of value in place of the old gold standard. It is not, in our 
judgment, the amount of money but the value of it which 
needs to be regulated. Those who are so eager for " ex- 
panding the currency " seem not to know that as business 
is now conducted — by checks, bills of credit and exchange, 
notes, etc., etc. — the currency has a self-expansive power 
beyond any possible minting capacity. 

There is, we believe, no desire on the part of anybody 
to strike from the pension rolls the name of any old 
soldier, or soldier's widow or soldier's orphan, provided 
the pension was rightfully earned, and provided, further, 
that it is really needed. But there seems to be a prac- 
tically unanimous desire to cut off all names which were 
gotten on the rolls by misrepresentation and fraud and to 
stop all payments to persons whose disabilities are 
not such as prevent them from earning a good 
living. Of this last-named class — that is, persons 
who receive but do not need pensions — -there are 
many conspicuous examples. Secretary Gresham draws 
a pension of $30 per month; United States Senator 
Manderson, a rich man, $15 a month; ex-Gommiesionera of 
Pensions W. W. Dudley and John C. Black, both severely 
wounded and physically disabled, draw pensions, the one 
of $36 a month and the other of $100, but each has been 
left mentally sound and active enough to make an ample 
living. Ex-Governor Beaver, of Pennsylvania, a rich 
man, draws a pension of $45 a month; ex-Governor Fair- 
child, of Wisconsin, gets a pension of $45 a month; Judge 
Calvin E. Pratt, of Brooklyn, draws a pension of $35 a 
month; Bev. Dr. Green Clay Smith, pastor of a wealthy 
congregation at Washington City, still claims compensa- 
tion of $30 a month for a wound in the knee, which, how- 
ever, does not appear to have affected his capacity for 
service as congressman of Kentucky or pastor of the 
church. Others on the list are Gen. Hugh Ewing, a lead- 
ing and wealthy lawyer of Ohio, who draws $30 a month 
for rheumatism contracted in the army; ex-Congressman 
Newberry, a Chicago millionaire, who accepts $12 a month 
for general debility; Gen. Neal Dow, of Portland, Maine, 
who is wealthy and draws $7.50 a month; ex-Governor 
Chase, of Indiana, of abundant means, who draws $12 a 
month for general disability, and ex-Governor Dick 
Oglesby, of Illinois, who, though well off financially, 
accepts $8 a month for services in the Mexican war. Gen. 
William F. Draper, elected to the Fifty-third Congress 
from Massachusetts, is a very wealthy manufacturer who 
draws a pension. In every State there are scores of similar 
cases. These men were all good soldiers, and if they 
were in want it should be the duty and the pleasure of the 
Government to provide for them, but they are all well-to- 
do or rich, and they ought not to receive pensions. The 
prod-ucers of the country ought not to be taxed to pay pen- 
sions to men in comfortable circumstances. 

The anti-cigarette law enacted by the last State of 
Washington legislature has been declared unconstitutional 
and void by the United States District Court. The court 

The said law of the State of Washington, prohibiting the sale 
of cigarettes, and referred to in the petition, is in contravention 
of Article 1 of Section 8 of the Constitution of the United States, 
and null and void in so far as it prohibits or attempts to pro- 
hibit the selling, giving or furnishing to any one by the im- 
porter of, etc. 

This is probably sound law, but it is the moral rather 
than the legal aspect of the case which appeals to popular 
interest. Of the cigarette habit it is not possible to speak 
too positively, for it is unquestionably a prolific source of 
moral and physical degradation. The little paper roll of 
tobacco presents that vicious drug in its most fascinating, 
hurtful and available form. But this vice, like other per- 
sonal vices, must be treated from the moral side; its vic- 
tims must be informed, persuaded and strengthened. If it 
is to be conquered, it must be through the development of 
self-respect and of manly self-control. To undertake its 
abolition by act of legislature isj a piece of folly only 
matched by the Pope's bull against the comet. There is 
only one way to reform men, and that is through the de. 
velopment of intelligence and character. Efforts based on 
any other principle will fail, for all experience proves that 
men cannot be made temperate nor chaste by statute. 

It is a duty of society to protect children too young for 
knowledge and discretion against the cigarette vice by 
imposing penalties upon selling or giving cigarettes to 
them. It is right to protect the public by prohibiting the 
smoking of cigarettes in public places. But here is the 
limit of prohibition. To attempt more than this is to fly 
in the face of the impracticable and the impossible, and to 
do more harm than good. 

Some years ago a Californian young woman, Miss Madge 
Morris, wrote a poem — a real poem, with poetry as well as 

rhyme in it — entitled the " New Liberty Bell." It was as 

It was not to be builded — this bell that they planned — 
Of common ore dug from the breast of the land, 
But of metal first molded by skill of all arts, 
Built of the treasures of fond human hearts. 

* * * » * • 

Knights came in armor and flung in the shields 
That had warded off blows on the Saracen fields; 
Freeman brought chains from prisons afar — 
Bonds that had fettered the captives of war; 
And sabers were cast in the molten flood, 
Stained with the crimson of heroes' blood. 
Pledges of love— a bracelet, a ring, 
A gem that had gleamed in the crown of a King; 
The coins that had ransomed a maiden of death; 
The words, hot with eloquence, caught from the breath 
Of a sage, and a prayer from the lips of a slave 
Were heard, and recorded, and cast in the wave 
To be melted and molded together and tell 
The tale of their wrongs in the tones of the bell. 

This bit of verse gained wide circulation, and somebody 
with a fine instinct pasted a copy of it beside the old Lib- 
erty Bell at Philadelphia. Wm. O. McDowell there saw 
the verses, and it gave him an idea, no less an idea than 
to carry out the dream of the poet and compound a New 
Liberty Bell for the Columbian Exposition. Mr. McDow- 
ell at once began to collect relics for the bell, and con- 
tinued the work till he had no less than 250,000 pieces of 
metal. Every great event in the history of the story of 
liberty, every great leader in the struggle through the ages 
for human liberty is represented in the metal that has been 
cast in the bell. No less than 20 different things dear to 
the memory of Washington, the flintlock from Thomas 
Jefferson's gun, metal from the room in which he wrote 
the Declaration of Independence, copper cooking utensils 
in which his porridge was cooked while a boy, are in the 
metal. From South America came a part of the chain of 
Simon Bolivar. From the home of William Tell a beauti- 
fully engraved copper cowbell. From Italy the medals in 
memory of old Garibaldi. From France a part of the 
meltal from the original statue of Liberty Enlightening 
the Wjrld. From Siberia filings from chains that had 
been worn by prisoners in the mines of Kara. There are 
many mementoes from the memory of Lincoln. The 
daughter of General Sam Houston sent from Texas a 
medal in his memory. Altogether over 900 express pack- 
ages came to the foundry, some of them containing 1000 
contributions in a package. The bell thus compounded 
will be rung for the first time on the Fourth — next Tues- 
day — at Chicago. 

Miss Morris, the author of the verses which led to the 
making of this bell, is now Mrs. Wagner of San Diego 
and the mother of a daughter of ten. This little girl has 
been selected to read the poem at Chicago on Tuesday, 
after which the mother will touch an electric button, which 
will set the New Liberty Bell to pealing, and with it bells 
in every State of the Union. 

Activity in the San Jose Fruit Canneries. 

The great fruit canneries of San Jose do not exhibit the 
dullness and danger by which other similar establishments 
are depressed. The Mercury of June 28th has the follow- 

Activity is the order of things among the canneries at 
the present time, the cberrv peason now being at its height. 

Since June 1st the J. M. Dawson Cannery has been re- 
ceiving large consignments of cherries, and is as rapidly 
placing them in cans. About 250 hands are employed, 
but it is expected at the opening of the apricot season to 
increase the number to 500 or 600. Shipments will not be 
made until later in the season, when the company will 
have an assorted stock of fruits. 

Cherries alone occupy the attention of the J. Z. Ander- 
son Packing Company. It reports a decided increase in 
the number of pounds handled this year over that of last 
year. A large force of men is employed constantly pack- 
ing the fruit for shipment. 

At the Golden Gate Cannf ry, on North Fourth street, 
the work of packing the large quantities of cherries is 
being prosecuted by 350 hands. 

A rough estimate places the amount canned at fifteen 
tons per day. Not only is the cherry crop above the aver- 
age in quantity but also in quality, many being as large as 

During the past winter a change of location has been 
made by the San Jose Fruit-Packing Company from North 
Fifth street to San Carlos street, adjacent to the narrow- 
gauge railroad. As the cannery now stands it is undoubt- 
edly the largest and most fully equipped establishment of 
the kind in the world. New buildings have been erected 
and equipped with the most modern machinery, at a cost 
of about $50,000. The structures are all well lighted and 
ventilated, and every precaution has been taken for the 
comfort and health of the vast number who are to work 
within them. A pretty grove has been set apart, to be 
used exclusively by the women and girls as a place to 
enjoy their luncheons. The main cannery is 300x400 feet 
and is modern in every detail. The receiving room is 
15x100 feet, and is so arranged as to save all labor pos- 
sible. In addition to these buildings is the tin-shop, 
100x70 feet, the preserving and jelly department, 100x85 
feet, and a solder room and storehouse 200x40 feet. The 
establishment covers an area of more than ten acres, mak- 



July 1, 1898. 

ing it the largest in the world. A commendable feature 
of the new cannery is its vast storage capacity, there being 
room enough to store 500,000 cases of fruit at one time. 
When running at full capacity 200,000 cases can be turned 
out in one day. W. H. Wright is the able manager of 
the institution and presides at the elegantly furnished 
office which stands alone from the other buildings. All 
of the cans are outside-soldered and made by the firm. 
The cannery is now employing a force of 350 hands to care 
for the cherry crop, but as soon as apricots are brought in 
it is proposed to employ about 1000 hands. 

Fruit Products and the Tariff. 

Readers should not forget the call for a convention ot 
fruit-growers to discuss measures and present facts which 
shall strengthen the claim made for protection through an 
impost upon imported fruits and fruit products. It 
is exceedingly important that the protection hitherto en- 
j >yed shall not be removed. In the present complexion of 
public affair* there is counted danger to all protective 
tariff*, and Oalifornians must exert an influence to main- 
tain the encouragement under which the industry has ad- 
vanced thus far. Some, at least, of our congressmen desire 
to present the claims of our growers at the next session of 
Congress, and to secure the facts upon which such claims 
rest the general assemblage of growers ia invited. Let all 
who can take part in it. 

A notice in another column gives definite information 
upon the holding of the meeting and to this the reader is 
referred. It will save time, and, at the same time, enrich 
the meeting if all who attend can prepare careful state- 
ments drawn from their own experience and observation 
to show the needs of the fruit interests in the line of pro- 
tection, the local difficulties which prevail and which 
should secure relief from such competition as would follow 
the free entrance of foreign products to the markets of this 
country. The importance to the country of the prosperity 
and extension of the fruit industry is also a matter which 
should be clearly shown by sure figures. This matter in 
all its bearings should be earnestly handled by the grow- 
ers, and we trust the meeting of July 13th will command 
wide attention. 

Dairymen to Co-operate. 

An address is being circulated, calling a convention of 
practical dairymen of the State to meet at Pet*luma, Sep- 
tember 2, 1893, at one o'clock, for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a California State Dairyman's Association. The object 
of the association will be to promote the advancement of 
California dairying interests. It is recognized that the in- 
dustry here is not up to the Eastern standard in practice 
and results, and it is designed to take steps toward better 
and more modern methods and appliances, improvements 
in breeds, establishment more generally of neighborhood 
creameries, and other economic measures. It is recognized 
that more can be done by co-operation than by other means. 

Uniform methods and packages will be a matter that will 
aff jrd an ample subject for discussion by the dairymen. It 
is to be hoped that ihe association will he organized and be 
a success. Previous efforts have not been very successful, 
but that is no indication that the thing can't be done. The 
way to co-operate is to co-operate. 

A New Cherry— The Deacon. 

To the Editor: — We send you by express to-day a 
sample box of our new cherry, The Deacon. The cherry 
is something new and we consider it to be very fine. It is, 
as you will doubtless notice, very large and handsome in 
appearance, and the firmest cherry that we know of. It 
ripens about ten days after the Tartarian and is a very heavy 
and regular bearer. We send you the samp'e, knowing 
you are interested in all new and desirable fruits, and we 
believe we have the coming cherrv. 

W. R. Strong Company. 

Sacramento, June 21, 1893. 

The fruit received warrants the above description. It is 
an exceedingly handsome fruit and will probably show ex- 
ceptional market qualities owing to its firmness, which is 
notable. It is as symmetrical in shape as the Royal Ann, 
with the color of the Black Tartarian. We would like to 
know something of the history of the variety. — Ed. Press. 

Drying Peaches. 

To THE Editor: — Could you kindly inform me through 
the columns of your paper, the best and mo«t practicable 
method to skin and dry peaches? A Subscriber. 

Walnut Creek. 

We expect contributors to our special dried-fruit edition 
to cover these points. To be sure of it, we print these 
questions and invite all to answer them. Let us have a 
symposium on the peach. 

To Destroy Linnets. 

A correspondent writes the Rural Press that in the 
western portion of S*nta Clara valley the linnets made in- 
roads on the bloom buds of French prunes, but would not 
touch the German prunes, nor did they disturb the leaf 
buds on either. Strychnine dissolved in vinegar, and 
poured into a dish where they come to drink thins these 
birds out readily. 

The Value of a Brand. 

Mr. C. E. Torrey, of Tustin, Orange county, takes 
unusual pains in curing and packing bis lemons, and the 
result shows that his care is amply rewarded. The lemons 
are cured in wrappers, one layer to the tray, and he has 
gone to considerable trouble and expense in getting up 
attractive labels, stencils, wrappers, etc. The result is that 
in the New York market he has been offered $3 and 

upward per box, and a dealer in Seattle is anxious to con- 
tract with him to take 25 boxes every five days at $4 per 
box. The Seattle man writes Mr. Torrey that his lemons 
are second to none, domestic or foreign. It is singular 
how quickly the best brands of fruits — lemons, oranges, 
or any other citrus or deciduous — become known. No 
packer need think that his efforts to produce first-class 
varieties will be wasted, and that they will be unnoticed and 
lost in the great mass of fruits poured into all the many 
markets of the world. The value of a brand is known by 
most intelligent fruit-raisers. Reputation is often half their 
stock in trade. 


A creamery at Lompoc is talked of. 

Ir you would be well heeled, let your garden be well tnrded. 

Hot in the country nowadays. But that's the penalty of 
having all sun and no clouds. That's California. 

After the Grange or Farmers' Institute is over, everybody 
can tbink of something mighty interesting he might have said, 
and didu't. 

A petition asking the Governor to reorganize the 8tate 
Board of Horticulture is being extensively circulated in south- 
ern California. 

It is whispered that the number of the Cleveland family 
will shortly be increased from three to four. There's no luck 
in odd numbers. 

The Penniman Fruit Company, of 8an Jose, has leased and 
will operate the cannery at 8anta Maria this season. The pack 
promises to be a good one. 

The total number of cars of fruit shipped from Vacaville to 
Eastern markets for the week ending Thursday, June 22nd, 
was 28; to San Francisco, 7. 

At one time in the great cowboy race, Rattlesnake Pete had 
a long lead on all others. All of which confirms our previous 
opinion that Rattlesnake is some shakes. 

The California Fruit Association shipped, on the 14th 
ins'., a carload of fruit by fast freight over the Rock Island 
route, the car arriving in Chicago in 5 days, 18i hours. 

It should be said that the " Mr. Kr. Sr." poem in last week's 
Gleanings was written by a Honolulu minister. Curious what 
these ministers say and do sometimes. Look at Mr. Briggs. 

It is good to take a short rest after dinner before returning 
to work. But the farmer who wants to sit down then and rest 
a year or two will make slow time in a race with a mortgage. 

Figuring on your profits in the fruit business is all well 
enough, if you do it after the fruit has been raised, packed, 
shipped, and marketed, and you have the money in your 

The crop of cherries on the Chico rancho was sold to a San 
Jose firm, and up to last week 136 tons had been shipped. The 
price paid is $80 per ton, which gives the return of $10,880 for 
the crop so far. 

The cannery at East Napa is at work on cherries, after 
several seasons of idleness. Thirty or more people are em- 
ployed. The right people seem to have hold of the enterprise, 
and it deserves success. 

Florida papers are very indignant over recently published 
sta'- meuts that the citrus eroves of that State are dying out. 
They say it isn't so. But it does seem to be the truth that the 
acreage is not increasing appreciably. 

If canners would flavor the apple with qnince, they would 
greatly improve the quality of the fruit, according to the 
palates of most buyers, and increase the demand for that article 
of canned goods, says the Fruit Grower/' Journal. 

It is claimed by some that a good quality of licorice root 
may be produced in Southern California. During the nine 
months ending with March last, the amount of licorce root 
imported reached 68,145 910 pounds, valued at $1,260,789. 

Of six canneries in Sonoma county, Petaluma's is the only 
one running at present. The condition of the money market 
and the large stocks of canned goods are somewhat discourag- 
ing to canners. But others will doubtless start np later in the 

Here is an old toast: 

Here's health to you, as good ax you are; 
Here's health to me, as bad as I am; 
But good as you are and bad as I am, 
I'm n» good as you are as bad as I am. 

The California girl is of the right sort. She is not afraid 
to go into the orchard to pick fruit, or the packing-house to 
pack, or the cannery to can. They are the sugar of earth, the 
roses of Sharon, the lilies of the valley, the — in short, they are 
the World's Fair. 

Some corn-grower, says the Santa Ana Blade, left a stock 
ten feet high in front of the real estate office of Humphrey & 
Pitman this morning, which, considering the early time, is a 
marvel. If on the 10th day of June cornstalks are ten feet 
hi h, what will they be by the 1st of September? 

Prof. Meehan, of Meehan'i Monthly, says that of the 100 000 
flowering plants known to the botanist, possibly not 10 per 
cent have any odor. " The large majority of plants are, in fact, 
scentless." Of 50 species of mignonette only odb is sweet, and 
of 100 varieties of violets not a dozen are sweet ones. 

The Colusa Fruit-Growers' Association has been organ- 
ized. N. Cutter was elected chairman and J. L. Seawell secre- 
tary. The object of the association is to estnblish an Eastern 
market for Culnsa fruits. The members pledge themselves to 
ship through the association. Let the good work continue. 

An exchange editor has brushed away the c 'bwebs of his 
bible, aud has discovered that the present dressmaker's device 
of the balloon shoulders was denounced as long ago as the time 
of Ezekial, that prophet having issued this solemn warning: 
" Thus saith the Lord God: Woe to ihe women who sew pillows 
on all armholes." 

The orange growers of Orange have organized by the elec- 
tion of the following officers: Col. J. A. Scarritt, president; L 
L. Collins, secretary; A. F. Snell, treasurer; Joel B. Parker and 
H. R. Cooper, executive committee. A committee has also 
been appointed to solicit signatures. The growers are to be- 
come shippers as well. 

" The secret of making good hay," says E. 8. Hall in the 
Venlurian, " is to cut it just when the milk is running and not 
after it has got dry enough to thresh for grain. When cnt just 
before it ripens the grain sticks in the heads and the full sus- 
tenance remains in the straw. Such hay goes much farther 
than the ordinary kind of indifferently cured article." 

The Modesto authorities recently attempted to assess wheat 
in city warehouses for city taxes, and the farmers in that sec- 
tion promptly announced that they would hereafter patronize 
outside warehouses, or ship to Port Costa direct. The Modesto 
authorities have now concluded that such wheat may be ex- 
empt under the law. Necessity is sometimes a pretty good in- 
terpreter of law. 

Vaca Valley, says the Reporter, has been filled with men 

and boys fqj the past week seeking work in our orchards. The 
Chinese seem to have the preference with our fruitmen, while 
the Jap comes in as second choice. White labor must wait 
and take what is left. Consequently we see daily on the streets 
dozens of white men and boys seeking work and but few of 
them finding it. 

Talking about big eggs, the prize story comes from Mada- 
gascar. A twelfth of a dozen eggs of the xpyorni* maximal — 
that is Madagascar Latin for hen — sold in Loudon recently for 
$335. It was 34i inches long and 28 inches round, holding as 
much as 148 common-sized hen's eges. The scpyornit maximui 
is a bird, the largest living or extinct. We have big eggs in 
California, bnt tbey are several sizes smaller than this. 

The State papers are talking of a recent exploit of a San 
Francisco paper, which printed a piece of bogus news to trap a 
rival into appropriating it, and thus convict it of stealing. 
The feat was successfully accomplished, and paper No. 1 points 
the finger of scorn at paper No 2 as a news thief. In other 
words, paper No. 1 deliberately told a lie and deceived its own 
readers in order to induce paper No. 2 to commit a theft. And 
this is journalism ! 

It has been suggested that the authorities at 8an Quentin 
send grain bags to authorized agents in all parts of the State, 
from whom farmers may purchase, and to whom tbey may re- 
turn unused bags in good condition and obtain the price paid 
for the same. In other words, that the State give farmers the 
advantages in this direction that other dealers do. Should the 
suggestion be followed, the immense surplus of bags at San 
Quentin would speedily diminish. 

An item is going the rounds of the State press, says the 
Exposittjr. that '' millions of worms are devastating the vine- 
yards of Fresno county." This is altogether an error. Worms 
are not devastating the vineyards of Fresno to any extent. 
Tbey have appeared at two or three points outside the regular 
vineyard district, but have done no material injury to the 
grape crop of the county. The worm that is doing the most of 
the damage in that vicinity is the worm of the still. 

This is the delicate way in which the Latah (Idaho) Time* 
reminds delinquents that even editors are shy a dollar or two 
sometimes : " This % is to state that the weather in this i has 
been without || in severity since the morning *»* sang together, 
consequently $$ are few in our office, and we ha«ten , — — . the 
opportunity to ask our subscribers (with their ^mission) to 
in cash, so that we will not have to stand with a f in our 
to keep our creditors away from our personal property." 

The Oregon laws place some difficulties in the way of ex- 
porting Mongolian pheasants for the purpose of propagation in 
California or at other places. The law expressly forbids such 
exportation. It may be said, however, that this statute is as 
much honored in the breach as in the observance, and those 
communities which desire to import these tine birds will find a 
way of obtaining them. All that is necessary is to get a couple, 
and then — «s the Irishman said about the Venetian gondolas — 
" let nasbure tak her cooree." 

There is some perplexity about the terra " Midway 
Plaisance" at the World's Fair. The Midway Plaisance is the 
section devoted to private exhibitors from all parts of the 
world, who charge admission or sell wares, Or do other things 
that will separate the visitor from his money. It is the side- 
show to the main circus, so to speak. a conglomeration of 
all nations, each striving to attract the wayfarer and sell or 
show him something. It is one of the most interesting — and 
expensive — features of the fair. 

The Orange Newt publishes a statement of one of the 
orange-growers in that section, which is as follows: 

800 boxes of seedlings $470 IS 

Picking, packlrjg aud boxes 1126 00 

Freight and Ice 856 50 

Cartage 9 00 

Commibsion.. 47 02 

Balance due Earl Fruit Co 67 84 

$537 62 $587 62 

In this case the packer gets nearly $200 clear profit, while the 
grower pays $67.34 for the privilege of selling his crop in the 
East. Who says fruit-growing doesn't pay 1 If it doesn't pay 
the grower it will the packer. So it isn't very strange after all 
that there is a general movement in California to make every 
grower his own packer. 

The affairs of the great cattle firm of Miller & Lux are to 
be made the subject of litigation in the courts. Mrs. Miranda 
Lux, widow of the deceased partner, Charles Lux, is dissatisfied 
with the manner in which the business and affairs of the firm 
are being conducted by the surviving partner. According to 
the provisions of the will of Charles Lux the entire manage- 
ment of the business waa to be vested in Miller. The latter, 
although now con l rolling more land and cattle than any other 
man in the world, is anxious to still further extend the poses- 
sions of the firm. Mrs. Lux, on the contrary, desires some of 
the assets turned into money, so that she can realize upon her 
share. She now announces her intention of suing for a parti- 
tion of the entire assets of the firm, valued at $20000,000. 
Pending the litigation she desires a receiver appointed to 
assume charge and control of all Ihe ranches and cattle which 
are to be made the subject of controversy. The suit promises 
to be the most important of its kind ever tried in California. 

The fecundity of the twice-stabbed ladybird ( Chilo- 
corus bivulnervs) seems to be well established by the breed- 
ing ot this species on a carob tree in the University Eco- 
nomic Garden at Berkeley. The tree has been somewhat 
infested with a brown aspidiolus scale and has attracted the 
attention of these scale-eating ladybirds. A few weeks ago 
we noticed the beetles upon it, but not particularly numer- 
ous. At present tbe tree is almost alive with the larvae 
and such havoc is being wrought upon the scale that the 
branches show chiefly the white under-scale from which 
the insect has been torn by the ladybird. May its tribe 

A Labge Ntjmbeb of Citizens of Butte county met 
at Oroville last week, in response to a call for a road con- 
vention, and passed a resolution denouncing — the word is 
not too strong — the proposition to bond the county for 
road purposes. Several speakers expressed themselves in 
favor of good roads, but were opposed to any bonding 
scheme. It seems not to have occurred to some of the 
gentlemen who aired their views on the subject aud found 
severe fault with newspapers for agitating tbe matter, that 
the only way to have good roads is to build them, and the 
only way to build them is to pay for them. 

The Fortune Cannery, in Humboldt county, starts the 
season with several large advance orders. Its specialty is 
strawberries, for which it has quite a high reputation. 
By using fir^t-class fruit and first-class methods, other es- 
tablishments ought to do as well. 

July 1, 1893. 


Success in Co-operation. 

In conversation with the editor of the Oroville Register, 
Mr. B. F. Walton, of Yuba City, thus spoke recently of the 
benefits of co-operation by fruit-growers : 

"The man who ships one box of ripe fruit to New York 
or Chicago gets as much in proportion for it as the man 
who ships ten boxes or a thousand boxes. Without co- 
operation the small grower, who can only send a few boxes 
at a time, would be unable to dispose of his fruit to ad- 
vantage. We send out a rustler, who goes among the 
fruit-growers and takes a list of those who can ship from 
day to day, and the kind of fruit and the number of boxes. 
One man will send 10, another 50 and a third 100 boxes 
of fruit, and in this way the carload Is made up. Should 
one grower fail to be on hand with his lot of fruit, he is 
charged for the space. The fruit sells in the East in pro- 
portion to its size, color and condition. If a man packs 
first-class fruit he receives a higher price than the one who 
sends poor or inferior fruit. I tell my nephew who has 
charge of my packing not to send a single peach that he 
would be unwilling to pay five cents for when placed on a 
stand in the Eastern markets. By thus joining together 
we can ship a carload a day, while without it only a few 
of the largest growers could ship to advantage. We con- 
sign our cars to the California Fruit Union, and that body 
directs to what points the cars shall be sent. They thus 
prevent a glut in the market as far as possible. I think 
we have reached the height of fruit production in this State, 
unless some plan of this kind is followed by fruit-growers. 
If we join together and ship in the manner I have men- 
tioned, then an immense field is opened to us. We can 
grow the fruit all right — what we now need to do is to look 
after the means of placing in the customer's hands in the 
cheapest and best manner. We have been shipping the 
early peaches, apricots and cherries, with some plums. 
These early peaches, such as Hale's Early, Alexander and 
Buck's Prolific, find but a limited market here, as they are 
not the right kind for canning or drying, yet when shipped 
East we get a handsome price for them. Why, we realized 
almost as much per pound on our first shipments as the 
orange-growers in the southern part of the State realized 
per box for their citrus fruit. In Sutter about three-fourths 
of our fruits are peaches, while the other fourth is made 
up of cherries, plums, prunes, apricots, etc. The prune 
here does exceptionally well; it grows large and fine and 
contains a great proportion of saccharine matter. If our 
growers would pay attention to this fruit and thoroughly 
cultivate their orchards during the summer, so as to keep 
up the moisture, and in this natural manner irrigate the 
soil, so as to give abundant moisture to the prune, I am 
satisfied we can grow the finest prunes in the State. We 
must learn to dry this fruit and pack it in the most skillful 
manner to be successful. We grow as fine raisin grapes in 
this valley as can be produced in any other part of Cali- 
fornia. They are large, highly colored, richly flavored and 
contain a great amount of sugar. If our growers would 
pay careful attention to raisins, we can compete with 
Fresno or Riverside or any other locality, for the grape we 
produce is equal to or superior to theirs and the climate 
here is favorable for raisin-making. We have an element 
of wealth in our warm and genial summer that is equal to 
almost every other advantage we possess as a fruit region. 
In Sutter this season we will ship and dry more fruit than 
usual and can less. The Eastern markets are filled with 
a great deal of canned fruit from California's last year's 
pack, and this must be worked off ere the merchants there 
will place orders for more canned fruit. In our co- 
operative movement we have followed the most approved 
business methods and have not attempted to revolutionize 
trade as was done by the Los Angeles and Fresno growers. 
This is one of the reasons why, at Yuba City, co operation 
has been successful in a number of instances!" 

Crystallized Fruit. 

Mr. Bishop, of the fruit-crystallizing firm of Bishop & 
Co., has just returned to Los Angeles from Chicago, where 
he has been installing the firm's exhibit at the World's 
Fair. While away he investigated the market for these 

There is, he says to the Los Angeles Times, an unlim- 
ited market for California crystallized fruit, if prices can be 
made right. French goods are very low in price at pres- 
ent, and it is somewhat difficult for California to compete, 
in spite of the duty, which is about 30 per cent. Labor 
enters largely into the cost of these goods, and the differ- 
ence between California and French wages is very great. 

The firm is at present working on cherries. Most of this 
fruit has to be brought from the North, but a very good lot 
was sent in from the Cahuenga a few days ago. Raspber- 
ries, strawberries and apricots will follow next. 

Not only is labor much higher here, but also many vari- 
eties of fruit, such as berries. Thus, French canned rasp- 
berries, for use in this business, can be bought in New York 
at 11 cents a pound, while a grower, who has 17 acres in 
raspberries just south of Los Angeles, asks 10 cents a 
pound for his product. 

Like most other men of experience in the fruit business, 
Mr. Bishop insists strongly upon the necessity of careful 
picking and grading. One poor shipment will destroy con- 
fidence on the part of buyers, and make it difficult to obtain 
good prices for subsequent shipments. 

Fruit PackiDg for Profit. 

At a recent meeting of the Sutter County Horticultural 
Society, R. C. Kells gave a practical illustration of his 
method of fruit packing by having several boxes of apricots 
direct from the trees brought before the society and his 
two experienced packers, Misses Edith Kells and Bertha 
Black, sorted, wrapped and packed the same in the proper 
shape for shipping East. The system of baskets and crates 

used, was four baskets to a crate, each basket being three- 
layer deep and weighing five pounds. In one crate the 
fruit was wrapped separately and placed in the baskets, 
while in another crate the fruit was laid in without being 
wrapped, but paper was placed between the layers. The 
apricots were just coloring and in the proper condition for 
snipping. The packing was watched with much interest. 
Mr. Kells stated that it cost for labor in packing six cents 
per crate, and the paper, baskets and crates cost six cents 
more, and the total expense per crate to get it sold in New 
York was 70 cents; this includes the freight, commissions, 
etc. He considered that it paid to pack well and to use 
good fruit above all things. 

J. Reith, representing a Chicago commission firm, spoke 
of the importance of good packing, as the American people 
were said to buy with their eyes more or less and that neat 
packages of fruit sold far more readily than poorly packed 
ones. The present system of baskets and crates as used 
here was popular among the retailers. 

Julien Marcuse, representing Allison & Gray, of San 
Francisco, also spoke on the question and urged the im- 
portance of good, neat packing and good fruit. 

DO HE y)jk\RY. 

Increasing the Milk Yield. 

When at the sale of Mr. Humbert's Holstein cattle las 1 
week, where we saw good two-year-old bulls, in good con- 
dition, selling at $52.50 down to $22.50, yearlings from $25 
to $35, and calves down to $10, we thought there were not 
many present who were anxious to improve their herds 
with a view to an increased flow of milk or bulls would 
have sold for something nearer their real value than they 
did; else those present who had breeding interests at stake 
did not take into consideration the beneficial influence of a 
good bull in a herd of cows, or it might be that some did 
not want to use bulls of that breed. If such prefer to use 
scrub bulls, through prejudice to any one breed of cattle, 
they stand in their own light, for a good pure-bred bull of 
almost any breed, if he is good for the purpose wanted, is 
sure to leave his mark in the way of improvement on any 
ordinary herd of cattle; neither should a few extra dollars 
in price deter any one from buying the bull that is likely to 
do most good in his herd, whether his object be improve- 
ment in the milk or beef-producing qualities. The bull 
may not, literally speaking, be half the herd, but it should 
ever be borne in mind that he has an influence for better- 
ment, on the contrary, on every calf of his get. This is 
what many do not seem to think of, and, judging by their 
actions, they think, Peter Bell like, that a bull's a bull and 
nothing more. 

" In regard to what can be done by selection and good 
breeding, some interesting facts are given in the bulletin 
of May, 1893, from the Agricultural Experiment Station 
connected with the Cornell University. It appears that 
up to the year 1874 the average yield of milk per cow had 
been a little over 3000 pounds a year. By the use of pure- 
bred bulls and a careful selection of the best heifer calves 
the descendants of these same cows that in 1874 produced 
only about $3000 pounds of milk, gave in 1892 upward of 
7000 pounds per cow, the largest yield being 11,165 
pounds from a six-year-old cow, and the smallest rather 
under 3000 pounds from a two-year old heifer. 

The second largest yield was 10,754 pounds of milk, 
which produced a larger amount of fat than the milk of any 
other cow. The butter fat from this cow, according to the 
Babcock test, was 439 pounds, and that from the cow giv 
ing the largest quantity of milk was 418 pounds of butter 
fat, which, according to the usual way of reckoning for 
butter, gives 549 pounds and 522 pounds of butter respect 
ively for the two cows. The average yield of butter for 
the whole herd of 20 cows, reckoned on the same basis, 
was 357 pounds per cow, which is a large average yield, 
but as it is supposed to include the whole of the butter that 
the milk originally contained, without allowing for what 
might be lost in both skim milk and buttermilk, it may 
fairly be considered to be something like 20 pounds of butter 
per cow more than could be obtained by actual churning. 

The feed used consisted of clover hay, ensilage, mangold 
wurtzel, bran, cornmeal and cotton seed meal. The cows 
had good pasture in summer and about four pounds of 
grain per herd in addition for the greater part of the time. 
They were fed about as much as they would eat up clean, 
and it was found that the cows consuming the most food 
produced both milk and fat at the lowest rate. 

The average cost of milk was 62 %. cents per 100 pounds, 
the highest for one cow being $1.48 and the lowest 44 cents. 
The average cost of butter fat was 15.8 cents; highest 27 
cents, lowest 11 cents for one cow. The difference in cost 
of milk and butter between the highest and lowest figures 
leaves a considerable margin for profit, or loss, and is 
proof of the necessity of a dairyman knowing each indi- 
vioual cow in his herd and what it will produce, in order to 
carry on his business in such a way as to obtain the great- 
est profits possible under the circumstances in which he is 

We hear a great deal said about the uselessness of keep- 
ing large cows and wasting food by supporting so many 
hundred pounds of unnecessary weight of carcass, people 
who talk in this way contending that small cows ard more 
profitable than large ones in the dairy. As there are ex- 
ceptions to all rules, under certain circumstances it may be 
so, but, in regard to a large proportion of the cattle of the 
country, which are kept on farms of mixed husbandry and 
on good average land, with such feed and care as good 
cattle always deserve to have, the heavier class or breeds 
of cattle will be found most profitable, all things con- 

On this subject the following table, from the same bulle- 
tin, will afford much that is instructive to those interested 
in dairy cattle, as showing the amount of food required by 
each cow to produce given weights of both milk and fat, 
also the amount consumed by each cow per 1000 pounds 
live weight per day. The time includes the feeding season 

only, and is from November to the end of April, six 
months, only that any portion of time a cow was dry is 
not included in the table. 



Beauty. ... 






Gem V.... 


Glista 2d. 








Saadow .. 

; 3 

4 591 
4 78> 
2 636 
4 9.30 

4 7'8 00 
6,349 75 
3,280 50 
3,092 26 

2 598 50 

1 741 2n 


3 9 '3.25 
2,736 00 

813 73 
3,440 51) 

5 918.75 

2 795 00 
4,743 00 

4 485.50 

5 340.75 

'o B 

-1 != 

to Z 
£ « 


Average 101 








1 s* 






124.1 3 
153 72 

242 . 89 




1 071 

1 '1 
1 030 
1 160 

fa a 

~* O CD 
Q.O 1 

26 8 
26 9 

22 6 

23 4 
25 4 
22 2 


The prices charged for feed are pretty much the same as 
they would be in this State, except that oats at 35 cents a 
bushel is a lower price than it can be had for here; corn- 
meal at $20 a ton is also lower than it is here, but it can 
be substituted by fine ground barley at about the same 
price. Then again, we have no substitute for cotton-seed 
meal at $25 a ton. Linseed cake comes nearest in feeding 
qualities, but the price is at present too high for profitable 
use, as compared with the price of other grain feeds. 

In regard to breeds of cows named in the table, the first 
eleven were: nine grade Holsteins and two pure bred ones; 
the next seven Jerseys and Jersey grades, and the two last 
common grades, bearing evidence of having considerable 
Shorthorn blood. 

The summing up of the whole matter is about as follows: 
That with a fairly good herd, well kept and cared for, milk 
can be produced at 65 cents a hundred weight and fat for 
16 cents a pound for cost of food consumed. 

That individuals of the same breed vary more widely in 
milk and butter production thin do the breeds themselves. 

That the larger animals consumed less pounds of dry 
matter per 1000 pounds live weight than did the smaller 
animals, and that in general the best yields of fat were 
obtained from cows that gave at least a fairly large flow of 

3?OUbTr^Y "Y'ARD. 

Poultry vs. Fruit. 

There is more clear money in raising poultry in compari- 
son to the amount of cash invested than in any other occu- 
pation that a man can follow. A first-class layer will cost 
75 cents. She will lay during the year nine dozen eggs, 
worth 25 cents a dozen, or $2.25. It will cost $1. 16 to feed 
and care for her during the same period. This gives a 
profit of $1.09 for each hen, or more by 34 cents than the 
cost of the hen herself. It will require an excellent cow to 
more than pay for her food and attendance, and yet leave a 
clear margin of more than 40 per cent profit. 

It is not true that only a limited number of hens can be 
kept on one farm. There are many poultry raisers who 
have from 250 to 1000 hens on a single farm, so that a 
man who devotes himself to this occupation can make 
money by giving the business careful attention. 

To make this business pay one must use care, good judg- 
ment and brains. He must be willing to work and work 
hard, but he can succeed with a small capital. There are 
many men who cannot start an orchard because they have 
but a small capital, yet they can do well by going into the 
poultry business. San Francisco alone sends out of the 
State $250,000 a year for eastern Eggs. The United States 
in spite of a tariff of five cents a dozen buys from other 
lands 10,000,000 eggs a year. In 1892 the eggs of this 
country amounted to $200,000,000, while the poultry pro- 
duce was $100,000,000, making $300,000,000. 

One man with 50 hens makes $70 clear in a year, another 
with 95 hens made during the same time $125. One 
poultryman says 16 hens will give him as much clear profit 
per year as a cow, yet his hens cost him but $12, while the 
cow is worth $40. There is always a market for eggs and 
the price per year will average 25 cents a dozen. 

In fruit growing there are short crops, loss in drying and 
handling fruit, bad seasons, loss of trees, scale, worms and 
other pests to fight, and occasionally the grower fails to get his 
money after he has sold his crop. Eggs arecash and there is 
no worry about extra help, no loss from commis- 
sion merchants, no short crops and no poor years. There 
is room for a man to make money on a small capital and 
at the same time he can have a small orchard or a small 
vineyard growing, while his hens help make a living for 
himself and family. — Oroville Register. 

Raising Chickens on Farms. 

My plan, which I have successfully pursued for a number 
of years with my flocks, is to have a number of coops just 
large enough to comfortably roost about 25 full-grown 
fowls. These I place around on different fields, and as the 
ground becomes foul they are moved on fresh ground, thus 
securing a two fold advantage, viz., cleanliness and econo- 
mizing manure. In these coops I place one or two hens 
with their broods, and, when their mothers show signs of 



July 1, 1893. 

laying, they are returned to the laying flock, and the young 
left to themselves or an extra cock as leader. These are 
fed and watered, unless running water is at hand, until the 
wheat harvest is over, when the coops and fowls are moved 
to the wheat stubble to glean. Here is a period of from six 
to eight weeks that the growing stock requires little or no 
feeding, thus saving a handsome margin if the number 
reared is large. During plowing time a flock may be 
advantageously employed following the plow, picking up 
grubs and worms, which they will readily learn to do. In 
this way finer and healthier fowls can be reared with less 
than half the food necessary when confined to one run. 

I have shipped breeding stock to nearly every State in 
the Union and have received many letters admiring the 
beauty of form and size of fowls. Under the above system 
fowls get natural exercise, hence a fine form and good 
size and freedom fro.n disease.— H. H. Flick, in American 
Stock Journal. 

That Sleepy Disease. 

There is a difficulty often met with. Little chicks be- 
come stupid, go to sleep and appear to sleep themselves to 
death. Some style it the " sleepy disease," and in some 
communities it destroys the chicks rapidly, especially in 
warm weather and in a warm climate. A lady reader 
writes us about it, and we give a portion of her letter. She 

" I lost nearly all of my chicks with sleepy disease. They 
would stand and sleep, with their bills resting on the 
ground. The chicks are from a cross of Buff Cochin male 
and common hens." 

The sleepy disease is nothing more nor less than lice — 
the large lice on the skin of the heads and necks. When- 
ever a chick droops, and you do not know the cause, look 
closely for the great blood-sucker on the head, and rub two 
or three drops of sweet oil on the head of each chick twice 
a week. — Poultry Keeper. 

Ode to the Hen. 

Of robin and bluebird and linnet, spring poets write page 
after page; their praises are sounded each minute by 
prophet, soothsayer and sage; but not since the stars 
sang together, not since the creation of men, has any one 
drawn a goose feather in praise of the patient old hen. 

All honor and praise to the singing that cheers up the 
wild wood in spring; the old recollections oft bringing joy, 
childhood and that sort of thing; but dearer to me than 
the twitter of robin or martin or wren, is that motherly 
cluck when a litter of chicks surround the old hen. 

And her midwinter cackle, how cheery, above the new nes 
she has made; it notifies hearts all aweary another fresh 
egg has been laid, and when the old bird waxes heavy 
and aged and lazy and fat, well cooked with light 
dumplings and gravy, there's great consolation in that. 

No Lice on the Chicks. 

Because you do not see any lice on the chicks, do not 
suppose that they are free from lice. There is one kind of 
the pests that requires diligent and careful search. It is the 
large head-lice, or blood-suckers, and they work on the 
skin of the head and neck of the chick. When a chick 
seems sleepy, look for the large lice. It is also the cause of 
so many young turkeys dying. 

The large lice are never seen except on the body of the 
fowl or chick, and when the chicks come out of the shells, 
the lice leave the head of the mother and go to the chicks. 
The remedy is to rub a small quantity of lard or sweet-oil on 
the head of the hen, and about two drops on the head of 
each chick, twice a week. Too much oil, or grease of any 
kind, is detrimental; hence it should be used sparingly. 
Grease destroys the lice almost immediately. — Farm and 

A Foolish Prejudice. 

It has been claimed that incubator-hatched chicks are in- 
ferior to those hatched and raised in the natural manner, 
and that they are not suitable for breeding purposes. Such 
supposition arises from ignorance. There cannot possibly 
be any difference. If a chick is hatched, it comes into the 
world fully endowed by nature to maintain its existence, no 
matter what the method of hatching may be. But after it 
is hatched, everything depends upon the care. We have 
seen incubator chicks superior to those hatched under hens, 
as also the reverse. They are, when matured, equal as 
breeders in every respect. — Poultry Keeper. 

The Droppings. 

Do no allow the droppings to remain in the poultry- 
house longer than twenty-four hours, as they will soon 
decompose during warm weather and give off disagree- 
able odors, as well as injure the health of the fowls. If 
the poultry-house is given a cleaning every day, the work 
will be easy, as a broom may be used for sweeping the 
floor, after which dry dirt may be sprinkled over the floor, 
and especially under the roosts. Scatter the droppings 
on the garden plat, as they are more valuable when fresh 
than at any other time. — Farm and Fireside. 

©HE "V^EY/tRD. 

Success of Resistant Vines. 

Mr. Allen B. Lemmon, of Santa Rosa, recently made a 
visit to the vineyardists south of Sonoma for the purpo-e of 
ascertaining results from the planting of resistant vines 
Among other things he says: 

" Supervisor William Thompson says that his old vine- 
yard began to die about five years ago and that its useful- 
ness was ended last year. He has been planting resistants 

but his plan of grafting has been different from that of 
most of his neighbors. He says the cleft or split graft is 
almost sure to leave a black spot which he thinks will 
cause the decay and death of the vine In time. Mr. 
Thompson grafts by the whip or splice method. He says 
an active, experienced man will graft 6oo vines per day. 
He cuts the resistant stock on a level with the ground, the 
whip graft is put in and the earth heaped up to hold the 
parts together until they unite. In this way not more than 
five per cent of the grafts are lost. 

"T. S. Glaister, of the same neighborhood, has planted 
Lenoir mostly as resistant. He says they make a stronger, 
better growth than the Riparia and he thinks them safe 
against the attacks of phylloxera. He considers the Tokay 
an excellent resistant vine. Eighteen years ago he grafted 
Zinfandel on Tokay roots and they have lived and con- 
tinued healthy while vines all about them have died. Mr. 
Glaister told of a slide in his vineyard that put these Tokay 
stocks out of place so as to make room for another row 
of vines. He planted Zinfandels and every one of them 
have died while the Tokay roots on either side have re- 
mained in perfect health. The Tokays make many new 
roots in the fall of the year and are thus strong to resist 
the attacks of phylloxera. 

"An experiment made by Mr. Glaister was to cut Mal- 
voisie about eight inches below the surface and graft Lenoir 
stocks. The second year he grafted Semillon on the 
Lenoir stocks and in one year he had a full crop. The 
Lenoir entirely absorbed the Malvoisie roots and grew 
with great vigor. This experiment was tried five years 
ago and is still in prime condition. 

" Mr. Hyde, whose vineyard adjourns that of Dresel & 
Co., planted resistants between the rows of old bearing 
vines and thus had his new vineyard established before the 
old one was gone. 

" Mr. Dresel placed diseased roots in the ground all 
about the resistant stocks but no disease was communi- 

" It is heroic warfare these grape-growers have waged 
with vine diseases, low prices, etc., but they now have fine 
vineyards established and are hopeful of better returns in 
future. We noted that all their vines are now being trained 
higher than was formerly done and it might be well for 
vineyardists to ask why this is done." 


Spray for the Codlin Moth. 

To the Editor : — At this time it is rather difficult to 
form much of an idea in regard to this season's grape crop, 
though the prospect is very good. The fruit crop of the 
Santa Clara valley promises to be light, the report of 
fruit-buyers to the contrary notwithstanding. The nearly 
unanimous verdict of the more prominent fruit men is that 
there will be but little more than half a crop. 

Apricots, probably more especially those of the Moor- 
park variety, have been dropping off the last three or four 
days, and in nearly every orchard I have found the ground 
under an apricot tree covered with fruit that has fallen off. 
So far no one appears to be able to account for this sudden 
destruction to this fruit, though some claim it is some new 

Codlin Moth. — Mr. B. E. Maynard, of the Sunny Wood 
orchard, kindly furnished me with the following in regard 
to the above insect : Last season, after using his fruit 
boxes for gathering pears, he took them home and stored 
them in his fruit-house, which is perfectly tight with screens 
over the windows. The boxes proved to be full of codlin 
moth worms, and after laying until May they began to 
form the moth. As they could not escape they were 
lying dead by the hundreds around the windows. There 
were enough dead moths to infest a whole orchard. It is 
expected that all will have hatched out and be dead before 
the boxes will be needed again, but in case they are not 
care will be taken to destroy them before removing the 
boxes. [This experience has been frequently reported by 
fruit-growers. — Ed. Press ] 

Spray for Bartlett Pears. — Mr. Maynard has been very 
successful in the use of Paris green for spraying his Bartlett 
pear trees, and I will give his method for the benefit of the 
Rural Press readers. He attributes his success in being 
able to keep the arsenic from separating from the other in- 
gredients which compose Paris green. In case the arsenic 
once becomes separated, it is very destructive to the 
foliage. He took one pound of Paris green and mixed in 
cold water till it formed a pliable paste, then emptied into 
the spraying tank containing ioo gallons of water and 
stirred occasionally with a dasher that works up and down. 
Care should be taken to begin spraying as soon as possible 
after mixing, so as to give the arsenic as little time as pos- 
sible to escape or separate from the other ingredients. It 
would take about J J hours to spray out a too gallon tank. 
The tanks should be washed out every noon and night 
before using again. The writer examined a large number 
of pear trees that had been sprayed as above on May ioth 
and also on June 15th, and could not find any moths left, 
and the wash had not injured the young leaves in the least. 

Ed Robertson. 

Two Conventions of Fruit-Growers. 

A convention of fruit-growers and others interested in 
fruit culture in California has been called, at the request cf 
members of Congress from this State, to meet at Pioneer 
hall, Fourth street, near Market, San Francisco, at 10 a. m. 
Thursday, July 13, 189.3. The purpose of this convention 
is to gather and present such facts respecting fruit culture 
in the State as shall inform the judgment of our represen- 
tatives in Congress in respect to the necessity of a revision 
of tariff duties upon imported fruit. Fruit and raisin-grow- 
ers and others are requested to attend this meeting and 
bring, in tabulated form', facts and figures showing the 

present value of land in their respective localities, before 
and after'planting, and cost of caring for the same for five 
successive years. All expenditures of whatever kind should 
be included in the estimate, which should also show the in- 
come derived, amount of different fruits produced per acre, 
prices realized, cost of labor, freight, etc. The information 
is desired for comparison with the cost of land, production, 
labor, freight, etc., paid by European growers. This sub- 
ject is deemed of the utmost importance to the fruit indus- 
try in general, and those interested should take an active 
part in this matter and attend the convention. 

The third State convention of olive-growers and manu- 
facturers of pure olive oil will convene at 220 Sutter street, 
San Francisco, at 10 o'clock a. m., Friday, July 14, 1893, 
under the auspices of the State Board of Horticulture. All 
interested in the culture of the olive and the manufacture 
of olive oil are cordially invited to be present at said con- 
vention and to participate in its deliberations. The meet- 
ing will be largely attended and valuable papers will be 
presented, to be followed by general discussion. 

Points from a Practical Pear-Drier. 

D. W. Lewis of Ssnger has a large pear orchard, and his 
experience encourages him to continue in the specialty of 
drying the fruit for the English and Chicago markets. He 
has planted such varieties as he had left in stock from his 
nursery and thus has tested most of the leading kinds. 

For drying profitably, a pear should be white fleshed 
and very rich in sugar [possibly we would add fine- 
grained.— Ed ] Bartlett, Easter Beurre, Beurre Bosc, 
Howell and Souvenir du Congress are all highly approved. 
The choice of all is Winter Seckel (or Dana's Hovey), 
which is almost as heavy after it is dried as before and 
among the most delicious pears grown. When dried, it is 
like maple wax. 

Sulphuring. — This should be done more thoroughly 
than with other fruit, as it is essential that the product pre- 
sent an attractive appearance and all trace of sulphur fumes 
disappear after a few days in the bin. Never spread any 
pears in the latter part of the day, as the cool, damp air of 
the evening will affect them badly at an early stage of dry- 
ing. He has a sulphur-room large enough to hold one 
day's cutting and runs the cars in as fast as they are pre- 
pared and spreads the fruit out to dry the first thing next 

Although the pear is very slow of sale in small lots or to 
home trade, he finds no trouble in disposing of carload lots 
of uniformly high grade at satisfactory prices. There is a 
good demand from England, and they sell well in Chicago. 

Bananas on the Red Lands. 

E. T. Jordan, three miles northeast of Exeter, Tulare 
county, has two banana plants doing nicely. The first 
year they made a growth of three feet and added seven feet 
the next. They have never suffered from frost. Upon the 
same land a Pecan made a growth of i}4 feet from the nut 
the first year. Orange trees five years old were eight inches 
in circumference of body and eight feet in diameter of top. 
The supply of water upon this place was limited, and Mr. 
Jordan's plan of cultivation is to put the orchard in good 
order early in the spring and then run a small stream to 
each tree every week or two. 

Object Lesson in Cultivation. — If Mr. Jordan will visit 
H. S. Anderson's place, five miles away, on similar soil, he 
will find two-year-old peach trees considerably larger than 
his of five years' growth, and producing more fruit this 
year. I think the difference is mainly in Mr. Anderson's 
system of cultivation, as described in the last Rural Press; 
and that visit to his place will convince Mr. Jordan that his 
plan can be improved. The two orchards present a good 
object lesson upon the theories of cultivation lately pre- 
sented in the Rural Press. 

Out-of-Door Cellars and Coolers. 

Some have brick rooms with double walls, well shaded 
and with cemented floors. These are good and substan- 
tial, but beyond the means of many. Others build of adobe 
with brick foundation, at one-fourth the cost of brick walls. 
A coat of cement outside and plaster inside makes a neat 
adobe structure. Either of these answer in proportion to 
the care with which it is built and to provision for circula- 
tion frf air and protection from direct rays of the sun. 

The P«or Man's Cellar. — This we have seen made of two 
dry goods boxes, the outer one perforated to serve as a 
shade and petmit circulation of air, and the inner one pro- 
vided with a pan of water on top and surrounded by sacks 
that hang down as curtains, and are kept wet by drippings 
from the pan. When fitted with shelves and kept on the 
north side of the house, or under the shade of some friendly 
tree, this answers well to keep butter, with eggs, etc. 

A Still Better Cheap Device. — The writer saw a large 
cupboard with sides ol wire cloth and galvanized-iron top, 
enclosed by curtains of porous cloth that were kept wet by 
small drip-holes from the water in the pan. It was found 
by use that this pan should be four inches deep; that the 
cupboard should be narrow enough one way to go through 
a door; that the curtains should be of cloth not too closely 
woven, to permit a good circulation of air, and the cup- 
board kept standing where there was both breeze and shade. 
This can be made a very neat affair. 

Remedy for Cutworm. 
Mr. Meyers of Sanger says that he has found quick-lime 
scattered about the base of plants effective against the cut- 
worm, that has done so much damage this year. He wants 
more information regarding the fine web that he finds on 
his vines where the grapes are failing to set. He thinks 
that both web and damage to the grapes are the work of 
some minute, unknown insect. 

Valleys Awaiting Development. 

Tributary to the town of Reedley, Fresno Co., and eight 
to fifteen miles distant, is a series of small valleys at a slight 

July 1, 1898. 


elevation above the valley and protected by hills so that they 
are almost exempt from frost. Some of them have pro- 
duced very early fruit and vegetables. They have a few 
springs which might be developed by shafts and tunnels, 
and almost all have suitable sites for storage reservoirs. 
At present they are undeveloped wheat and pasture lands 
and held at figures ranging from $5 to $50 per acre. 

Mrs. E. Moore of Clark's valley, eight miles east from 
Reedley, says that she has had green tomatoes all winter 
and picked ripe fruit from her vines on Christmas. She 
has had green peas in March and string beans in April, 
and new potatoes in May. She never has paid special at- 
tention to gardening. 

Hill's valley is two or three miles distant over a low 
range, and is still less subject to frost. 

Squaw valley has some 4000 acres, is at a higher eleva- 
tion on the new road to the Sequoia mill, and has become 
noted for the quality of its apples as well as its exemption 
from frost. 

Drum valley has a smaller area, and is further on the 
road to the Sequoia mills. Places can be had cheap, water 
developed and apples successfully grown. 

Stokes valley has a reputation for early fruits, ripening 
nearly four weeks ahead of Fresno. I will try and visit 
that section on the way south and write more in detail. 

Remarkable Growth. 

F. A. Benadon, seven miles east of Sanger, shows a grape 
cane of one year's growth that I found to be 35 feet long 
upon careful measurement. He will probably place it on 
exhibition at the Fresno Board of Trade. He has seedling 
orange trees seven years old planted on drybog land, with 
very ordinary care, that are 14X inches in circumference 
at two feet from the ground. One shoot on his orange tree 
grew ten feet last year. Eight of his White Winter Pear- 
main apple trees planted in 189a produced $i worth of 
fruit each in the season of 1892 at 30 months from plant- 
ing. Frank S. Chapin. 

Florida Orange Crop of 1892-93. 

The annual meeting of the Florida Fruit Exchange took 
place Friday, June 8th. From the report of Secretary 
Turner the following statement of sales, shipments, dis- 
tribution, etc., of oranges is taken: 

Total shipments, 343,338 packages; total gross average, 
$2.03 per box; total net average, $131 per box. 

The averages cover everything sold, good, bad and in- 
different, and include heavy sales of frosted and inferior 
fruit sold in January, February and March. 


PVgs. Gross. Net. 

Per box. Per box. 

September 2,261 $3 2s $2 15 

October 2,411 3 42 2 49 

November 21,213 2 45 1 63 

December 56.157 2 31 t 57 

January 72,994 1 96 1 24 

February 57.97' 1 88 1 19 

March 57.732 1 76 1 (8 

April , 27.3'5 2 »4 1 49 

May 5.290 2 57 1 74 


P'k'gs. Gross. Net. 

Per box. Per box. 

New York 130,069 $r 96 $1 33 

Boston 9->,8oo 2 13 1 35 

Philadelphia 36.291 2 13 1 37 

Baltimore '7.576 2 08 1 34 

Norfolk 871 1 77 98 

Charleston ii457 1 54 92 

Savannah 994 1 26 70 

Pittsburg, a 17.375 2 01 1 15 

Buffalo 5.548 1 94 1 13 

Toronto 689 2 22 1 05 

Cincinnati 13.503 1 99 1 17 

Chicago 1,538 2 46 1 43 

Cleveland 5.I3 1 2 05 1 13 

St. Paul 591 2 38 1 20 

Kansas City 3.249 2 29 1 12 

New Orleans 10,718 1 71 1 13 

Jacksonville ... 6,452 1 82 1 51 

Liverpool 159 2 62 1 42 

Miscellaneous 327 2*62 1 82 

The crop of 1892 93, to the surprise of everybody, turned 
out to be only 10 per cent less than that n( the preceding 
year — 1891-2, 3750,000 boxes; 18923, 3,400,000 boxes. 
The officers estimate the coming crop at 4,500,000 boxes. 

Florida growers had to contend with a large crop, frost- 
bitten fruit and the heavy competition of California in the 
last months of their fruit season. Yet those growers who 
marketed through the exchange realized $1.31 per box. 
The moral is obvious. 

Astonishing Fecnndity of the Aphis. 

It has been estimated by Prof. Huxley that were there 
no destructive forces to prevent their increase, the descend- 
ants of a single aphis would in one season contain more 
solid bulk than is contained in 500,000,000 stout men, says 
the Irrigation Age. Fortunately, there are large numbers 
of carniverous insects which prey upon them, and they are 
very subject to vicissitudes of the weather, and winds and 
rains destroy them. Yet the almost mysterious manner in 
which they sometimes appear so suddenly and in such vast 
numbers when the weather is favorable can be understood 
from their peculiar and rapid manner of reproduction. 

The apple is an especial sufferer from its ravages, from 
the fact that it attacks the roots as well as the branches. 
The presence of the woolly aphis, which is the form which 
attacks the apple, can be detected by the cottony covering 
under which they work. The bark at the point of their at- 
tack ceases to grow and swells into a large ridge, about the 
cluster of aphides, leaving them in a sheltered pit. They 
are gregarious and live in societies, and seen from a dis- 
tance resemble small bunches of cotton adhering to the 
trunk or branches of the tree. The insect denuded of its 
cottony covering is egg-shaped and dull, reddish-brown in 
color. They produce warts or excrescences with their 

powerful sucking beaks, and when existing in great num- 
bers cause the leaves to turn yellow, wither and fall. 

To the root form of this pest a liberal dressing of wood- 
ashes is to be recommended. This is especially good in 
moist localities. About one and a half to two shovelsful of 
gas lime placed around each tree so that it does not come 
in contact with the bark is also excellent. Care should be 
taken not to apply gas lime in greater quantity than men- 
tioned. For the branch form of the pest the parts affected 
should be touched with a small brush dipped in a rosin 

For the aphis on plum, prune, or other tree, the follow- 
ing spray is to be recommended: 

Caustic soda (98 per cent) 1 pound. 

Rosin 6 pounds. 

Water 40 gallons. 

On rose or other bushes a strong tobacco solution is 
effective. This should be washed off in about half an hour 
after the application. 

Woolly Aphis in the Orchards. 

[From a Bulletin of the Experiment Station at Pullman, Wash.; E. R, 
Lake, Horticulturist.] 

To the planter of apple trees in this northwest there is no 
more serious pest than the woolly aphis. It is an insidious 
foe, one that creeps into the orchard and saps the life from 
otherwise promising trees, as stealthily as a midnight ma- 
rauder, doing its first and most lasting work under cover of 
earth — in darkness. In other words, this pest makes its 

by those present, to be fair specimens of the normal and 
abnormal plants found in the examination above men- 

Big Yields from Single Cherry Trees. 

There are a great many accounts of the profits of single 
trees of cherries. One near Newcastle has given an in- 
come of $300 in a single year. Mrs. McGlincey, near San 
Jose, has a tree that has given an income of from $50 to 
$80 per year for many years. Several trees in Mrs. Geiger's 
orchard, near San Jose, give a crop of from 1100 to 1200 
pounds per year, cherries worth 8 cents per pound. Single 
acres of cherries have given a crop of from $1200 to $2000 
per year. The average yield of a good cherry orchard for 
a period of several years in Santa Clara and Alameda 
counties would be from $300 to $500 per acre. — Pacific 
Tree and Vine. 


appearance on the roots of the young trees while in the 
nursery in many instances, especially in old nursery ground. 

Having occasion to examine a quantity of apple seedlings 
for grafting purposes, it was observed that the larger part 
of them had twisted, tortuous and knotted roots. Some 
were slightly abnormal; others more so; while some were 
simply monstrous. Upon cl . ser examination there ap- 
peared multitudes of little knots or excrescences of the size 

Pruning Orange Trees. 

J. M. Edmiston, a well-known horticulturist of Riverside, 
strongly advocates cutting back orange trees in the process 
of pruning rather than merely to prune inside the tree and 
leave the fruit to grow mostly on the outside of the tree, at 
the ends of the limbs. He cites O. T. Johnson's orchard 
as a good example of his method of pruning, and alleges 
that some of the trees produced this season 14 boxes of 
fruit each, while other orchards on similar soil and appar- 
ently treated the same in other respects, except as to prun- 
ing, would not average one-half the yield of Mr. Johnson's 
orchard. Mr. Edmiston does not approve the "hoop-pole 
system " of pruning, as he styles it, making each limb long 
and free from interior branches, and throwing the fruit 
mostly to the outside of the tree. 

No Coulure, Says Prof. Sanders. 

Prof. W. A. Sanders, referring to recent reports that the 
coulure is afflicting the vines of Fresno county, says he 
doubts very seriously if it is that disease at all. He says: 
' AH the dropping of fruit I've seen is due either to inop- 
portune irrigaiion, alkali, or red spider. Alkali could have 
been easily and cheaply remedied by use of Coalinga gyp- 
sum. That gypsum deposit is a godsend to our valley. 
The specimens that have been exhibited to me are the best 
quality for agricultural use that I have ever seen. The 
remedy for red spider is water — lots of it — but even that 
can scarcely wage a winning warfare against them. Prob- 
ably the most frequent cause of grapes dropping is irriga- 
ting while vines are blooming. Sulphur is not a remedy 
for any of these evils." 

Bi-Snlphide of Carbon for Gophers. 
M. O. Randall of Pasadena has a method which he pro- 
nounces very effective in ridding his orchard land of 
squirrels and gophers. He says: " I twist or tie on the 
end of a small stick some cotton or rags, making it about 
the size of my thumb and about as long. Dip this in bi- 
sulphide of carbon and introduce into the hole where the 
animal is to be found, taking care immediately to close all 
all issues to the outer air. This liquid is very volatile, 
and, being heavier than the air, will soon fill the entire 
tunnel and suffocate any living thing found therein. Great 
care should be taken, as the vapor is highly explosive if it 
comes in contact with fire. I have tried traps and poison 
with very poor success, as in many cases the pests will have 
nothing to do with either; but, if the animal is found at 
home, one application of the bi-sulphide is sufficient." 


of a pinhead and larger, intermingled with the larger ones, 
which latter ones were frequently as large as filberts. This 
was recognized as the work of the woolly aphis, and the 
whole stock as a result discarded. 

Last spring while planting yearling apple trees, pur- 
chased in the eastern States, the telltale "warts," as the 
workmen called them, were found on several trees. It is 
needless to say the trees were at once destroyed, as it is 
safe to take no chances with such a foe. Undoubtedly 
much of the trouble from this pest arises from its dissemi- 
nation in this way — on the roots of young trees. 

For the benefit of those who are not familiar with the 
root effects of this pest we present the following cuts, taken 
from photographs of one-year old seedlings grown on the 
coast. They were considered at the time they were taken, 

Chinese Labor in Orchards. 

To the Editor: — I have traveled through the western 
portion of the Santa Clara valley, which is one of the 
choicest fruit sections of the State, and 
have paid particular attention to the 
labor employed. Society has conde- 
scended to permit young ladies and gen- 
tlemen of the inner circle to engage in 
fruit picking, packing, and, in fact, from 
a social point of view, it is quite the 
thing for them to do anything connected 
with preparing fruit for market. 

For the last few years the Chinaman 
has been losing his footing in the or- 
chards and vineyards of this portion of 
the valley. There are many owners 
of large orchards, and vineyardists, too, 
who will not have a Chinaman on their 
places. Chinamen are very independent 
when they have the upr»er hand. You 
must put up with what John is satisfied 
to do, for if you discharge one, he no- 
tifies the head company, and love, 
money or persuasion will not induce 
another Mongolian on to your place until 
you come to terms with the Six Corn- 
par ies. 

Before coming here, I was lead to 
it was next to impossible for the fruitmen 
their fruit and grapes without employing 
on going over the Santa Clara valley, 
labor is to be had, and it is in part, 
optional for the owners, in this 
Chinese. On these 

believe that 
to market 
Chinese. But 
I find that white 
if not altogether, 
valley at least, to choose white or 
large fruit ranches any open shed was good enough for 
Chinamen, and later, when while labor is taking their place 
once more, they expect an American laborer to put up with 
something near the same accommodations. My experience 
is that Americans are white, and if you wish those in your 
employ to take an interest in your business, treat them 
" white;" for one has no use for a man that will not bear 
good treatment. 

Ed Robertson. 



July 1, 1898. 

Analyses of Fig;s and Pig Soils, 

University Experiment Station Bulle- 
tin No. 102. 

The growing importance of the fie industry 
in California calls for a full investigation of 
this fruit, in order to determine as quickly as 
possible the peculiarities of each variety as 
grown in the different sections of the State, and 
thus to gain an insight into their probable com- 
mercial adaptations, as well as their nutritive 
values. In accordance with this plan, already 
outlined and exemplified with respect to other 
fruits in bulletins 93, 97 and 101 of this station, 
such figs as were obtainable of the crop of 1892 
have been examined and are here reported 
upon. The comparatively limited number of 
samples received thus far does not justify an 
extended discussion of the practical bearings of 
the results; yet the fact that they embrace a 
few of the most important varieties, as well as 
a number of new ones grown at the University 
Experiment Stations, lends interest to them 
Marked differences will be noted particularly 
as regards the proportions of juice, sugar and 
acid, as well as in the nitrogen contents which 
so essentially determine the nutritive value; 
points of direct importance to the grower as 
well as to the consumer. The farmer is also 
specially interested in the amount and kind of 
ash ingredients and nitrogen taken from the 
soil by the fruit, since these represent what 
sooner or later will have to be replaced by fer- 
tilization, according to the character of the soil 
selected for the orchard. In this connection 
the result of the examination of typical soils 
that for ages have been used in the production 
of the best figs of commerce presents great in- 
terest, since we are thus enabled to compare 
them with those of this State that have been or 
are likely to be used in fig-growing, thus gain- 
ing a definite basis for their selection. 

Producers of these fruits are again invited to 
communicate with the station in regard to the 
examination of their product during the com- 
ing season. E. W. H 

Description of Figs Received. 

No. 1, White Adriatic, from Fresno, name of 
grower not obtained; sample received on Aug. 
19th. Condition, good ; color, greenish yellow ; 
fruit very tender, fairly juicy and very sweet; 
a typical fruit of its kind. 

No. 2, White Adriatic, Ktrn Co. — Grower, Geo. 
A. Raymond ; sample received Sept. 2d. A large 
fruit; in excellent condition; delicate, juicy and 
verv sweet fleshed; color, almost cream yellow. 

No. 3, Smyrna ( T). Solano Co.—E. R Thurber, 
grower; sample received Aug. 6th. Condition, 
good ; a medium sized fruit ; color, dark yellow ; 
flesh, not very tender or sweet. 

No. 4, Smyrna Bulletin, Tulare Co. — Grower, 
San Joaquin Valley Experiment Station; 
sample received Aug. 17th. A much smaller 
but sweeter fruit than No. 3 ; coarse-fleshed- 
color good. This fruit is from young trees and 
is marked as frost-proof. 

No. 5, California Black Solano Co. — E. R. Thur- 
ber, grower; sample received Aug. 6th. Condi- 
tion, good ; a medium sized fruit with coarse 
flesh and rather hard ; tough skin, taste not 
verv sweet. 

No. 6, Hirtu du Japan, Tulare Co. — Grower, 
San Joaquin Valley Experiment Station ; 
sample received Aug. 17th. Condition, only 
fair; size, medium; color, purple; flesh, white 
in color, tender ; juicy and quite sweet. A pro- 
lific bearer and frost-proof. Trees young. 

No. 7, Constantine, Tulare Co. — Grower, 
San Joaquin Valley Experiment Station ; sam- 
ple received Aug. 17th. Condition, good ; size, 
small; color, striped green and purple; flesh, 
hard and fibrou«, but quite sweet ; sample from 
young trees ; another frost-proof variety at Tu- 

No. 8, Du Rox, Tulare Co.— Grower, San 
Joaquin Valley Experiment Station; sample re- 
ceived August 17th. Condition, good ; color, 
cream ; fully ripe ; flesh hard and rather dry ; 
taste, quite sweet. A new variety which also 
proves its ability to withstand frost ; from trees 

No. 9, Doree Narbus, Tulare Co.— San Joaquin 
Valley Experiment Station, grower; sample 
received Aug. 17th. Avery small fruit ; con- 
dition, good, but flesh dry and tough, although 
very sweet; variety, frost-proof (hardiest of 54 
varieties at the station); sample grown on 
young trees. 

No. 10, Pasteliere. Tulare Co — San Joaquin 
Vallev Experiment Station, grower; sample re- 
ceived Aug. 17th. Condition, only fair; size, 
small; flesh, fibrous and rather tough, although 
quite juicy and sweet; variety frost-proof; 
sample from young trees. 

No. 11, Brunswick San Luis Obispo Co.— Sins- 
heimer Bros., growers; sample received Oct. 
25th. A very large fig of dark color and tender, 
juicy flesh; taste, very sweet. 

The table on this page shows the results of 
the analytical work for the season 1892; sub- 
division A gives the physical and proximate 
analyses; B, the analysis of the ash of White 
Adriatic and Smyrna fig. 

In this table it will be noted that we have not 
tried to draw any averages, for the reason that 
the number of samples is too small to justify 
it. We will, however, in a brief way point out 
and discuss a few of the data. 


The juiciest fruit— No. 2, White Adriatic, has 
over 85 per cent, juice; that of No. 11 — Bruns- 
wick — with 82, and No. 6— Hirtu du .Tapon — 
with 80.6, being the only ones which nearly 
approach it. The driest sample — No. 4, Smyr- 
na (Bulletin) — contains but 64 per cent juice. 
The pulp as here given contains the skin and 
seeds as well as the pressed flesh. 


The determination of sugar is confined to the 
total amount of that substance, no effort having 


j oSs 


Sg :g :SS 
tS :8 :SS 

A»h, Par Cent. . 

Organic Matter, Per Cent . 

Water, Per Cent. . 

g £ I In Whole Freeh Fruit, Per 
<5i Cent 

All umlDo d» In Whole Fresh 
Fruit (Equivalent to Nitro- 
gen), Per Ceut 

In Whole Fresh Fruit, 1'er 
Cent .... 

Arid, in Ju ce, in Tsrma cf |80 a ) 
Sulphuric, Per C<mt 

In Whole Fresh Fruit, 


r © 55 rf. e»j £ 

In Juice, Total by Copper 
Teat, Per Ceut 

Pulp. Pressed; Per Cent. 


Less Excess of Oxygen due to 

Juice. Pressed ; Per Cent. 


Number per Pound . 

Average Weight in Grams t.. 

Date of Receipt and Analysis. 

~ ■ ~ ,~- ~- ~ ~ ir. ~~ ~. 
s =■ - = 3 = 3 g 

<-T. ««« «C 

■ ■ 2 : e 

1 ;! 

«E- -- . 

be . v . o 


ill - 

3 • <■ a * as 


".S3 • ■ t' --i 


Sulphuric Acid. 

Phosphoric Acid. 

Br. Oxide of Manganese. 

Peroiide of Iron. 

Magnesia . 

Percentage of Pure ABh. 

as yet been made to find the proportion of the 
different sugars ( dextrose, levulose, cane sugar, 
etc.) in these fruits, for lack of time. 

On the whole fruit, the highest sugar is seen 
in No. 2, White Adriatic; however, thejuice of 
No. 4, Smyrna, shows 29.90 per cent sugar, which 
when referred to the fresh fruit is still over one 
per cent, less than that of the White Adriatic, 
or as 19 20 to 20.45 per cent. No 9, Doree Nar- 
bus, and No. 7, Constantine, with respectively 
27.40 and 24.04 per cent sngars in their juice, 
show, on account of their dry flesh, much less 
sugar, on whole fruit, than either of the Adri- 
atics. No. 3 Smyrna ( ? ), has the lowest sugar 
percentage, amounting to but 8.0, on the 
whole fruit; some 4.5 per cent less than the 
California Black (No. 5) with 12.40. 

European data at hand do not give any re- 
port upon fresh figs, but from the German an- 
alyses of dried figs it is easy to calculate, ap- 
proximately, that the sugar in the whole fresh 
fruit amounts to about 20.00 per cent., thus 
showing no advantage over our largely grown 
White Adriatic figs in sugar contents. 

The table below makes it evident that among 
California fruits, the figs— White Adriatic espe- 
cially— hold no mean place in sugar contents. 


Figs, White Adriatic 
Other tWs, fm Tular 


French Prunes 





Flesh j Whole fr't. 

Sugars, Per Cent. 





10 to 29 

8.0 to 19.20 




11 10 



19 7f' 

18 53 




12 89 



13 41 

12. 5n 











Vih ; te Adriatic... 





European (Sicilian) . 









1 50 






In the Frefhj 
Flesh, or In FreBh Pits 
Edible For- or Rind, 
tion. 1 

Calculated to Whole Fresh 








As heretofore pointed out in bulletin 101, the 
fig rates first in flesh-forming materials among 
our fruits; apricots and plums, second; prunes 
and oranges, third. 

It i* interesting to reproduce, at this 
point, a summary of the food constituents of 
some of our dried fruits as compared with the 
dried fig — results already published in bulletin 
No. 101. In addition, the analysis of a sample 
of California raisin is here reported. 




The acid of the figs, expressed in terms of sul- 
phuric ( S0 3 ) for the sake of comparison, seems I Water.... 

thus to be very much lower than that found in 
any of our other fruits. 


Without repeating what has already been pub- 
lished by this Station in its fruit bulletins, Nos. 
93, 97 and 101, relative to the importance of 
the flesh forming ingredients ( albuminoids ) of our 
fruits, we give below, in tabular view, the aver- 
age amounts of these materials contained in 
some of the fruits we have examined and con- 
sidered. Added to this are such data from 
European sources as are at hand. 


Atbu-'inolds (Crude 
Protein ) 

Crude Fiber i 

Nitrogen — free ex- f 
tract [ 

Fat ) 


Frte Acid, calculated 
as Sulphuric (SO,) 





D tr 








Apples.. . 

Edible Por- 





White Adri- 

t 8inyrna 
(Imported). . . 

( European).. 





25 0( 







4. Of 









29. £9 


57. 61 










100. CO 




100. 00 

•Saropl' s from the vineyard of Prof. K. H. Lougbridge, 
Woodlaiid California, 
t Analyzed at this Station. 

As stated in previous fruit bulletins, these 

results are too meager to serve as the basis 
for a general discussion of the relative 
food values of the fruits examined. How- 
ever, we note some wide differences among 
the nutrients. For instance, the sugars and al- 
buminoids, or crude protein, show considerable 
variation ; the apricots, like the apples, yielding 
less than one-half as much sugar as the Muscat 
raisin, which contains ne riy twice as much 
sugar as the prunes and li times as much of 
that substance as the fig. European analyses 
of raisins show figures for sugar contents 
which differ bnt little from those we give here. 
Both raisins and figs, with respectively 4 
and 4.5 per cent, albuminoids ( flesh-forming 
materials ), stand from li to 2 t ; mes above the 
other fruits in this respect. The fig yields 
nearly twice as much ash as the other fruits 
here reported. 


According to previous bulletins relating 
to fruits ( Nos. 93, 97 and 101 ), the flg 
stands second in amount of mineral matter 
withdrawn from the soil for equal weights 
of the various fruits. From European data we 
place grapes first in this respect, and from our 
own findings the orange third, and the prune, 
apricot and plum, fourth. We report, in the 
large table, an ash analysis of the White 
Adriatic fig from Kern county, and as the fig- 
ures there represent a considerable district, we 
can take them as a fair guide, the analysis of 
the ashes of other fruits from different locali- 
ties in California having shown that the varia- 
tions will not be great enough to vitiate the 
conclusions. But few European analyses of fig 
ashes are at hand and their great discrepancies 
necessitate an analysis by us of the ash of an 
imported fig. The results obtained are given in 
the accompanying tablss, and it will be noted 
that the figures agree, within the limits to be 
expected, with those we report for our figs. 
Thus we are able to correct the data, given in 
Bulletin No. 101, relating to European fig ashes. 

The following smnll table gives the amounts, 
in pounds, of vital soil ingredients extracted by 
the different fruit crops ( for f uit alone) that 
will have to be replaced by fertilization. Bul- 
letin No. 101 gives more data relating to Euro- 
pean fruit than we need for the present discus- 























'Furope — 

In each 1000 lbs 

8 00 




Crop of 15,000 lbs 


58. a5 



Cal foroialWhl'e Adriatic) 

Iu each 1000 lbs 





Crop of I5.10U lbs 



12 90 

' 35.70 


Europe — 

In etch 10f0 lbs 










Cr-p of 30 (Oults 


87 00 








Cr p of 3 70URh 




48 60 







42 20 


36 60 

'Imported —analyzed at this station. 

With the exception of the grape, it seems that 
the fig draws rather more heavily upon the 
mineral ingredients that will need to be re- 
placed by fertilization than do any of tfce other 
f-tiits we have examined; following closely the 
amounts taken up by the grape and fig of 
foreign growth. As compared with the fig, 
apricots and prunes, like oranges, do not 
in any case draw nearly so heavily upon the 
mineral matters; lemons and plums, bow- 
ever, very nearly approach it. And among 
the figs we note that the White Adriatic stands 
somewhat above the other figs in this respect. 
As to nitrogen, it is readily seen that among 
our fruits the figs, on the whole, draw decid- 
edly the highest amount and are quite like 
hose of foreign production in this regard. 
Here, again, the White Adriatic appears to 

Potash. — In the ashes of the fig, as in the 
prune, apricot, orange and lemon, we find 
potash to be the leading ingredient, amounting 
to about three-fifths of the whole ash. From the 
partial ash analysis, given above, of the im- 
ported Smyrna fig, we find the potash to be 
four-fifths as much as is contained in the ashes 
of figs of California growth. We may, how- 
pver, say for the fig, as for other California 
fruits, that although potash constitutes so 
arge a portion of the ash of these fruits, its 
replenishment to the soil will be delayed long 
beyond the addition of other fertilizing in- 
gredients, because most California soils are 
naturally so well stocked with it that available 
potash tor the current demand will be ade- 
quately supplied for many years. 

It will be noted below in" the soil discussion 
that the average percentages of potash for both 
California and Asia Minor soils is nearly iden- 

Phosphoric Acid.— The fig, like the lemon, ap- 
pears to range a little below the other fruits 
n its draft upon this material, for we find the 
ashes to stand in the following order in their 
phosphoric acid percentages, viz , prunes 14.1, 
apricots 13.1, oranges 12 4, and lemons and figs 
11.1. The European data relating to this sub- 
ject give for phosphoric acid a figure about the 
-ame as that we have obtained for our figs. 
Since our soils usually contain a very limited 
supply of phosphoric acid, on the average only 
about one-fourth that given below for Asia 
Minor soils, our fig, as well as prune, apricot 
and orange orchards, will require phosphatic 
fertilizers first. 

(Continued on page 19.) 

July 24, 1898. 


E. VAN EVERY, Manager. 

T. R. BALLINQER, Grain Salesman. 

Great Reduction in Storage 




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Pumps, Ta nks, &c. 

Send for Catalogue and Prices. 


Dykes' Improved 

Medal and Diploma awarded at Mechanics' 
& Industrial Exposition, San Francisco, 1893. 

Tie Best Well Pump, Windmill Pump, irri- 
gation or Drainage Pump. 

It la mors simple than any other pump. Any 
one who can use a wiench hnd a hammer can 
take It apart and put it together with ease and 
correctness. It will very seldom need repair, 
and will not break, except for rough usage. 
Bat about three lines of Instructions of how to 
set it up and use it are needed, as follows: 
Fasten It to your platform; attach your suction 
and discharge pipes; put in a bucket of water; 
start your power, and your pump will do its 
work. It will deliver more water with the 
same power than any other pump. 

Careful Inspection is what we want. Give us 
a chanoe to bid on the work you want. Any 
size fnmp made. We were awarded two 
First Premiums at the California State Fair, 
1892, and one First Premium at the Stockton 
Fair. Send for circular. 

Manufacturers, Weit Berkeley, Oal. 

M. an 

Porteous Improved Scraper 

Patented April 8, 1883. Patented April 17, 1888. 

Manufactured by O, LISSENDEN. 

The attention of the publio is called to this Scraper 
and the many varieties of work of which It Is capable, 
such as Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build- 
ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement wul take up and carry its load to any 
desired distance. It will distribute the dirt evenly or 
deposit Us load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
ol Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are In use In all parts of the country. 

tW This Scraper Is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $40; Steel two-horse, (SI. 
Address all orders to G. LI88BNDEN, Stockton, 



July 24, 1893. 


The Cow in the Moon. 

The man in the moon a dairyman is, 

For a dark, spotted cow he owns; 
But she is a jumper, fair and square, 

And around a big orbit she roams. 

And every night when the moon is full 

And blazes up in the east, 
You can see this cow, with lawless step, 

Start out for a midnight feast. 
The cow in the moon is a thoroughbred beast, 

And a balanced ration she seeks; 
And every day she goes the world round, 

And into every one's garden peeks. 

Yet this cow. in the moon is, oh, "very old. 

The oldest that lives no doubt; 
And the children of every clime and age 

Have gleefully pointed her out 

As, with tail in air and]heels to match, 

She jumps clear over the moon; 
And ever and anon to the end of time 

She will jump from that same sand dune. 

For the man in the moon keeps to his old ways 

And laughs at " new-fangled things," 
And refuses to " soil " this cow the year round 

And prevent the mischief she brings. 
For he says that this cow that jumps over the moon 

Must every day exercise take, 
And to be any good in the world to bim 

Must discard this last modern fake. 
So the cow in the moon will keep jumping on 

Till the moon falls into the sun; 
Then the man in the moon will not have a cow 

When she and her jumping are "done!" 

— Hoard's Dairyman . 

The Farmer's Wife. 

Up with the birds in the early morning — 

The dewdrop glows like a precious gem; 
Beautiful tints in the sky are dawning. 

But she's never a moment to look at them. 
The men are wanting their breakfast early; 

She must not linger, she must not wait, 
For words that are sharp and looks that are surly 

Are what the men give when meals are late. 

Ob, glorious colors the clouds are turning, 
If she would but look over hills and trees; 

But here are the dishes and there is the churning— 
Those things must always yield to these. 

The world is filled with the wine of beauty, 
If she would but pause and drink it in; 

But pleasure, she says, must wait for duty- 
Neglected work is committed sin. 

The day grows hot and her hands grow weary; 

Oh, for an hour to cool her head. 
Out with the birds and winds so cheery; 

But she must get dinner and make her bread. 
The busy men in the hayfield working, 

If tbey saw her sitting with idle hand, 
Would think her lazy and call her shirking, 

And she never could make them understand, 

Tbey do not know that the heart within her 

Hungers for beauty and things sublime; 
They only know they want their dinner, 

Plenty of it and just "on time." 
And after the sweeping and churning and baking, 

And dinner dishes are all put by, 
She sits and sews though her head be aching, 

Till time for supper and/'chores'' draws nigh. 

Her boys at school must look like others, 

She says, as she patches their frocks'and hose, 
For the world is quick to censure mothers 

For the least neglect of their children's clothes. 
Her husband comes from the field of labor; 

He gives no praise to his weary wife; 
She's done no more than has her neighbor, 

'Tis the lot of many in country life. 

But after the strife and weary tussle, 

When life is done and she lies at rest, 
The nation's brain and heart and muscle— 

Her sons and daughters — shall call her blest. 
And I think the sweetest joy of Heaven, 

The rarest bliss ot eternal life, 
And the fairest crown of all will be given 

Unto the wayworn farmer's wife, 

—Ella Wheeler Wilcox in Farmer's Review. 

Self Detractors. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Elsie Ange.J 

ffcK ONCE heard a minister 
allude to a man who invari- 
ably spoke of himself as the worst 
sinner that ever lived. " And he 
did not believe it. Indeed, he 
thought quite the contrary," said 
the minister. 
This is an instance which illustrates one 
of the most common failings of humanity — 
that of self detraction. In some people their 
insincerity is so apparant that we wonder 
why they employ so shallow a method of 
deception, while others equally in fault suc- 
ceed in making us believe that they express 
their honest convictions in disparaging 
themselves. The most effectual remedy for 
such a glaring failure is a sharp one, and 
that is for the self detractor to meet those 
who evidently believe what he says and 
agree with him. 

A lady appealed to a friend for sympathy 
for the way a superintendent of a mission 
school had spoken to her. This was her 
story : " I went to him and said : ' Mr. 
Carr, I am afraid I must give up my class. 

The care and work is so wearing that my 
health is breaking down. I am so sorry, 
because I am very fond of the class, but I 
know that you can find some one better 
fitted for the position than I am.' Imagine 
my surprise when he answered bluntly : 

"•Very well, Mrs. Blank. If your health 
suffers I will find another teacher to take 
your place. 1 

" Now, was not that unfeeling of Mr. Carr. 
I had no idea of giving up the class, and I 
thought he would give me words of appreci- 
ation and encouragement when I went to 

Another person, who prided herself upon 
her brilliancy and popularity, was conversing 
in an humble strain of her attainments and 
place in the esteem of others, expecting that 
her listener would say some entirely contra- 
dictory things in return, when the latter re- 
marked in a very sympathetic manner : 

" You remind me of an acquaintance of 
mine. She is a little, unassuming old maid, 
scarcely known or noticed by any save a 
few old friends. She often says that she 
cannot see that she is of the least use in the 
world, and she can easily imagine that she 
will never be missed after she has gone. 
Now, dear, I say to you as I have to her : 
You have your own place and your own 
work in the world, and however disap- 
pointed you may be in yourself or your 
efforts, rest assured that God does not re- 
quire of you any more than you can per- 
form, and He gives you the credit that you 
fail to obtain from others." 

The astonished listener could only receive 
this gentle advice in mute astonishment, but 
she learned a lesson she profited by. 

" I have never since indulged in insincere 
detraction of myself," she said, in relating 
this experience. " I found that it was a 
sorry way to earn compliments." 

Many handsome people disparage their 
beauty in the same manner. They declare 
that they are entirely void of attractions 
while they believe the reverse. But all 
critics are not generous. Some are ever on 
the alert for flaws in the face or form of the 
person admired. They can only see the 
deviation from what is strictly correct in 
some feature, and that one defect, imper- 
ceptible to others, is paramount with them. 
Such critics are dangerous to encounter. 
More than one charming belle has carried a 
sore heart for weeks because the shape of 
her nose, the size of her ear or the contour 
of her profile has been magnified into a 
deformity. She could smile at the criticism 
of less favored companions because she can 
attribute it to envy or jealousy, but when 
she under-rates her charms to some one she 
considers a judge of beauty, expecting a full 
share of praise, it is a stunning blow to be 
told : " Yes, my dear, you are perfectly 
right. Your nose spoils your face." 

Again, there are people who depreciate 
their work. Who has not for an acquaintance 
the over-particular house-keeper who is 
always bemoaning her dirty house ? She 
apologetically leads her visitor into rooms 
where the rigid orderliness sends a chill 
down the spinal column, with the remark 
that they are not fit to be seen. She opens 
the doors of closets, exhibiting articles of 
china, glass and silver which dazzle the 
eyes with their brilliancy, while she deplores 
the intrusion of imaginary dust and cob- 
webs. The mistress of such a house is fond 
of leading her guests from attic to cellar, 
but nowhere will she allow that it is as neat 
or orderly as it should be. The visitor can 
only lamely disagree with her hostess, for 
the spotless housewife, is the most unsatis- 
factory person on earth to convince that 
she is in fault by being over-fussy and par- 
ticular. Yet women of this class had a blow 
struck at them through the press some years 
ago. A distinguished woman had recently 
died, and in the biographical account of her, 
published widespread throughout our coun- 
try, the following pithy story was told. 
Some one was speaking of an arquintanre 
noted for her spotless house-keeping, when 
this good woman retorted : " She is the 
dirtiest person I have ever met. She thiuks 
dirt, she talks dirt, she hunts dirt and she 
fights dirt." So, viewed in this light, our 
detracting housewife is not wrong when she 
exhibits her dirty house to her friends. In 
like manner women noted for their success 
in cookery disparage the dishes they set 
before their guests. They say the bread is 
not as light as the last batch; the pastry is 
tough, the cake is a failure, and so on. If 
they really thought so, would they present 
such food to their guests ? I heard a man 
tell of his exDerience at a friend's table. 
The hostess offered him some biscuits, with 
the remark that they were not good. "Are 
they not?" he inquired. "No, they are 
heavy," answered the lady. "Then I don't 
want any," said the guest, withdrawing his 
hand from the tempting-looking fare. 

Now, the hostess especially prided herself 
upon her biscuits, and she begged her vis- 

itor to try one, but he declined; then she 
appealed to the members of her family, wBo 
declared that the biscuits were excellent, but 
the guest remained obdurate. He explained 
that he took her word for the biscuits and 
would abide by it, and never from that time 
did she disparage any article of food that 
she set before him. 

And it is by such bitter lessons as these 
that the detractor is cured of his insincerity, 
and who can say that the smarts tbey in- 
flict are not wholesome? 


Adversity is necessary to the development 
of man's virtues. 

He who does not advance is going back- 
ward. — Proverb. 

Heaven will not be pure stagnation; not 
idleness, but active, tireless, earnest work. — 
Bishop Brooks. 

We understand the infinite a hundred 
times better by the heart than by the intelli- 
gence. — B. Tisseur. 

There must come a natural selection of 
religions, a survival of the fitting among 
faiths. — Phillips Brooks. 

Blessed are the mirthful, for mirthfulness 
is God's medicine — one of the renovators of 
the world.— H. W. Beecher. 

The wise prove and the foolish confess by 
their conduct that a life of employment is 
the only life worth living. — Paley. 

Unless thou tbinkest that what has hap- 
pened is an evil, thou art not injured; and it 
is in thy power not to think so. — Atchison 

I think it must somewhere be written that 
the virtues of mothers shall be visited on 
their children, as well as the sins of the 
fathers. — Dickens. 

The philosopher is he to whom the high- 
est has descended, and to whom the lowest 
has mounted, who is the equal and kindly 
brother of all. — Carlyle. 

People give the name of zeal to their pro- 
pensity for mischief and violence, though it 
is not the cause but their interest that in- 
flames them. — Montaigne. 

I should be virtuous for my own sake 
though nobody were to know it, just as I 
would be clean for my own sake though no- 
body were to see me. — Shaftesbury. 

I never knew a nation that was habitually 
governed by high motives, or one which 
was not deeply convinced of its superiority 
to the rest of the human race. — H. H. Boye- 

Good words do more than hard speeches, 
as the sunbeams without any noise will 
make the traveler cast off his cloak, which 
all the blustering winds could not do, but 
only make him bind it closer to him. — 

One great secret of happiness is never to 
allow your energies to stagnate. The old 
proverb about too m^ny irons in the fire is 
an abominable lie. Have them all in — 
shovel, tongs, poker and all. The more the 
better. — Adam Clarke. 

Nothing of character is really permanent 
but virtue and personal wealth. These re- 
main. Whatever of excellence is wrought 
into the soul itself belongs to both worlds. 
Real goodness does not attach itself merely 
to life; it points to another world. — Daniel 

With acclamation and with trumpet tone, 

With prayer and praise, and with triumphal state 
Of warlike columns, and the moving weight 
Of men, whose firmness never overthrown, 

Proved itself steadfast; which did add to fate 
Speed, vision, certainty, and ever grown 
More terrible, as more enduring shone 
A fire of retribution and swift bate, 

All visibly advancing — with these we keep 
Unsullied in our breast, and pure and white 
The spirit of gratitude that may not sleep — 

A nation's safeguard against shame and blight, 
Since sacred memories and the tears men weep 
Alone can keep a nation at its height. 

— Langdon Elwyn Mitchell. 

For Cleaning Marble. 

Common dry salt is said to be one of the 
best agents for cleaning marble. It 
requires no preparation, and may be rubbed 
directly upon the tarnished surface, remov- 
ing any incrustations or deposits at once, 
leaving the marble shining and clean. This 
is well worthy of remembrance, as it is often 
found to be provokingly hard to clean the 
marble thoroughly without injuring the sur- 


The practice of saying, " God bless you:" 
whenever a person sneezes must be wide- 
spread indeed when we find a similar saluta- 
tion Mbuka! (literally, equals live!) obtain- 
ing among the Fijians. It has been said by 
a London physician that one is nearer death 
at the actual moment of sneezing than at any 
other period of one's life. Herein, perhaps, 

lies the reason for the kindly wish, and may 
account for the prevalent idea that it is dan- 
gerous to interrupt a person in the act of 
sneezing. — Notes and Queries. 

The Day of Your Birth. 
To name the day of the week of a given 
date, divide the number of the year by 4, 
rejecting the remainder, if any. To this 
dividend and quotient add the number of 
days in the year to the given date, inclusive, 
always reckoning 28 days in February. 
Divide the sums by 7, and the figure re- 
maining will be the number of the day of 
the week, o signifying Saturday. For in- 
stance, take October 17, 1888: 



The fourth day — Wednesday. 

Dates between January 1st and February 
28 th, in leap years, both inclusive, must 
have 1 subtracted to balance the 1 added by 
the even division of the year, which is not 
yet offset by February 29th. All dates in 
1800 and any other terminal year of the cen- 
tury, except one equally divisible by 400, 
must be similarly treated, as these are not 
leap years. Dates in 1752, after September 
2d, must have 11 added on account of the 
change from old to new style. 

A Good Nurse. 

A good nurse is a woman thoroughly 
healthy and alert in her five senses. She 
must have good sight, in order that she may 
watch the slightest changes in the patient, 
catch a motion of the eye, the tips of the fin- 
gers, and see in a moment what is wanted. 
She must have quick hearing, to catch the 
slightest whisper of a weak invalid. She 
must have a sensitive as well as a soft touch, 
that she may note the most delicate changes 
in the skin and may test the temperature of 
hot applications that may be ordered. It is 
especially necessary that she have a correct 
and acute sense of smell, so she may detect 
the slightest impurity in the atmospnere of 
the sick room. Her taste must be correct, 
in order that she may test the food to see 
that it is properly cooked. A good nurse 
should also be a good cook, and at the best 
training school for nurses a course of lectures 
with manual training in cookery is a part of 
the teaching. — Ex. 

Carrying Good News. 
During the siege of Vicksburg an impor- 
tant artillery position had been assigned to a 
battery commanded by Major Schwartz, a 
German attached to General Grant's com- 
mand. Late in the day, while Grant was in 
his tent receiving dispatches from the front, 
a German orderly made his appearance 
earnestly inquiring for " Zhineral Grant." 
After much parley his hearers, being con- 
vinced that his business with the general 
was important, admitted him to the latter's 
tent, where he announced, " Schwartz's bat- 
tery is took ! " "Well," said the general 
calmly, "did you spike the guns !" "What?" 
shrieked the little German, " spike dem 
guns ? Dem new gun? ? Vy, it would 
schpile'em!" "Well, what did you do?" 
asked Grant impatiently. " Vy, we took 
'em pack again." — Life. 

English As She Is Wrote. 

A pretty little French woman went into 
one of the newspaper offices last Tuesday, 
and with a positive air passed an advertise- 
ment through the window. The clerk 
looked at it a moment, smiled and then said: 

"The English is a little bit awkward, 
miss. Would you like to make any 
changes ? " 

The pretty little woman tossed her head. 

" No, m'sieur. I zink I knows how to 
write ze good Inglis." 

The clerk smiled again. 

"All right," and he watched the little 
woman as she sailed out of the door. The 
next morning the "ad." appeared: 

" Pupils wanted — Mile. Marcotte respect- 
fully announces that she wishes to show her 
tongue to the young American ladies." — 
Boston Budget. 

" Her Sheltering Oak." 
It was on a train going through Indiana. 
Among the passengers were a newly married 
couple, who made themselves known to such 
an extent that the occupants of the car com- 
menced passing sarcastic remarks about 
them. The bride and groom stood the re- 
marks for some time, but finally the latter, 
who was a man of tremendous size, broke 
out in the following language at his torment- 
ors: "Yes, we're married. Just married. 
We are going 160 miles farther on this train, 
and I am going to 'spoon' all the way. If 

July 24, 1893. 


you don't like it you can get out and walk. 
She's my violet and I'm her sheltering oak." 
During the remainder of the journey they 
were left in peace. — Philadelphia Public Led- 

Ram's Horn Wrinkles. 

The devil loves a moderate drinker. 
If you want to get happiness, try to give it. 
It is easy to be, but harder to appear to be. 
It is earier to mean right than it is to do 

It is easier to be brave than it is to be 

The wren has a sweeter song than the 

The smallest sin is big enough to hide the 
face of God. 

The religion that has no joy in it does not 
come from God. 

God is robbed whenever one man gives 
another light weight. 

There is as much love in a warning as 
there is in a promise. 

There are two ways of telling a goose — by 
its gabble and its walk. 

Find a man who has no hobby and you 
will find one who is not happy. 

Scrubbing a pig with soap will not take 
the love of mud out of its heart. 

The nation has no better friend than the 
mother who teaches her child to pray. 

The devil agrees with the man who says 
he can't see any sense in being religious. 

It is easier to tell others what they ought 
to do than it is to tell yourself what you 
must do. 

Honey as a Specific. 

But few people are cognizant of the bene- 
fits to be derived from a moderate use of 
honey as food, says an exchange. Saccha- 
rine matter, as a rule, is apt to affect the sys- 
tem injuriously; but if taken in the form of 
honey it at once becomes a valuable food 
and medicine. Instead of having it given to 
us in combination with bulk food, as in the 
cane and beet, it Is, in the case of honey, 
mingled with fruit juices derived from flow- 
ers highly charged with medicinal properties. 
Honey, taken as food, becomes a powerful 
medicine to the sugar-fed and half-diseased, 
and many people must begin on small quan 
tities to acquire an appetite for it. Foul air, 
improper ventilation, coal gas and sudden 
change of temperature and exposure of 
throat and lungs to sudden chill are the 
sources of no end of throat and bronchial 
troubles. A free, regular and constant use 
of honey is probably the best medicine for 
throat troubles known, and its regular use is 
largely corrective. 

The Hot-Water Remedy. 

Are you a busy, worried woman, who 
comes home late at night with temples 
throbbing and every muscle aching from 
fatigue? If so, you often say to yourself: 
" I am dead tired, and haven't the ambition 
to dress or even comb my hair for the even- 
ing." Then you lounge about and go to bed 
about nine o'clock, with your head still 
aching and your limbs just as tired as when 
you came in. 

The next time you feel that way just slip 
off the waist of your gown, brush your hair 
up on the top of your head, and bathe the 
back of your neck with hot water. When 
the pain is a little relieved, wash your face 
with the same reviver, and by the time that 
is done you will feel like brushing your hair 
and fixing up a bit, or we are very much 
mistaken. The hot-water cure is quite as 
efficacious taken externally as internally. — 
Philadelphia Times. 

A Chicken's Intricate Foot. 
" The mechanism of the leg and foot of a 
chicken or other bird that roosts is a marvel 
of design," said a well-known taxidermist 
recently. " It often seems strange that a 
bird will sit on a roost and sleep all night 
without falling off, but the explanation is 
simple. The tendon of the leg of a bird that 
roosts is so arranged that when the leg is 
bent at the knee the claws are bound to con- 
tract, and thus hold with a sort of death-grip 
the limb around which they are placed. Put 
a chicken's feet on your wrist and then make 
the bird sit down and you will have a practi- 
cal illustration on your skin that you will 
remember for some time. By this singular 
arrangemeut, seen only in such birds as 
roost, they will rest comfortably and never 
think of holding on, for it is impossible for 
them to let go until they stand up." — Kan- 
sas City Times. 

Be Careful What You Write. 
"I never write a letter which I am not 
willing that any one should read," is the rule 
which a lady adopted early in life for her 
correspondence. It is an extension of the 
old proverb: "Conduct yourselves with your 
friends as if they may one day become your 


A Little Witoh. 

I'd like to be a little witch and go up in the sky, 
Where I could leap from cloud to cloud as they go 
sailing by. 

This is my broom, on which I'd ride as witches do, 
you know; 

The dust-pan I should leave behind because I hate 
it so. 

I wonder how Tip would behave, as through the air 
we'd float; 

Of course, a witch would have a cat — just notice his 
black coat. 

It's growing blacker every day, and just as soft as 

Stop crying, Tip; I hate to go down cellar for your 

My cap? Why, mother made it; it's just like 
witches wear. 

Oh, dear, I wish there were some witches flying 

through the air. 
Perhaps they'd come and help me; I'm keeping 

bouse to day, 
But I just hate to do the work when mother is 


I've got to sweep the kitchen, and wash the dishes, 

And brush the walls and dust around; it's such a lot 
to dot 

But, there! it's no use talking; I'll be a witch, not 

And play I came down on my broom to do this very 

— A. I. Willis, in Harper's Young Folks. 

Johnny Bates' Cowardioe. 

HERE was a boy in the com- 
pany of which I was the cap- 
tain, who had to get the con- 
sent of his parents to enlist, 
for he was only sixteen years 
old. He was a strong, sturdy 
fellow, full of life and spirit, obedient, intelli- 
gent and faithful in the performance of his 

I noticed him often, chiefly because he 
was the youngest member of the company, 
but also because he evinced great aptitude 
in learning the duties of a soldier. He 
seemed to take a positive interest in every- 
thing connected with camp life, and I fre- 
quently told myself that Johnny Bates, as 
he was called, would soon win promotion 
and distinction. 

One night this little idol was shattered 
into a thousand fragments. We had been 
ordered to the field, but had not yet an en- 
gagement with the enemy. A soldier's first 
battle is a trying episode in his life. I be- 
lieve that seventy -five men out of every hun- 
dred would turn and run at the first volley 
from the enemy were it not for the moral 
support given by the presence of their com- 

But Johnny Bates gave way before his 
first battle came. Our regiment was en- 
camped well toward the front of our line, 
and we knew that the enemy was not far off. 
In fact, we were gradually approaching each 
other, and a great battle could not be de- 
layed much longer. 

About 12 o'clock one night the long roll 
was sounded and our regiment was roused 
and soon formed into line of battle, where 
we were to await further orders. A sentinel 
on one of the outposts had fired his gun, and 
we thought the enemy was upon us. 

That was my first experience of the kind, 
too, and I shall never forget the strange 
feelings that came over me. I never recall 
that hour without thinking of what Governor 
Vance of North Carolina said one day on a 
battlefield. During a lull in the firing, and 
while the Federals and Confederates were 
facing each other, ready to go at it again, 
a poor little rabbit, frightened out of its rest- 
ing place by this horrible din on its native 
heath, rushed at top speed down between 
the two lines, seeking a quieter and safer 

Governor Vance — he is Senator Vance 
now — saw the little creature, and, while a 
peculiar smile broke over his face, he said: 

"Run, Molly Cottontail; I'd run, too, if I 
were not Governor of North Carolina." 

Well, there we stood in the darkness and 
silence, not a man daring to speak, waiting 
for the expected order to march to the night 
attack. Here and there, down the line, I 
heard a man cough, but no other sound 
broke the stillness. 

Suddenly, right behind me, I caught the 
sound of a boyish voice whimpering and 
crying. Amazed beyond expression, I turned 
and saw Johnny Bates. He was crying like 
a big baby. When I sternly ordered him to 
stop, he burst out worse than ever, ap- 
parently overcome by uncontrollable fear. 
He begged me most pitifully to allow him to 
leave the line, claiming that he could not 
possibly stay there; that he was ill, weak, 
trembling like a leaf and utterly unable to 
perform his duty as a soldier. 

It never occurred to me to pity the boy; 

on the contrary, I blazed out at him with all 
the vigor of a man fairly beside himself with 
indignation and anger. I told him that if 
he did not stop his blubbering instantly I 
would have him shot like a cowardly puppy. 
That threat or my manner, perhaps both, 
had the effect of quieting him. In half an 
hour or so, word came that the alarm was 
false, and we were ordered back to our 

The next day I sent for Bates to come to 
my tent. When he entered, his face was 
full of shame and repentance. That softened 
me somewhat, and I determined to lead him 
on to a frank expression of his feelings. 
Let it be sufficient to say that fear of the ex- 
pected battle had wholly unmanned him and 
turned him into a baby. He did not believe 
that he was a coward, but he had found it 
utterly impossible to subdue his fear as he 
stood there in the darkness waiting for the 
fire of the enemy's guns. 

I really felt sorry for the boy, but for the 
sake of discipline I had to punish him, and 
I did so in the presence of the company. I 
don't mean that I thrashed him as a school- 
teacher does a refractory pupil, but I imposed 
a task that carried some degree of ignominy 
with it. 

Johnny's companions turned the cold 
shoulder on him after that, for no man re- 
spects a coward. But the boy went on per- 
forming his duties as faithfully and zealously 
as if nothing had happened. Indeed, I think 
he showed even more zeal than he had shown 
before. I had come as a result of the pe- 
culiar circumstances of the case, to take a 
decided personal interest in the young fellow, 
much more than the captain of a company 
is in the habit of taking in an individual 
member of it. 

A week passed, and we had not yet had 
the conflict that we had been expecting. 
Then, one evening, between supper time and 
*' taps," orders came for us to be ready to 
move against the enemy early the next 

Well, we " moved" — and got into one of 
the hottest battles that were ever fought. I 
do not intend to describe it; I want to tell 
you only about Johnny Bates and his part in 
the affair. 

I need not say that the moment when our 
brigade commander gave the order for us to 
move forward and open fire was a very try- 
ing one to all of us that had never been in 
action before. I had a good deal to think 
about and attend to, but, strange to say, I 
conld not get that boy out of my head. 

I found myself watching him as we moved 
off, and it was with unmixed gratification 
that I saw his firm step and his brave bear- 
ing. But when we had become actually en- 
gaged and the roar and din of the conflict 
raged around us like a storm of thunder and 
lightning, I forgot Bates; I thought then of 
nothing but guns, bayonets, bloodshed and 
carnage. The mad whirl of battle comes 
pretty near to turning a man into a wild 

Before our part of the line the enemy had 
thrown up breastworks of earth, and from 
behind they poured volley after volley into 
our ranks. Suddenly the colonel of our 
regiment rode forward, and, rising in his 
stirrups, cried out in tones that every one of 
us beard: 

" Charge, men, and take those works ! " 

His manner and his words thrilled us as 
if they had been charged with electricity, 
and we rushed forward with a yell that made 
the surrounding woods ring again. Just as 
we started, the color-bearer of our regiment 
was shot down and the flag went down with 

A dozen men sprang forward to raise it 
again, but a slight, boyish figure was the 
first to reach the spot. Throwing his gun 
aside, he grasped the flagstaff, raised the 
colors once more to the breeze, and pressed 
heroically to the front of the line. 

It was our little soldier, Johnny Bates, and 
his gallant act sent a thrill of indescribable 
enthusiasm along our line. 


Johnny Bates was the first to scale the 
breastworks of the enemy, and when he 

planted the colors there, it was to announce 
our victory. 

That same Johnny Bates is now an officer 
in the regular army, and many a battlefield 
in the West has witnessed his gallantry. — 
Golden Hours. 


Custards. — Beat up two eggs, mix in 
half a pint of milk, sugar to taste and some 
vanilla, lemon or nutmeg flavoring; when 
well stirred, pour the mixture into a buttered 
basin, cover with buttered paper, and steam 
in a saucepan of boiling water, which should 
come about half way up the basin, for half 
an hour. 

Mock Turtle Soup.— Put two ounces of 
butter in a saucepan and set it on the fire. 
When melted, add a tablespoonful of flour, 
stir, and, when turning brown, add three 
pints of broth (either beef broth or broth 
made by boiling a calf's head). Boil five 
minutes, and then add about four ounces of 
caH'i head cut in dice; mushrooms and 
truffles cut in dice. Boil five minutes. Cut 
two hard-boiled eggs and half a lemon in 
dice, and put into the tureen, and turn the 
soup over. 

Pea Soup. — Take four pounds of knuckle 
of veal, to which add a pound of bacon. 
Cut them in pieces and put them in the soup 
kettle with a sprig of mint and five quarts of 
water. Boil and skim well. When the meat 
is boiled to rags, strain and put to the liquor 
a quart of young green peas. Boil until en- 
tirely dissolved. Have ready two quarts of 
green peas that have been boiled in another 
pot, with a sprig of mint and two or three 
lumps of white sugar. Add these to your 
soup liquor. 

Chicken en Coquille.— To every pint 
of cold chopped chicken allow one table- 
spoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, 
one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one 
cup of milk or cream, two hard-boiled eggs, 
salt and pepper to taste; melt the butter 
without browning, add the fliur, stir until 
smooth; add the cream, stir continually 
until it thickens; then add the chicken, the 
hard-boiled eggs, mashed fine, and the sea- 
soning. Mix well, fill the shells, brush over 
the top with the beaten yolk of an egg, 
sprinkle with breadcrumbs and brown in a 
quick oven. 

FiG Cake. — Chop fine one pound of figs. 
Beat the whites of five eggs to a stiff, dry 
froth. Beat one cup of butter and two cups 
of sugar to a cream, adding one cup of milk, 
three cups of flour and stir until smooth. 
Add one-half of the whites, then one-half of 
the figs, then the remainder of the whites 
and one teaspoonful of baking powder. Stir 
quickly and gently together. Bake in layers. 
For the filling mix one egg beaten light, 
without separating, with three tablespoonfuls 
of sugar. Add the remainder of the figs 
and spread between the layers. Frost the 

Bites and Stings. 

The stings of insects are not usually seri- 
ous, yet there have been cases where severe 
cases of poisoning ensued even from mos- 
quito bites. They are painful enough, how- 
ever, and a knowledge of simple and readily 
available remedies is very desirable. In all 
cases, whether of mosquito bites or the 
stings of bees or hornets, an immediate ap- 
plication of cologne water, ammonia or cam- 
phor will give immediate relief, unless the 
sting remains in the skin. In such a case, 
the sting should be pulled out with delicate 
forceps, or it can be removed, though some- 
what clumsily, by the pressure of the two 
thumb nails on opposite sides of it. The 
presence of a bee's or wasp's sting in the 
wound is not dangerous, as has been popu- 
larly supposed. It will, however, greatly 
aggravate the soreness, and it generates of- 
fensive matter, which is especially disagree- 
able. The sting remaining in the wound is 
easily discernible, as a black spot in the 
center of inflammation. — New York Tribune. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report. 





July 14, 1893. 


Eli Challenge Full Circle. 
Champion Full Circle. 
Junior Monarch. 
Miller Lightning. 


Writ* for prices and get full particular*. 


On Bay Presses and Haying Tools. 



San Francisco and Fresno. 



We guarantee every 





for live years, 

and allow 30 days trial before 
final acceptance. Send for 

Catalog-lie "F" 

showing the woods In the natural 
colors. Elegantly lithographed, 
and a work 
of art. Vest 
I PocketGulde 
1 to Chicago 
' and Fair 
Grounds, for 
2-cent stamp. 
References, any Bank or Commercial Agency In the 
United States. 
I I I to 1 17 Michigan Avenue, Chicago. 







Indigent Ion, BIltousneM, Headache, Conatl- 

B at Ion, Dyjipcpftla, Chronic Liver Troubles, 
'Urine*, Bad Complexion, Dysentery, 

Stomach, 1. 1 \ *t and Bowels* 

Rlpans Tabules contain nothing lnjmioTis to 
the most delicate constitution. Pleasant to take, 
safe, effectual. Give immediate relief. 

Sold by drwgtets. A trial bottle sent by mall 
on receipt of ffc cento. Address 



^W\lffi> ^»»- Cheaper than any 

^- — Tl First-Class Mill In 
!l\>VV£*yJuV iCt\ k the market. 

Every One 

No bearings, no 
springs, no wheels 
to get out of order 
The simplest mill Id 
the world. 

10-foot Write 

12-foot for 

14-foot Prices 

Agent, Wanted 

— ADDRB8I — 

TRUMAN, HOOKER k CO., San Francisco or Fresno 

A Small 

of (treat capacity 
Light Tower. 


can now 


We make a ftafl 
•I lion* fswan. 


with leai help and power 
than ever bvfor**. .'-■nil 
tor free Ulna. ( aiajo^ua, 

BELLE C1TI BPS. CO., ttatine, H is. 


A notable Invention of the Columbian year, for transporting California's fresh fruit 
to market, book Into It l It Is worthy of trial! Its advantages truly stated are: Fruit 
can be picked later and riper; requires no wrappers; no decay from pressure, bruising 
orrubb ng; the ventilation Is absolute and positive; It grades and counts the fruit In 
the carrier; fruit all open to Inspection; no rehaodllng or repacking at destination; no 
skilled labor for packing. Gives the grower alt the advantage arising by arrival of hie 
fruits In markets ripe, sound, luscious and attractive, Instead of half ripe, bruised or 
decaying. It Isolates each piece of fruit by double, elastic walls, with air spaces 
between, over and around It. It is not an untried quantity. Messrs. Brown & Wells, of 
California Market, San Francisco, tay: " We have made shipments of green fruit In It 
to Honolulu, Panama, Boston, New York, Philadelphia. Australia and Arizona, and 
have received report to the effect that the fruit arrived In perfect condition. We believe 
It Is surely destined to become In the near future the universal package for short or 
long distance shipments " Nothing to equal It for fine apricots, peaches, plums and 
pears. Will carry fresh figs successfully. Carriers now ready for delivery for apricots. 
Seed in early orders to Insure supply. 

PRICE (for ordinary standard package) $15 00 per hundred, Including outside and 
inside cases. Call on us or send for circulars. 

STEVENS FRUIT CASE CO., 307 Front Street, San Francisco, 

Agents for the Pacific Coast. 


Hay Baler ? If sd, da you usb Dur PatBnT 

«*«CROSS HEAD 8 -^ 



The Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 

San Francisco Office and Warehouse 
8 and 10 Pine Street. 

"An Ponce of Practical Common Sense is Worth a Poood of Theory." 

Atkisson's Practical Incubator aid Brocdsr Combined 

and economical. Was awarded every Prise offered on Incubators and Brooders at the State Fair held September 
6th to 17th, 1892, as follows: For the beet display of Incubators In operation, $25; for the Incubator batchiug 

most chic - 

Does Not 
on fcxpe- 
clan to 

No Acci- 
dents from 
Lamp, as 
the prind 
pie of the 
of heat 
all danger of 
The prlncl- 
pie by which 
the water ie 
heated in 

entirely new. The large Double Brooder Attachment reduces the oost of rearing chicks to the minimum. Patented 
January 19, 1892. Send stamp for cliculars and prloe list. Address 

M. L. WISE, Manager, 


J Metal Engra-'ne Electrotyplng and Stereotyping 

done at th* effee of this papsi. 


Never Requires Oiling or Climbing of Towers. 

Guaranteed more durable without oil than other mills that are oiled. 
Practically, these mills require no attention. Trl-lt a On, and worth its 
weight In Gold It combines beauty, strength, durability and simplicity. Gov- 
ems itself perfectly, is easily erected and Is sold on Its nvri*«; in fact. It Is the 
best mill on earth. They are geared back three to one— the wheel making three 
revolutions to one stroke of pump — making them run In the lightest wind or 
breeze. The mill Is made entirely of Steel and Cast Iron. Each one of onr Gem 
Wind Mills Is warranted. If not satisfactory, freight will be paid h th ways and 
money refunded. W, also carry Pumps Of all kinds, Tanks, Pipe 

WOODIN & LITTLE, SiJ? r t?"*Sj: 





The Valves and work- 
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Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the 
pump out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready 
to put in. 

Send for Circular and 
Price List to 

© A. T. AMES, 

M GAi/T, OAL. 


For Sale at a Bargain. 


ENGINE. Largest Size. 


HARTESTER, 20-Foot Cut. 

This machinery all in good order at King City, Cat 
Owner gone out of farming business there. 

Address A. L. REED. King City, Oal. 



The Monarch, Junior Monarch, and other 
kinds of Presses, made by the Celebrated 
Hay Press Mannfactnrer, Jacob Price, tor 
sale by 


San Leandro, Oal. 


Now that the interest in the culture of the orange Is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience In parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
sued will be found ot wide usefulness. 

' Orange Culture in California " was written by Those 
A, Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation In the growth of the fruit. 
It Is a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

The book Is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 76 
cents per copy, In cloth binding. Address DEWEY PUB- 
LISHING CO., Publishers " Pacific Rural Press." HO 
Market St., 8an Francisco. 

July J, 1893. 


jBCgricultural J^otes. 



Livermore Herald: We are informed by a gentle- 
man in a position to know that there is a move on 
foot to form a general organization of all the wine 
men in the different counties. One of the main ob- 
jects is to try and induce those engaged in the busi- 
ness to hold their wine until the dealers in the city 
are compelled to pay better prices. There is no dis- 
puting the fact that something has to be done, and 
that soon. The business was never in a worse con- 
dition than at present. The prospects are favorable 
for a tremendous crop this season, and, while that 
is generally looked upon as a blessing, the rule is 
re-versed in this instance. 


Gridley Herald: An eye-opener in the shape of 
an English gooseberry was presented to our gaze a 
few days ago. The berries were grown on Henry 
Robbin's place, two miles south of Gridley, and were 
beauties, the largest being two inches in circum- 
ference. The cuttings were brought from Amador 
county, but the original stock is from Ireland. In 
the markets the English gooseberry is worth 2% 
cents per pound more than the common berry, 
which pales into insignificance in comparison. 

Chico Enterprise: Great complaints have been 
made about the vicious little sparrow which has 
nearly taken this section. The sparrow is a bird 
that is no account in the world, and is continually 
at war with all others of the bird family; especially 
so is it the enemy of all the sweet songsters we have 
in this section. It is full of mischief, and has not 
one redeeming trait to recommend it to life. So 
numerous have they become that it is proposed to 
wage a war of extermination, and the privilege will 
be asked of the Board of Town Trustees to put the 
war into eff ct. It is about three years since the 
first sparrows were seen here, and they have mul- 
tiplied immensely since then. 

Contra Costa. 

Antioch Ledger: The new hay crop is coming in 
slowly. The lact is that the crop seems to be very 
light and limited. There were no disturbing 
showers during the haying season, and hay is of 
excellent quality, although the acreage is limited. 
Wiseacres who pretend to study these things pre- 
dict that hay is a good investment, and that there is 
a fair chance to double money by buying hay at the 
present ruling prices. 


Areata Union : The dairy cows on Areata bottom 
are pretty much all dehorned, and as a consequence 
are much more docile than formerly. The practice 
of destroying the germ of the horn in the call's head 
by caustic is being adopted by some, and will be 
found effectual if the application is made at the 
proper time. 

Reports from upper Eel river confirm the recently 
published statement that, while there has been a 
showing of an unusually large crop of apples, in 
some localities they are dropping from the branches 
at an enormous rate. It is supposed to be a blight 
caused by the continued rain which prevailed during 
and after blossoming season. 

Standard: The Fortuna cannery will start up 
Monday morning to pack strawberries. Many boys 
and girls of the Eel River valley are a'ready engaged 
to pick and stem the fruit. D. K. B. Sellers has 
placed an order with the cannery for 12,000 cans of 
strawberries. Growers say the quality of the berries 
this year will equal, if not excel, that of last season, 
and, owing to the anticipated demand for Hum- 
boldt berries, they are now thoroughly prepared to 
supply the buyers. 

Standard: History repeats itself, situation di- 
rectly reversed. Time was, from two to four de- 
cades of years ago, when hogs were driven from 
Humboldt to Weaverville and other Trinity towns. 
A correspondent writes that yesterday a band of 
hogs came to Lamb Bros , Rohnerville, all the way 
from the Hettenchow valley, Trinity county. They 
were fine-looking porkers, and every one of them 
black as a coal; were grown in the Wilburn mu- 
nicipality, and near the home of James Howe, a 
Weaverville old-timer. The parties in charge said 
there are plenty of hogs in that section, notwith- 
standing a large number were killed and curtu last 
winter. In spite of the long drive, the hogs were in 
very good condition on arrival. 

Alton Our Paper: Some three weeks ago the 
prospects for a large crop of cherries in this valley 
were very good. But during the last three weeks 
the cold and heavy north winds have caused them 
to drop to an alarming degree. Particularly is this 
true around Alton. Mr. Peter Hauck informs us 
that his cherry trees were heavily laden with small 
fruits, but now he anticipates a shorter crop than last 
year, which was a small one. Othe's have com- 
plained of the same thing. The apple crop will be 
light, as will be that of the prune and peach. This 
is a matter to be deplored, as it will work hardship 
on the cannery in the matter of filling that large 
contract for canned fruits. It is reported that the 
yield of berries will be large, especially strawberries, 
raspberries and currants, and we understand the 
company's largest order is for the first mentioned of 
these three varieties. 


Californian: Out of 200 colts foaled at the 
Stockdaie ranch this spring, all have lived and 
thriven but two. A pretty good record I 

Californian: George J. Frey is reveling in sweet- 
ness. He got the job of removing the bees and the 
honey from the Episcopal church, and secured two 
large swarms of bees and over 100 pounds of first- 
class comb honey. The Episcopal church has been 
a favorite home for the industrious little insects, and 
every year a swarm or two have taken possession, 
and, when the hot weather came, the honey be- 
came fluid and ran down the walls of that structure, 
to the delectation of flies and annoyance of the 


At Hanford, in Kings county, there are 960 acres 
in raisin grapes in one tract, making the largest 
grape field in the world. It is owned by Timothy 
Page, and is two years old. Near by is a tract of 

560 acres all set to prunes, three years old. This big 
place is owned by J. C. Kimball of Los Angeles. 

Los Angeles. 

The Pomona nurserymen shipped away 149,598 
trees during May, of which number 131,000 were 
ohves and 17,000 oranges. 


Republican- Press: Wool Day at Ukiah was last 
Tuesday, when from sheep ranges covering a thou- 
sand hills in Mendocino and adjoining counties 
scores of growers drove into town, bringing with 
them 961^ bales of wool weighing 356.665 pounds. 
This represented, even at the low market valuation, 
upward of half a million dollars. Mathematically 
and comparatively considered, this low valuation is 
only about two-thirds the prevailing rate last year, 
which of course is a sore disappointment to the 


Salinas Index: L. H. Garrigus, the grain-buyer, 
returned Sunday from a grain-inspection trip as far 
south as Paso Robles. He states that the crops are 
very fine at King City and San Lucas neighbor- 
hoods. They are not so good at Paso Robles, and 
in San Antonio valley there was too much rain dur- 
ing the season for an extra crop. The general aver- 
age in Monterey county, he thinks, is the best it has 
been for a number of years. 

Index: News of the first grain fire of the season 
reached here Tuesday. The first report put the 
burned-over tract at 800 or 900 acres, but parties 
down from San Lucas later say that the loss was 
less than 200 acres. The fire was on ground leased 
by Jim Smith, a former resident of Salinas, on the 
upper end the San Lucas ranch, adjoining the San 
B-rnardo. Mr. Smith bid been to town for a load 
of lumber and had also got a package of matches 
which he laid on a post in the sun while he was 
unloading. The wind blew the package off, and 
the fall ignited them. The field is said to have been 


Register: A. D. Butler has made his last ship- 
ment of cherries, which gave a round-up of 1400 
boxes for the season. This is a lighter yield for him 
than two years ago and heavier than last season. 
This week will see the end of the season for most 
growers in this vicinity. Four full carloads of cher- 
ries have been forwarded from this point thus far 
this season. A good many cars partially loaded 
have gone to Suisun, there to be filled out with Vaca 
valley fruit. Large quantities of cherries have been 
sent through Wells, Fargo & Co. to different parts 
of the ccuntry, and some growers have sold to can- 
neries and dealers in San Francisco. 


Anaheim Gazette: Beet-hauling will begin in 
about three weeks, and there will be bu c y times in 
the beet fields for upward of two months. The 
beets are maturing nicely and promise to fulfill every 
prediction made of them at the beginning of the 
season. Many fields will go over 20 tons to the 
acre, and this sunshiny weather gives every promise 
that they will be of high saccharine quality. There 
will be in the neighborhood of 60,000 tons of beets 
to ship to the refinery at Chino, and the output may 
go over that materially. 

Orchardists report that some of the orange trees 
are very backward about blooming this year, and 
fears are entertained that next season's crop will be 
small. No cause is assigned for this state of things, 
but'it is thought that the heavy crop borne by the 
trees last season may account for it. Orange trees, 
it seems have their "off" and "on" years in bear- 
ing, the same as most deciduous trees. 


Argus: The fine young orchard and vineyard of 
L. L. King, just south of Roseville, is one of the 
finest we have seen in Phcer county. It has a fine 
variety of fruits, and comprises 120 acres. It is as 
clean as a new pin, and what is more to be rejoiced 
at, is bearing as much as it could be allowed to 
produce after thinning out. 

San Bernardino. 

Chino Champion; Mr. Gird has sent to the 
Chicago exposition an exhibit of sugar beets and 
photographs of typical sugar beets, beet fields, sugar 
factory and harvesting machinery, to be placed in 
the display of Florimond Desprez, the French seed- 
grower. Chino sugar beets will ceitainly have no 
superior at the great show, although the distance 
will make it difficult to deliver them there in the 
condition it would be desired. Mr. Gird plans to 
make a shipment of fresh beets from the fields every 
week or ten days to replace the display as fast as it 
becomes wiltec". 

San Diego. 

The Chino beet-sugar factory is to begin opera- 
tions about July 15th. Reports are to the effect 
that there will be an immense crop of beets this 
season. The factory people expect the output of 
sugar to be about 16,000,000 pounds. This means 
800 carloads, or 55 train-loads of 15 cars each. 

San Jacinto Register: Bl?ckberries and straw- 
berries are again quite plentiful. Still the demand 
is greater than the supply. There is money to be 
made here in the raising of small fruits. Persons 
who own tracts of two to ten acres could realize a 
very handsome income with a little determined labor 
and attention to the work. A market could easily 
be found at home where people go without rasp- 
berries, currants and gooseberries, and have to be sat- 
isfied with a small crop of the berries that are grown 
here. This is a country particularly adapted to 
small fruits. The non-supply of potatoes is another 
grievance. Here where they grow to perfection we 
are obliged to send north for them and pay 3 cents 
and always 1% per pound. This is a glaring in- 
consistency. If some of the numerous kickers in 
the valley would get to work, they would soon find 
nothing to kick about. 

San Joaauln. 

Lodi Sentinel: There are not many large water- 
melon fields planted this year, but a number have 
patches of from 10 to 75 acres. Those about Lodi 
are: J. Powers, 75 acres; Coleman & Gillespie. 75; 
W. H. Tecklinberg, 70: Gillespie & Acker, 65; L. 
O. Gillespie, 6o; A. Harmon, 50; G. Hogan, 40; 
A. Bellows, 40; T. Hutchins, 40; H. Binger, 30; E. 
Angier, 20; J. Hubbard, so; and F. Muller, ao. 

Near Acampo, W. S. Broaddus has 150 acres; N. 
Smart, 50: H. Ogden, 40; A. Bellows, 40; and L. 
Titus, 30. In addition to the above, there are two 
or three hundred acres of vines in the vicinity of 
Woodbridge, New Hope, Taison and Brack's 
Landing. It is expected that the melons will be of 
a superior quality this year. The supply is not 
great, hence if the demand is up to standard good 
prices will be the result. 

San Luis Obispo. 

San Miguel Courier: Haddin McFadden, with 
several vaqueros took a band of 1400 catile out of 
the Carisa yesterday. On Sunday, while in the Na- 
cimiento country driving them to San Miguel, he 
lost two fine steers. A traveling showman with a 
bear and monkey caused the cattle to stampede, and 
when they were rounded up after much hard work, 
two of the animals were missing. 


Yreka Journal: Chas. Holgauzer, who lives near 
Etna, has started a new enterprise for Scott valley. 
He planted out last year six or eight acres of hop 
vines, and they are looking fine this year. We are 
informed that the vines are in excellent condition, 
and growing rapidly, and now present every indica- 
tion of a large yield. They are making preparations 
for building a large drier for curing the hops, and, 
if the enterprise proves as successful as now antici- 
pated, a large acreage will soon be planted, and thus 
open up a new and profitable industry for that fer- 
tile valley. 


Dixon Tribune: R. E. L. Stephens dug 40 sacks 
of Early Rose potatoes from a half-acre ol his Sil- 
veyville farm this veek, which at the present price of 
potatoes netted him a handsome profit. Yet we are 
told that farmers in this section cannot diversify 
crops, as the land cannot be depended upon to raise 
anything but wheat and barley. Even a few acres 
in potatoes, these hard times, would go a long way 
toward paying living expenses, and Mr. Stevens, 
with his characteristic enterprise, has demonstrated 
the fact that they can be successfully raised with or- 
dinary care and attention. 

Vacaville Reporter: Nate Holt showed us this 
week some fine blackberries and raspberries pro- 
duced from the bushes growing in his garden. The 
berries were the largest and finest we have ever 
seen. The raspberries are apparently a cross be- 
tween the common raspberry and the wild black- 


Republican: Recently Surveyor Ricksecker visited 
the Und Senator Jones is reclaiming in the southern 
part of the county. From him we learn that the 
yield of hay on 400 acres of the land is very heavy, 
and that there are 800 acres of splendid grain. The 
returns from the reclaimed tract are so satisfactory 
this year that the acreage in cultivation will be 
doubled before the coming of another season. 

Farmer: During the dry, warm winds our pear 
crop was considerably lessened, and, as other fiuits 
are less abundant than usual, we cannot afford to 
lose the grapes, even if the market will not be as 
near as it was last year. Some other firm could do 
well by organizing a G?yserville Must-Condensing 
Company, for in some parts of the valley one can 
see nothing but vines, and the grapes mu>t be sold, 
even at low figures. There is some talk of running 
a drier in the old must building. From what source 
the talk comes is a problem; perhaps it is only a 

Cloverdale Reveille: Wool sale day for this sec- 
tion of Sonoma county came eff in Cloverdale last 
Wednesday and Thursday, June 21 and 22. Eight 
hundred bales was the amount offered for sale, but 
owing to the stagnation in the wool market and a 
lack of the usual complement of buyers, only about 
300 bales were disposed of, and these at rates not at 
all satisfactory to wool-growers. The wool sold 
averaged about 13 cents a pound and was bought 
by the following parties: Koshland & Dickey, San 
Francisco, ioo bales; Pinschower & Brush. 200 
bales; and Capt. John Field, 64 bales. Prices 
ranged from it to 14 cents, making it average about 
13 cents a pound. 


The Stanislaus county agricultural fair this year 
will commence on Tuesday, September 26th, and 
close on Friday, September 29th. Job printers are 
now at work on the revised premium list. 


Red Bluff News: Early this year the impression 
was abroad that the hay crop was going to be very 
short this season, and those who came into market 
early with their loads of " new-mown hay " realized 
a good price on the sale of the same. But as the 
season advanced many who intended to cut their 
fields for grain believed the better policy would be 
to cut them for hay, as the crop was short, the price 
of wheat low, and the expense of harvesting greater 
than that of haying. The result is that the Red 
Bluff market is flooded with new hay, which is now 
selling for something like $7 per ton, with the pros- 
pects of not advancing very soon. 

A. T. Hatch, the great fruit-grower, has worked 
up a scheme to plant 1200 acres in Tehama county. 
To carry out the plan the A. T. Hatch Orchard Co., 
with a capital of $250,000, has been organized to 
plant a piece of bottom below Red Bluff. Among 
the advantages qutlined for the project are: (1) An 
orchard at less cost than the investor can build it 
himself on a smaller tract; (2) an orchard managed 
by thoroughly competent and experienced men; (3) 
the best possible cultivation and care at less cost 
than by any other method; (4) the best prices in the 
market for the product, because the quality will 
attract and command buyers; (5) economy in all 
branches of the labor, because the work on a large 
scale can be more cheaply done through single man- 
agement and by labor-saving and other appliances 
not adapted to small orchards. 


Delta: There are 15,000 acres in the sinks in the 
Huron country that will yield from 16 to 20 sacks to 
the acre. About 15 harvesters are now at work in 
the grain fields. The yield promises to be some- 
thing extraordinary. All this land was flooded dur- 
ing the winter. 

Times: About 40 men are picking apricots at the 
Briggs orchard, A carload, holding perhaps 1000 

boxes, will be ready by to-morrow for shipment to 

Times: On the Encina fruit ranch the hay which is 
growing between the young trees is being harvested. 
Some of the grain was sown since the last rain and 
it is yielding a fine crop. 

Times: Potato-growers east of town have a better 
crop this year than last and they expect better prices 
also. Some of them have concluded to hold their 
potatoes till next fall if they can't get their price. 

Times: A. W. Roach, who farms on Tule river, 
four miles west of Woodville, has some extra good 
grain this year. He has 100 acres in wheat and 
barley. The wheat averages about five and a half 
leet in height and he is expecting from 15 to 20 
sacks of barley to the acre. He plows with two 12- 
inch sulky plows. That is why he has good grain. 

Times: John Roth, of Woodville, plowed up ten 
acres of vineyard last winter. He concluded to try 
some other crop, as raisin-growing was not his forte. 
So he planted the piece of ground in mangel- 
wurtzels, drilling in the seed. The result has 
astonished both him and his neighbors. He esti- 
mates the yield will be nearly 40 to 50 tons to the 
acre and the seed was planted too thick at that. 
Several specimen plants have been found that weigh 
ten pounds each. He has more hog feed than he 
knows what to do with. 


Nordhoft Ojai: The last story-teller has the bes 
of it, of course. The Ojai recently mentioned oats 
grown here that measured seven and one-half feet 
in height. The Santa Paula Chronicle immediately 
hunted up some Santa Paula oats that measured 
eight and one-balf feet in height. And now the 
Hueneme Herald is talking about oats down there 
that measure nine and one-half feet. 

Venturian: " Roughly estimated, I should say 
that there are 24,000 acres in beans in this county 
this year," said A. Levy of Hueneme, yesterday. 
" Of this acreage I should say that one-half was in 
Limas and the other half in small whites and other 
varieties, On the whole, the crop is looking fine, 
but in places the cutworm has hurt the Limas. As 
high as five per cent has probably been damaged. 
These are only in spots, however." 


Democrat: Mrs. R. Hyman has orange trees in 
her yard that are full of bloom. They are year-old 
buds on three-year-old roots. There is not a leaf 
on any of the trees. "The oldest inhabitant" never 
heard of anything like it before. 

Capay Cor. Democrat: Harvest is progressing 
satisfactorily, and the outlook is more encouraging 
than it was a month ago. The resources of our soil 
are remarkable, and there is no doubt that there will 
be more wheat, and of better quality, than the most 
sanguine hoped for before the harvest began. 

Democrat: James Martin has 3000 head of sheep 
on the way from Tehama county. They were 
started last Friday, and, barring accidents, ought to 
reach here about next Monday. He also has 
bought, in that county, 8000 three and four-year-old 
wethers for August delivery. The sheep expected 
to arrive next week will be put on pasture for some 

Mail: J. Rasmussen, foreman of the Byron 
Jackson place, reports an exceptionally heavy crop 
of fruit. A large force has been busy for some time 
thinning prunes, and, with all their exertions, the 
trees are so heavily loaded that they are continually 
breaking down under the weight of the growing 
fruit. The Jackson place is one of the few in this 
vicinity that can boast of a good crop of apricots. 
Mr. Rasmussen says that each year the trees are 
thoroughly irrigated just after the crop has been 
picked. He does not know that to be the reason 
why his apricot trees should be filled with fruit while 
his neighbors' are bare, but is inclined to attribute it 
to the irrigation. The grape crop keeps up with the 
procession, and will be the heaviest ever gathered. 


Salem Statesman: The country around Salem 
has raised an immense lot of strawberries. The 
people of the Capital City are using great quanti- 
ties, the big cannery is running on strawberries, and 
gobs of them are going to the Sound and other 

Salem Statesman: The prices for wool have 
fallen, and very little is now selling. It is now to 
to i2j£ cents for the best. A Salem dealer was a 
few days ag'o offered 5000 pounds of good wool on 
board the cars at Amity at 12 cents. He did not 
take it, and it went to Portland parties. The mana- 
gers of the woolen mill are not buying much wool 
now, growers being slow to sell at the low prices 
and they not being anxious, being confident that the 
prices will not advance. They are picking up stray 
lots occasionally. A man from The Dalles says the 
buyers there are apparently doing nothing, killing 
time and waiting for something to turn up, 


The little German songbirds which were im- 
ported into Oregon not long ago have multiplied 
rapidly, and hundreds of them may be found in and 
about North Yakima, where they are being ruth- 
lessly slaughtered by small boys to the great in • 
dignation of the lovers of the bird. 

A farmer in Wahkiakum county, Wash., objected 
to his neighbors building a public road across his 
farm. When he put up a fence they tore it down, 
and when be got in their way they took hold of him, 
rolled him in the mud, blacked both of his eyes and 
then had him arrested for obstructing a highway. 

It is stated that young peach trees in the Wenat- 
chee valley, Wash., which had their lower limbs 
covered with snow last winter, will bear heavy crops 
this fall, while the older trees will produce but little 
fruit. Apples, pears, prunes and plums will be 
abundant in that section, and there will be a full 
yield of grapes. 

Washington is, next to New York, the heaviest 
producer of hops in the country, and the average 
number of pounds raised to the acre is 161 6, only 
being exceeded by California, with 1648. The aver- 
age for the United States is 780. There is a large 
increase in the acreage this year, owing to the 
Yakima and Walla Walla valleys, in eastern and 
central Washington, engaging extensively in the in- 
dustry, which has hitherto been largely confined to 
western Washington. 



July 1, 1898. 


From Worthy Master Davis, 

Brother Brigbam, Worthy Master of the 
National Grange, is campaigning success- 
fully in Texas, for the order he loves so well. 

Hon. C. H. Knott, Master of West Vir- 
ginia State Grange, is rousing the farmers 
of that State by his eloquence, wit and argu- 

Sebastopol, Bennett Valley, Glen Ellen, 
Two Rock and Santa Rosa Granges have 
each appointed committees to assist Peta- 
luma Grange in arranging for the entertain- 
ment of the coming session of the State 

Magnolia Grange is preparing for a grand 
time on the nth of August. 

Pescadero Grange celebrates the third 
and fourth degrees Saturday, July ist, and 
the master expects to be there. 

July 8th Petaluma Grange gives the 
patron's "grip" and "test" to a new class. 

You may as well prepare to dry and pre- 
serve your own fruit this year, unless the 
money market gets easier. 

Reports from grange headquarters at the 
World's Fair are "that everything is in 
readiness and that all patrons should make 
an extra effort to attend." When we think 
of those hot days and sultry nights we are 
inclined to remark, "Will see you later." 

The expected rush to the World's Fair 
from the Pacific Coast has not set in; nor 
will it so long as railroad fares are kept at 
the present high rate. If the management 
of the transcontinental roads would but see 
the situation as it is, and know of the finan 
cial distress, and would then reduce the fare 
for the round trip to $50, there would be a 
big crowd from the Pacific Coast who would 
go to the Lake City. Would not the trans 
portation companies make more money 
than they are now making ? For when the 
people are in motion they go, and they 
spend, where they expected not to do so. 
Give us low fares and let us all go to the 

The many failures among bankers and of 
banking institutions has caused a tightness 
of the money market that is quite distressful 
It is exceedingly unfortunate for the Cali 
fornia producer that this stringency should 
happen at all, but more especially that it 
should occur just now, when the harvest of 
hay, grain and fruit is at hand. Ninety per 
cent of all the producers in this State have 
to borrow larger or smaller sums for the 
hatvest time. Labor has to be paid in 
ready cash, and bags, boxes and freight are 
always cash debts. Nothing but "spot 
cash will do the work of a California har 
vest. Just at this time "cash" is out of 
business. The " old chap " is on his high 
horse. It is not proper nor well to try to 
give reasons for this condition of the money 
market. Every man has his own ideas, and 
he cannot be persuaded of his error, if in 
error. So the best thing to do is to have a 
reasonable amount of confidence in true and 
tried men and in business methods. Be as 
economic as possible. Husband every re- 
source; save every nickel till the crash goes 
■ past. Assist creditors as far as pressing 
needs will allow. Encourage confidence by 
showing you have confidence, and after 
awhile there will be relief and more pros- 

The power and force of organization is too 
well understood to need any word of help at 
this time. There is, however, a most happy 
illustration of its strength and usefulness to 
be seen in the feeling and fellowship which 
has brought the Alliance of. Texas to join 
hands with the Grange of that State. By a 
recent arrangement, all members of the non- 
political branch of the Alliance have joined 
the Grange and have surrendered their State 
charter. This arrangement could not have 
been possible between the two farmers' 
organizations in the years agone. It is only 
possible where the leaven of education has 
wrought its wonderful influence and has 
shown the agriculturists that " in union 
there is strength." If the farmers of America 
would protect themselves and their rights, 
they must unite on a common basis; they 
must expect and agree to fight a common 
foe; they must know that the race is not 
always to the fleet, but that if they would 
win in the race of life they must be organ- 
ized; be intelligent; be progressive; be vigi- 
lant; be honest; be just and fear not. 

There ought to be a lively fall crusade 
among the farmers of this State this year 
in behalf of the grange. Who will under- 
take to lead that crusade ? Where is the 
person who will organize a corps of workers 
and teach them the tactics, so that they can 
nersuade the farmer and his family to join 
n the battle for the grange ? Our forces 

ought to be recruited; our enlistments must 
come from the farm. We want at least 
10,000 boys and girls and half as many men 
and women to enlist under our banner. The 
pay is sure, the work pleasant and associa- 
tions elevating, and the term of enlistment 
to suit the recruit. Won't some of the 
talented officers of the State Grange start 
out soon on a recruiting tour, establishing 
headquarters here, there and everywhere 
where there is a farm-home and a bright- 
eyed boy and a sweet-faced girl ? Get the 
young people enlisted and then the victory 
is won. They will carry the banner to any 
height, and declare the purposes of the 
order to any throng. Get recruits for the 
grange among the young ! 

From Mr. Ohleyer. 

To the Editor:— Since my'last letter I 
have had a variety of experiences none of 
which I opine the public cares anything 
about. True, I have visited our own and 
other meetings of Patrons of Husbandry, 
been amused and enlightened thereby, but 
a recital of the doings would be merely a 
repetition of what had been so well done 

The last meeting of Wheatland Grange 
was a grand success and was attended by a 
number from Yuba City, including the writer. 
Then we had a literary meeting in Yuba 
City which was also a success. The ques' 
tion of a parcel delivery by the postal de- 
partment of the Government was broached 
and its discussion was set for next regular 
meeting, Saturday July ist. 

It was resolved to discontinue the special 
meetings during the busy harvest months 
but to continue the regular meetings on first 
Saturdays. More recruits are knocking at 
the doors who will receive due attention. 

A recent business trip to northern Sutter 
and sonthern Butte brought me to the 
threshold of many old friends and members 
of our order. Chief among these were 
Judge and Mrs. Wilkinson of Live Oak, Mr. 
and Mrs. T. S. Clyma and their estimable 
family, Jas. and J. H. Myers, W. T. Lam 
and wife, Adam Hubbs, N. Young, John and 
Thos. Bruce, Joseph Kingsbury and others, 
mostly residents of north Butte. 

Do you know, Mr. Editor, that I never 
visit that locality that I do not envy those 
fortunate dwellers the sylvan scenery that 
surrounds them. With them it is ready 
made by nature, excelling in beauty and 
romantic loveliness anything to be found in 
the great Sacramento valley, while we out 
upon the plains are compelled to create by 
art and hand such attractions as we have to 
offer. The great author and traveler, Nord 
hoff, once passed through this upheaval we 
call the Butte mountains, and made it the 
subject of a lengthy sketch to the New York 
Tribune, but even he failed to do the subject 
full justice, much less can I. 

Here we have a mountain 2000 feet high 
its top broken into three peaks, as rugged 
and pointed as Mt. Shasta. These peaks 
are known as North, South and West Butte 
and seem to be supported by rocky ridges 
like huge spurs until lost in the valley. Be- 
tween these spurs lie the most romantic little 
valleys, heading well up to the base of the 
mountain and constitute the abode of from 
one to three or more families. On the 
north side the mountain and base is covered 
with timber and underbrush, the timber be 
ing chiefly white and live oak. These little 
valleys are well adapted to all the cereals 
and the fruits of the country, and from their 
sheltered position have by many been pro- 
nounced superior for the growth of olives 
and kindred fruits, and the citrus family 
The dense growth of tree and shrub would 
seem to indicate the possibilities of the lo 
cality and it very much resembles the coun 
try about San Diego, where such wonders 
are produced in fruit culture. 

On a pressing invitation I remained over 
night with the Clyma's, the friends spoken of 
above, and was soon informed that March 
Grange was to have a meeting that evening 
at Pennington hall two miles away; and that 
Miss Jennie Clyma was the secretary and 
was going, and that I might take a ride with 
her to attend the meeting if I desired 
of course I desired, so in good season I 
entered the buggy alongside of my fair es 
cort, and was soon traveling at a rate that 
revealed the fact that the rearing of good 
roadsters and excellent drivers is not among 
the lost arts of North Butte. 

The roads were excellent in every respect 
and our road to the grange covered several 
miles in distance not absolutely required 
but in the twilight, fanned by the cool south 
breeze, at a gait that gave assurance that 
we'd get there, amid the laughing rills of my 
fair companion, the ride was very enjoyable 
As the lady had the "books" she thought the 
grange would hardly open until she came, 
so we were there on time and the business 

proceeded in charge of the writer as presid* 
ing officer. Owing to the busy season the 
attendance was not large but it was full of 
enthusiasm and grange spirit. The chief 
business was a preparation for a social event 
that was soon to come off and which I doubt 
not was a success. A previously appointed 
committee had the business in hand after 
which the meeting adjourned. 

This grange holds two meetings a month, 
one in the afternoon and one in the evening. 
The latter, it Is claimed, makes it possible for 
laborers to attend that cannot neglect their 
labor in the afternoons. The thought is 
worth considering by other granges similarly 
situated. I returned home the following 
day, having seen much of interest along the 

Crops on high or naturally well-drained 
soil were fair, as along the Feather river 
from Yuba City northward for 20 miles, and 
a mile or two in width. On land not so sit- 
uated the prospect is poor, by many con- 
sidered almost a blank. These extensive 
fields have been plowed in fallow, hence the 
deluged appearance of the land has been 
abated and the treatment of the country in 
dicates a matter of course. The pen that 
shall describe the situation a year hence will 
have a more agreeable duty to perforin as I 
have never seen so much land laid over to 
rest, nor better work done. At the risk of 
transgressing on your apparently limitless 
good nature, I want to thank all those who 
treated me so kindly during my brief stay 
My gratitude is particularly extended to the 
Clyma family, one and all, not forgetting 
Miss Jennie, who did so much to remind me 
of my youthful days, more than 40 years in 
the dim past. George Ohleyer 

Yuba City, June 25, 1893. 


(A Corporation). 
Principal Place of Business, 108 Davis St., 
San Francisco, Oal. 

From Pescadero. 

To the Editor: — Since my last letter 
written a month ago, Pescadero Grange has 
held three meetings, or properly speaking 
four, though two occurred on the same day 
On May 20th we found our number unusu 
ally low, but, nevertheless, the meeting was 
a great success. One of our members gave 
us an address, bidding us remember that the 
subordinate granges made the State grange, 
the State grange the National; that as the 
subordinate granges were, so would be the 
higher granges; therefore, it behooves us to 
let our light shine and make our influence 
felt. That to make the grange a necessity 
is to make it a success. To this end we 
should discuss from the granger's stand 
point, the farmer's rights, the developments 
of the surrounding country and the various 
advantages derived from different processes 
of farming. Then, knowing what will be 
the greatest good to the greatest number, 
we can concur in the cause with true and 
loyal enthusiasm. 

Our worthy master then gave an address 
on the silver question, which was listened to 
with close attention. Justice cannot be 
done to it in this letter. Suffice it to say 
the conclusion was ihat on the farmer and 
laborer fell the burden when silver was not 
on a par with gold. 

Other important questions of the day were 
brought up, and the meeting ended with all 
believing that enthusiasm in a few was bet 
ter than numbers without it. 

Subsequent meetings have been given up 
largely to musical and literary exercises 
On Flora's Day we followed closely the pro 
gram suggested by the Committee of Wo' 
man's Work. The celebration was followed 
in the evening by a social dance. 

Pescadero, June 25, 1893. M. A. M. 


There in delinquent upon the following deeciibsd 
dock, on account of assessment levied on the 8th day of 
May, A. D. 1S93, the several amounts set opposite the 
names of the respective shareholders, as follows: 
N«. of No. 
Name. Certificate. Shares. 

Q. Adams 220 

NatDan Barnes 231 

O. W. Brake 44 

Nelson Carr 61 

Jas. A. Clark 69 

Annetta Clark 60 

Clement V. Detten 146 

G.Frost 77 

W. H Frye 76 

" A. Holiday 89 

Joseph Huntly 170 

Mrs. Joseph Huntly 171 

H. M. Hollenbeck , 238 

Mrs. H. M. Hollenbeck . 239 

H H lliday: 251 

H. H. Jewell Ill 

JihnJchns"o 06 

Mrs. Sarah Johnson 456 

Mrs. T. E. Ketchnm 139 

T. E. Ketcbum 140 

Geo. A. Lamoot 464 

Mrs. L. E Mcllahon 124 

C. W. Plass 212 

P. Peterson 303 

P. Peterson 361 

P. Peteis m 469 

Thomas B. Pilkington 312 

K. M. Smith 168 

L. Sione 206 

Mrs. Julia E. Sylvester 352 

J. B. 8heat 414 

Th< mas Salmon 428 

O. W. Tillotson 199 

A. A. Van Saodt 200 

J. P. Vincent 243 

Uriah Wood 161 

J. Wisecarver 184 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 8th day of May, 1893, so many 
shares of each parcel of such stook as may be necessary 
will be sold at the ofiice of the Corporati n, 108 Davla 
Street, San Francises, California, on WEDNESDAY, the 
12th day of Juh , 1393, at three (3) o'clock p. h. of mch 
day, to pay delinquent ass- ssments thereon, together 
with costs of advertising and expense* nf sale. 

Secretary Grangers' Business Aasoci.tion. 
Office, 108 Davis St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Bennett Valley Grange. 

To the Editor:— Saturday, the 17th 
Bennett Valley Grange met in regular ses 
sion and a more interesting meeting has not 
been enjoyed in many months, although the 
attendance was not large. Most all present 
were charter members, the younger mem 
bers being unable to attend, on account of 
hay making and picking of early fruits. 

The old-time schoolmaster used to board 
"around." Sonoma Co. Pomona Grange 
has adopted that plan, i. e., meeting at the 
hall of a different grantre each time, 
meets at Bennett Valley Grange hall on the 
third Wednesday in July. Every effort i 
being exercised by the home grange to make 
it as interesting a meeting as the county 
grange has on record. 

Other Notes. —Haying is about completed 
balers are at work everywhere. 

The weather is all that could be asked 

The grape crop will be good if nothing 

Good hay demands a good price in the 
local markets. 

Most all the wineries have sold their entire 
vintage of 1892. 

June 19, 1893. W. L. W 










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This Is the Standard Work on the Raisin Industry In California. It has been 
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Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by the DEWEY PUBLISHING OO. or Its Agents at lhe uniform price of 
$8-00, postage prepaid. Orders should be addressed: 


220 Market St., San Francisco. 

9 99 9 99m imimi 

FjKXI* 1893 


Corn Husker mid 

Husks the corn and cuts the fodder at 

same time. 



Two sizes: — 
Do fast and good work 




Pu 1 v e r ize 
the soil, drill 
any grain 
and cover it 



Pulverize the 
soil, broadcast 
the seed and 
cover it. 





The great 
for any. 

Send for full descriptions. • 


Sterling. Ill 

»&••*•> 9 99 999 • * » 



Cheap, Durable and Effective. 

Pickets colored red by boiling In a chemical paint o 
preserve the wood. We make It 2 (t. , 2J ft , 4 ft, «J, 6 
and < ft, high, Send tor circulars and prloe list to 


18 Ss 14 Fremont St San Francisco. 

DBWEY &.CO. { a ^SS?f B B ftift > F "} PATENT AGENTS. 

The above cut shows a section of the Judson 2-ft. 
Rabbit-Proof Fence. By stretching barbed wires on the 
posts above It, it will turn any stock whatever. 




Authorised Capital 91,000,000 

Capital paid op and Reserve Fund 800,000 

Dividends paid to Stockholders 780,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I O. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier aud Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 

Bills of Exchange bought and sold. 

Loans on wheat and country produce a specialty. 

January 1, 1893. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

Bacb Files of the Pacific Rural Press (unbound 
can be had for $3.60 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) $*. Inserted la Dewey', patent blad*i 
M oents additional per volume. 



July 1, 1898. 

Skim Milk for Manufacturing Pur- 

An English scientific journal of recent date 
directs attenticn to the utilization of skim 
milk for manufacturing purposes. Attention 
was first called to it in connection with the 
"Rivers Pollution Act." A large firm of 
cheese makers were in the habit of sending 
all u*i whey and skim milk which could not 
be used for pigs into the nearest river, and 
the prohibition of this practice has led to in- 
vention for its utilization. 

One invention is a method for making all 
kinds of buttons, door knobs, electric light- 
ing furniture, umbrella handles and many 
small articles from lactite, a substance made 
from skim milk. In this process the milk is 
heated to 85° or 88° F., and to every 58 gal- 
lons is added about four ounces of rennet. 
As soon as the milk is coagulated, the curds 
are washed once in warm water and then 
put into a masticator, which is warmed to 
about 150° F. In the masticator should be 
placed about 2}4 pounds of borax, with 
about four pints of skim milk. When the 
masticator has been run a short time until 
the curd is almost converted into a solid 
mass, about two pounds of starch (prefer- 
ably arrowroot ) are made into a paste with 
some of the milk or whey, and three ounces 
of alum are also added, and the whole mass 
well incorporated. 

The masticator is run for about an hour, 
and then three pounds of acetate of lead dis- 
solved in half a gallon acetic acid are added 
to the mass, and carefully worked in, and 
when the mixings have been well made the 
mass is taken to the hydro-extractor, and 
then put into a hot press until it is properly 

A large factory was fitted up near Man- 
chester, England, for the manufacture of 
lactite, but it is said that up to the present 
time it is not a financial success. The lac- 
tite, when so prepared, will keep for any 
length of time. 

The second process which is being experi- 
mented upon is to convert the skim milk or 
whey into a portable article of food. It is 
impossible to send skim milk or whey at a 
profit to distant towns, and some simple 
process by which farmers could get rid of 
the water at a small cost, and leave a residue 
rich in nitrogenous matter, is a thing very 
much to be desired. Lactoserin, the name 
given to this product, is prepared in a variety 
of ways as food for man, cattle and poultry. 
Roasted it can be used for mixing with 
cocoa instead of starch. 

The manufacture of these products should 
possess great interest for the farmer, for it 
will enable him to turn to marketable value 
what has been too often a waste product. 
The dry curds are obtained from skim milk 
in the same way as in the production of 
cheese by adding rennet. The curds ate 
pressed and ground and then dried in a dry- 
ing oven. It has been estimated that the 
cost of manufacturing dry curds will not ex- 
ceed more than about one farthing a gallon 
for the skim milk used. 

Goats for Puddling a Dam. 

A recent number of the Engineering News 
contains the following article describing the 
use of goats for puddling the reservoir dam 
at Santa Fe: 

" The paper read by Surveyor-General Ho- 
bert, before the American Society of Irriga- 
tion Engineers, gives the time occupied by 
the goats in puddling as from 12 M, to 1 p. M. 
and 5 to 6 p. m. This was correct when 
the paper was read, for at that time several 
hundred goats were proposed to be used, and 
not 115 as mentioned. 

" It was subsequently found that as the 
travel of the goats did not interfere with the 
teams, it would be more convenient and 
economical to use a less number of goats 
and keep them at work all day. As a result 
of our experience, we find that 115 goats by 
constant use would do well the puddling for 30 
wheel scrapers averaging about 14 cubic feet 
per load or about 500 feet haul. 

"The material was first spread while dump- 
ing, next leveled in a 3-inch layer by drag- 
ging a beam, next sprinkled with a sprink- 
ling wagon, and then puddled by the goats. 
The puddling was thoroughly done in this 
way, and the surface left just rough enough 
for good joint with the next layer. 

" As goats in this arid region are a dry hill- 
side animal, I feared such a radical change 
in their habits as keeping their feet muddy 
all day would bring on foot disease. No 
lameness had appeared among them up to 
six weeks ago, and I have had no word of 
any since; it seems likely their hardiness 
will carry them through. 

" When goats were first put to work they 
tired easily, and were able to stand it but a 
part of the day ; we learned this was upon 
account of the scanty range upon which they 
had fed, having to rely mostly upon brows- 

ing the juniper brush. A few days, however, 
of feed on peas and refuse hay brought back 
their accustomed good spirits. And after 
their day's work was over, they would butt 
each other around the corral with the enjoy- 
ment characteristic of this singularly preco- 
cious animal." 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of "A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enosburgh Falls, Vt. This book 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time. 

Three and One-Half Days to the World's 

We take pleasure Id advising the readers of the Pacific 
Rural Phis* that the UNION PACIFIC la the most 
direct and quickest line from San Francises and all 
point* in California to the WORLD'S FAIR. 

It is the ONLY LINE running Pull 1 en's latest Im- 
proved vestibuled Drawing-Room Sleepers and Dining 
Cars Irom San Francisco to Chicago without change, and 
only one change of cars to New York or Boston. 

Select Tourist Excursions via the UNION PACIFC 
leave San Fnncisco every Thursday for Chicago, New 
York and Boston in ch irge of experienced managers, 
who give their personal attention ti the comfort of 
ladi s and children traveling alone. 

steamship Tickets to and from all points In Europe. 

For tickets to the World's Fair and all points east and 
for Sleeping-Oar accommodati ns call on or address 
D. W. Hitchcock, General Agent Union Pacific System, 
No. 1 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

Our Agents. 

J. C. Hoag — San Francisco. 

R. Q Bailey— 8an Francisco. 

F. D. Holm an —California. 

Geo. Wilson— Sacramento, Cal. 

Samuel B. Cliff— Creston, Cal. 

A. C. Godfrey — Oregon. 

E. H. Schakfflk— El Dorado and Amador Oo'i 

C. E. Robertson— Humboldt Co. 

D. A. Macdonald— Siskiyou and Del Norte. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are requested to 
examine Its contents, terms of subscription, and give It 
their own patronage, and as far as practicable, aid in 
circulating the journal, and making its value more 
widely known to others, and extending its Influence In 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, paid in ad- 
vance, 6 mos , fl 10 moa. , $2; 15 moa , $3. Extra copies 
mailed for 10 cents, if ordered soon enough. If already 
a subscriber, please show the paper to othe.s. 

Hay Pressing. 

lyou are interested in pressing hay write Truman, 
Hooter & Co. , San r ran Cisco. They will save you money. 



rate of interest on approved security in Farming Lands 
A SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 California street, San 

Die Monarch of 

§reakfas+ foods 



The numerous diseases that are usually 
prevalent among very Tourist Turkeys 
may be prevented by the uee of 


Send for Circular 


SO North William Streat. New York. 


NOTICE. — For TEN CENTS we will send you 60 Foreign 
Stamps, some of them obsolete. Ag- nts wanted for our 
THE ENCTNAL STAMP CO., 16x2 Pearl St. , Alaateda, Oal. 

Breeders' Directory. 

31x lines or less In this directory at 60c per line per month. 


F. H. BURKE 828 Market St., S. F. Regls'ered 
Holstelns, winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast. 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

P PETERSEN. Sites, Colusa Co. Importer & Breeder 
of Reglsteied shorthorn Cattle. Young Bulls for sale. 

rOBN LYNCH, Petaluma Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Shorthorns. Young Stock for sale. 

PERCHERON HORSED. —Pure-bred Horses and 
Mares, all ages, and Guaranteed Breedeis, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakep >rt, Lake County, Cal. New 
Catalogue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

PETER SAX hi & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

L. V. WILLITS, Watsonvllle, Cal., Black Perch- 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 


O. BLOM, St. Helena. Brown Leghorns a specialty. 

Cal Send for Illustrated A Descriptive Catalogue, free. 

JOHN McFARLINO, Calistoga, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


FOR SALE at low prie s— Three extra fine young 
thoroughbied DUhfaoeo Berkshire Bears. T. Cbitten- 
den, Chittenden, Cal. 

O. H. DWINELLE, Fu ton, Sonoma Co., Cal. Shrop- 
shire ard Crossbred fc hr opt hire-Merino Rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT. Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Bams for sale. 

B. H. CRANE. Petalum*, Cal. Breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal —Breeder ot 
Short-Horn Cattle, Poland- China and Berkshire Hogs. 

T. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., breeder of registered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 

J. P. ASHLEY, linden, Cal. Breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Sma'l Yorkfhire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China Superior Stcok, Low Prices 

TYLER BE A OH, San Jose, rat. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

a. bargain: 

Two 3-year-old Imported Shire Mares 
in foal. Also Imported English Coach 
Stallion. Address W. W. RUSH MOKE, 
mporter and Breeder of Draft and 
Coach Stallions. P. O. Box 88. Stable, 
Broadway and 3 2d Sc. Oakland, Cal. 



1318 Myrtle Bttrect, "aklaad, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

TheKansas City Veterinary College 

Incorporated by the State. 

¥7H)R catalogue addreee J. H. WATTLES, D. V. S. 

r sir - 

810 East Twelfth 8treet. 


ft. A. SHAF0R, Mid dletown, Ohio, 

Largest American Importer of 
O. D. Sheep, 

Is prepared to quote prices on the beet stock of Oxford 
Down Sheep to be t a I in England. Partiee wanting 
Hrst-class stock should write for particulars and induce 
tbeir neighbors to Join them. Import will arrive in 
June. Write at ouce. 

The Most Successful Remedy ever discov- 
ered as It Is certain In its enects and does not 
buster. Read proof below. 


Stockto.n, Cal., Dec. 19th, "82. 
Da. R J. Kendall Co. 

Gentlemen:— Having read one of your Treatise 
on the Horse and seeing the Spavin Cure adver- 
tised, I thought I would try It. I had one burse 
with a prominent Spavin of 12 months standing. 
I removed It with Dottle. I tied uponeforefoot 
on same side the spavin was and cnmpelllngthe 
horse to rest on lame l»*g while 1 took a surcingle 
and drew it across the bock or spavin until the 
bock or spavin Kot very warm with the friction, 
then putting on Spavin Cure. I had a mare that 
had a running from her nose for 12 or 14 
months. 1 rubbed the Spavin Cure from ber eyes 
down to nostrils, then from back of Jaw bone 
down under the throat for a week. I have not 
seen any discharge for two months. 

Yours truly, HUGH McDADE. 

Price $1.00 per bottle. 

Enosburgh Falls, Vermont. 

Dr. A. B. BUZ ARD, 


ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon In the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Paclflo Rural Press. " The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
No. 4997. 



Er<GGS $3.60 per setting; $4 for two settings; $5 for 
1/ three setiings. White Leghorn pen headed by 
"Volante," tcore 9tJ Brnwn Leghorn pen beaded by 
"Imperial," score 93. Send for circular. Satisfaction 
guaranteed to all. 

Care Santa Rosa National Bank 8 A VTA ROSA. CAL. 

" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Insecticide. 

X". W, «T AOKSON c*b CO.. 

Sole Agents, 

No. 6 Market Street, San Francleoo, CaL. 




SIRED BY FIRST CLASS IMPORTED If ALES. My Brood Sows, Imported from the East, are the admiration of 
everybody, being line Individuals and, like the Boars, rich in stub blood as Tecumsth, the most famous hog 
that ever lived. King Tecumseh his greatest son, Tom Corwln 2d, whoie owner refused $1000 for him, Cora Schel- 
lenbeiger, whose produce s> Id for $8300 before she died, and other prize winners at Eastern State Fairs Inspec- 
tion Invited and correspondence solicited. Parties giving timely notice will be met at station. Ranch one mile 
from station. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles, Cal. 


Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo A Co., etc, etc. 

It keeps Horses sad Cattle 
healthy. For mil oh oows; 
It Increases and enriches 
their milk. 

last Howard St., San 
Francisco, Oal, 

July 1, 1898. 


IS, H. CDa^ket B,ej»oht 

Market Review. 

San Francisco, June 28, 1893. 

The wheat market has furnished little worth re- 
porting during the week just ended. Local trade is 
practically at a standstill, sharing the general stag- 
nation that continues to hold the markets of the 
world as in a vise. One feature that affords some 
little encouragement is the fact that there is now 
more tonnage on the engaged list than at any cor- 
responding time last year. The tonnage under en- 
gagement yesterday was 41,540 tons, against 36,082 
tons a year ago. For new crop loading the amount 
is nearly the same for both years. The list of dis- 
engaged vessels now in port is much smaller than a 
year ago, the tonnage being 68,700 tons and III,- 
400 tons respectively. The course of business here 
has been such for a long time past as to hold out 
very little inducement for any immediate large in- 
crease of seeking tonnage. The increase in the ton- 
nage business ought ordinarily to mean activity in 
the foreign markets, but in this case it arises in part 
from a growing anxiety to get rid of surplus stocks 
on the part of the shipper and a desire on the part 
of the vessel-owner to put in movement tonnage 
that has been idle a long time, At any rate, the lo- 
cal market is being fairly well cleared of its old sup- 
plies and is progressing toward fair shape to handle 
the new crop. 

The course of the Eastern markets is practically 
the same as in the past month or two. The dis- 
turbance in the money market has been a very seri- 
ous drawback to speculation and has counteracted 
conditions that otherwise call for improvement. 
The unprecedented drop in the price of silver has 
also been an influence — remote, perhaps, but still it 
is and will be telt, inasmuch as it contributes heavily 
to instability of financial conditions throughout the 
country. Inspection of our Cnicago market report 
will show that the price of July wheat is actually 
lower than that of June. The reason is found in 
the fact that banks are calling in loans on wheat 
which must be settled by July 1st, and the July de- 
liveries of wheat will in consequence be very large. 
The banks are restricting loans on old wheat, they 
say, because they want to get ready to handle the 
new crop. But they are also compelled by hard 
times to husband their resources, and limit the 
volume of their credit business. September wheat 
shows a material advance over July figures — too 
great a spread, some think, for the intervening time. 
But, as a matter of fact, there is well-founded ex- 
pectation that wheat figures at that time will have 
materially advanced, and they seem better to repre- 
sent the real state of affairs, so far as average de- 
mand and supply, influenced by other considera- 
tions, are concerned, than June or July prices. 
That is to say, there is a general belief that a normal 
condition of things will have baen approximate y 
reached by September, and futures for that month 
are up in consequence. Henry Clews, the banker 
and financier, is confident that a better feeling is 
imminent, both in the grain and financial worlds. 
He claims that wheat is now moving into strong 
hands, and that capital in July, attracted by the 
high rates of interest, will enter the market and buy 
cash wheat for fall sale. 

Summed up, the situation in the United States 
amounts to this : The weight of available supplies, 
combined with the monetary disorder, has restricted 
investments that would otherwise be actively en- 
gaged in grain business. Exports have been most 
liberal, and there is confidence on the part of the 
English trade that it is only a question of weeks, 
perhaps months, when prices will have shifted up- 
ward, perhaps even higher than the average man 
now contemplates. Apart from the severe financial 
strain, the market is actually in a bullish position. 

Reports of the wheat crops in the Middle West 
are better than for some time or than they were ex- 
pected to be at this time. That is to say, reports 
are less discouraging than they have been, but the 
prospects are by no means good, and hardly fair. 
Here and there no complaint is made, hut in some 
States the yield will be very short. There is no 
reason to expect that there will be a crop of over 
425.000,000 bushels, or a shortage of about 100,- 
oooiooo bushels from last year. European crop re- 
ports continue to indicate that there will be much 
less than a full crop. Available supplies in this 
country have been materially decreased, and heavy 
inroads have been made in wheat in larm-rs' hands. 

Other Grains. 

Barley is very quiet, and not much will be doing 
the sample market until after the Fourth of July 
holidays, if then. Stocks are abundant, and buyers 
are in control of the situation. 

Oats have fallen oft considerably in price during 
the week. The reason does not seem to lie in 
heavy stocks on hand so much as in a desire on the 
part of holders to clean up before the new crop 
comes in. 

Corn is dull, and buyers seem to be in better 
position than sellers. Complaint is made that much 
of stock ofiered is poor. 


Ukiah and Cloverdale have had " wool days" re 
cenlly, and prices realized were at a range of 13(0)140 
per pound. The quantity sold was less than usual, 
because buyers did not offer within 5c per pound of 
last year's prices. Of course the main depressing 
factor in the situation is the fear that Congress will 
carry out the pledges of the Democratic party and 
remove the wool tariff. Locally, trade is of very 
small dimensions. The Chicago Wool and Hide 
Shipper of June 24th says: " No noticeable change 
in values is apparent since our last issue; however, 
prices are not definitely established or settled, and 
manv are of the opinion that the lowest level will 
not be reached until values are on a par with free 
trade prices. Manufacturers are holding oft in an 
ticipation of buying at still lower prices than those 
which are now in force, and it only remains to be 
seen whether they will be able to do so or not. If 
money were more easy, there would be seen a specu 

lative feeling, but operators are unable to secure 
money enough to purchase, and if they were, it is 
doubtful if they would have the nerve to do very 
much, under the present condition of the market. 
Receipts of wool among the leading commission 
houses have been very good and show an increase 
over the previous week. There is now a very fair 
assortment from almost all the wool-growing sec- 
tions of the country, and by July 1st there should 
be a full and complete stock from which to select. 
Manufacturers as yet have shown little or no dispo- 
sition to buy, even at low prices, and in many in- 
stances where wool has been offered them at a 
concession, they would refuse to accept the offer. 
Thedfmand for bright unwashed wool has been 
greater than for any other class, and, on account of 
shrinkage, the prices show a wide range." 

The shipments of wool from San Francisco by 
sea in May comprised the following: 

To— Pounds. Value. 

Massachusetts 568,677 $143 347 

Connecticut 107,475 46,286 

New York 21 436 7,147 

Totals 697.588 $196,780 

The shipments East by the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany's lines were as follows in May: 

From San Francisco — Pounds. 

Grease 1,910,000 

Pulled 18,000 

Scoured 290,000 

Total 2,218,000 

From Oakland — 
Grease 24,000 

From Sacramento — 
Grease 352,000 

From San Jose — 
Grease 16,000 

Total by rail 2,610,000 

By sea 697,588 

Total, May 3.3°7.5 8 8 

January 1,521,699 

February 895,365 

March 736,565 

April 2,889,264 

Since January 1st 9,350,481 

Same time in 1892 10,101.798 

Decrease, 1893 75'. 3*7 

The above statement does not include shipments, 
if any, from the southern part of the State, the 
Southern Pacific Company declining to make any 
report of such. 

Citrus Fruits. 

Later varieties of oranges only are now out of the 
market. Shipments from Southern California to the 
Eastern markets are drawing to a close, and it ap- 
pears that early estimates of 7000 carloads from 
California were too high, as the Rural Press be- 
lieved and said at the time. The crop, however, 
was nearly sufficient to justify the 7000 carload 
statement, provided that all fruit found a market, 
but the shipments will not be much over 5000 car- 
loads. Small fruits are rapidly replacing oranges in 
the local market. Prices are about the same as they 
have been except that choice varieties command a 
better figure. 

Other Fruits. 

Currants are in free receipt, and find a very good 
demand. Peaches are beginning to appear very 
freely and choice varieties find excellent sales. 
Apricots are abbndant, and while price are not as 
high as anticipated, there appears to be little trouble 
in disposing of them. Plums are abundant, and 
Figs from Vacaville are now here. The entire list of 
small fruits — berries and stone— is well represented. 
While prices in no case are high, there ts yet very 
little complaint of the general state of the market. 
The hard times have affected the demand, and 
growers generally consider themselves lucky to real- 
ize any sort of profit on their products, 

A carload of watermelons and some canteloupes 
were received yesterday from New Mexico. The 
watermelons were offered at $3.oo@5.oo per doz, 
and the canteloupes at $2.50. 

In Dried Fruit prices have been generally marked 
down. New bleached peaches are offered at 10c, 
without sales. Prunes are offered for delivery in 
August and September at 5^c. 

Canned-Fruit Trade. 

The present condition of the market for canned 
fruits is reviewed in the monthly trade circular of the 
Cutting Fruit Packing Company as follows: 

The season is now so far advanced that prospects 
for a full crop of all varieties are confirmed, even 
apricots showing a decided improvement as to quan- 
tity, while peaches, pears and plums in particular, 
except the first named in a few localities, bid fair to 
produce a much larger crop than last year. Few 
packers have made prices for futures, and those even 
only approximate and for certain special localities or 
sizes. There is little or no demand for prices from 
either domestic or foreign markets, and both pack- 
ers and buyers appear to agree at once that negoti- 
ations had better be deferred until values are better 

The condition of finances at all points makes it 
very necessary that all concerned should go slow 
and undertake no engagements they cannot see 
their way clear to carry out. As most packers de- 
pend largely on bank accommodation to carry tbem 
through the packing season, and as banks so far 
have not indicated any intention of supplying the 
needed capital, very little has been done in the way 
of packing, except a few cherries and gooseberries. 
Crops are later than usual by at least two weeks, 
and it is doubtful if anything of consequence will be 
packed before the middle of July. It is expected 
the financial condition will alter for the better at all 
points by that date and encourage both packers and 
buyers to be more liberal in their ideas than at pres- 
ent. Meanwhile, growers who expected through 
the spring to realize higher prices than last year for 
their product are steadily coming down in their ask- 
ing prices, and unless some unexpected change 
takes place prices for all varieties should rule lower 
than last year. 

Fruit Market and Crop Notes. 

E. L. Good5ell says : The outlook is generally 
good for California fruits in New York, in spite of 

heavy Eastern crops, and by July ist large lots of 
apricots and some peaches will be on the market. 

New York Fruit Trade Journal, June 16. — There 
is a better feeling in the dried-fruit trade, particu- 
larly among holders, owing to inquiries from differ- 
ent parts of the country, giving the belief that stock 
is gradually lessening. While prices show no im- 
provement here, there are indications that goods 
will shortly be disposed of at a fair margin. This is 
especially true of raisins. Currants are low but 
stock is limited also. 

Maryland Cor. Fruit Trade Journal, June 13 : 
The " June fall" is about over here, and there will 
be a crop of Maryland and Delaware peaches, but 
nothing like the crop of 1891. Most growers place 
the estimate at about one-fourth as many as there 
were that year. In 1891 the trees were so loaded 
as to ruin the quality. In 1891 eight and ten 
baskets were frequently picked from a tree, and the 
average was probably four baskets to the tree (five- 
eighths bushel to basket). This year the average 
will not run more than a basket to a tree. 

St. Louis, June 12. — It is not generally known 
that watermelons have appeared here already, yet 
they have, but not in sufficient quantity to be 
stacked up along the streets in the produce quarters. 

A writer at Trenton, N. J., who has traveled 
through various sections of New Jersey, says : 
The failure of the blackberry crop will have a ten- 
dency to make the peach yield a paying one, and 
as there promises to be one of the biggest peach 
crops in recent years growers are jubilant. There 
were no serious late frosts to injure the buds and 
the trees are loaded with fruit, which promises to be 
of more than ordinary size. The fruit will begin to 
ripen about the first of July. 

J. C. Evans, Sec'y of the Missouri State Horti- 
cultural Society, says in his report of June 1, 1893 : 
The apple is the standard and we miss it more than 
the others, and yet we cannot give as favorable a re- 
port on this fruit as we would like. Not over one- 
half and perhaps less than half a crop will be the 
quota in this State. 


New potatoes are in better condition than they 
have been, and the market generally is strong. The 
quality has materially improved. Beans are plentiful, 
and so are cucumbers. Squash shows liberally. 
There is not much green okra or egg plant to be 
seen. Peas are scarce. Tomatoes are arriving 
freely and sell at reduced figures. Red onions are 

Poultry and Eggs. 

The approach of the Fourth of July holidays has 
interfered with the demand for poultry, and dealers 
say trade is dull. Receipts are not overabundant, 
but choice, fat stock is very scarce and commands 
figures above quotations. 

Eggs continue to show improvement, and choice 
ranch occasionally brings 26 cents. This is an out- 
side figure, however. The market is not abundantly 
stocked, and prices are gradually shaping in favor 
of sellers. Poor qualities, however, are in heavy 
supply and sales drag. Not much Eastern is now 
coming in. 

Butter and Cheese. 

The market shows steadiness for choice grades of 
butter. Receipts of such stock are not heavy. For 
poorer stock prices have a weak tone. 

Dealers now say that they do not expect a further 
decline in cheese. Stocks on hand, however, are 
sufficient for present wants. 


The local provision market maintains recent high 
prices, though both California and Eastern hams 
have dropped off a point. There is no new evi- 
dence concerning the prospective supply of hogs. 
The condition of current marketings in the East is 
better than two weeks ago, and encourages the view 
that there has not been special pressure of late to 
get into market. The decline in prices, however, 
may stimulate the movement temporarily by creating 
apprehension of a still further reduction. 

The English Hop Market. 

The Mark Lane Express of June 9th says of the 
London Hop market : "There is much less business 
doing in English Hops, the falling off in the de- 
mand being a consequence of the increasing prices 
asked by holders, who, in view of the probability of 
a severe blight, consider that much higher values 
will be obtained later on. There is a moderate in- 
quiry for Continentals and Californians, both of 
which descriptions are firm in value. Reports from 
the English plantations do not come much more 
favorable. The vermin continue very thick, except 
where washing has been done, but even the washed 
grounds are not yet clean. Some growers are be- 
ginning to get somewhat alarmed at the gloomy 
prospect ; but others take a more sanguine view, 
holding that there is ample time for the vermin pest 
to work itself out before being able to do any serious 
damage to the bine. Whether this be so or not, it 
is certain that those planters who have seen the 
value of washing in previous seasons do not intend 
o leave anything to chance, but are determined to 
wash persistently, which they believe to be the only 
sure means of getting a sound crop of hops." 


New hay has almost entirely replaced old in the 

Nothing much is doing in hops, and it is not 
likely there will be any special movement until the 
new crop begins to come in. 

The honey market is dull and weak. 

Beef is a little easier, while lamb and veal keep 

The flour export trade has been fairly active this 
month. Prices have undergone no change for a 
long time. 

European Crop Reports. 

London, June 21.— As yet no official estimates of 
the European yield of cereals this year are obtain- 

Bell'i Messenger, one of the leading British agricul- 
tural papers, says the recent estimate of the French 
wheat crop, which placed the yield at 675,000 quar- 
ters, understated the quantity promised. The Mes- 
senger bases Its statement on the fact that the promise 
of a fine yield in Brittany and Normandy and the 
pastern and northern departments more than offsets 
< the deficits In the southern parts of France. 

The harvest in Spain is now under, full headway, 

and there are fine yields of wheat, barley and 
A good crop of winter barley and rye will be secured. 

Reports from Italy show the yield of wheat will be 
good but scarce. 

In England 100 days of drought have wrought 
havoc with all crops except wheat, which is not now 
largely grown. The hay crop is absolutely ruined. 
The vegetable and fruit crops are the worst known 
in many year». Over wide areas potatoes and peas 
will be a total loss. 

The Dublin Farmers' Gazette says the crop pros- 
pects in Ireland are more favorable than in England. 
The oat crop is good. The condition of potatoes is 
far above the average, and wheat promises well. An 
excellent general harvest is in view. The only com- 
plaint of drought is from north Ireland. 

According to Dornbusch's Trade Circular, only half 
crops of oats and barley are expected in France. 

In southern Russia the yield of hay is hardly as 
much as usual, but the rates of freight demanded 
prohibit exports. 

In Belgium wheat, rye and oats are suffering from 
drought. In the Danubian provinces wheat, barley 
and corn are growing well. 

In Egypt the quantity and quality are excellent. 
There will be a good quantity of barley, but the 
quality will be only medium. 

In Germany moderate yields of wheat and rye are 

In Austria and Hungary all crops are below the 
condition of those of last year. 

Recent rains have improved the Hungarian wheat 
crop 60 to 76 per cent. Rye has fully recovered. The 
beet-root and potatoes are in excellent condition. 
The meadows are improving so rapidly as to remove 
all anxiety on the part of farmers. 

California Products In New York. 

New York, June 25.— Canned Fruit— There is some 
grocers' call for small lots of special brands of Cali- 
fornia packed, but even this trade can get the asking 
price of 81.86 for standard Lemon clings, 81.76 for 
yellow Crawfords and 81.60 for apricots shaded. 
Baltimore continues to sell goods low. 

Raisins— During the week five cars went West. 
The price is no stronger for outside lots, which are 
quoted as follows: Two-crown loose bags, 4c; three- 
crown, 5c. Boxed bunches and loose are neglected. 
Spain looks for a big crop with quality superior to 
last year's. This possibility should be kept in view 
by the new " Coast combine " we hear about. 

Apricots— There Is no new business. The old are 
quite cleaned up. 

Prunes— Spot are quiet and no higher. New sixties 
and nineties, free on board, are offered at 5%c— a 
price recently refused. The tendency of the market 
is low. The French crop is reported to be heavy and 
maturing fast. In some places the fruit has already 
made nearly half of its final size. 

Unpeeled evaporated peaches are weak. There is 
a Western inquiry, but at less than the late decline. 

Fresh fruits— Cherries arrived in poor condition, 
and the ranges are wide. Those that stood up well 
made good averages. The market is in good shape 
for California fruit, as for a while it will have little 
to compete with besides berries. E. L. Goodsell sold 
two cars as follows: Black Tartarian, per box, 45e@ 
81.45; Royal Anne, 70c@$1.45; Republican, 76c(a$1.16; 
others, 86e@81.i5; Royal apricots, $1.75@3.30; Alex- 
ander peaches, 82 05. 

Sgobel & Day sold two cars as follows: Black Tar- 
tarian, per box. 75c<a$l.20; Royal Anne, 80c@81.15; 
Royal apricots, $2.30@2.70; Cherry plums, 81.95@2,25. 

Porter Bros. Company sold six cars as follows: 
Black Tartarian cherries, per box. 25c@1.90; Royal 
Anne, 45c@81.70; Bigarreau. 26c@81.60; others, 20e@ 
81 30; Royal apricots, 75c@83.80; others, 25c@81.80; 
AlexandPr peaches, S2.06@2 70. 

The Earl Fruit Company sold five cars as follows 
Black Tartarian cherries, per box, 60c@81.80; Royal 
Anne, 55c(3!81.10: Bigarreau. 80c@8l.90; others, 50c@ 
SI; Republican, 75c@$l 65: Royal apricots, 81 30@3.05; 
Alexander peaches, 81 65@1.70: Cherry plums, 82 30. 

Wool— The continued lull in manufacturers' de- 
mand, and the failure of a reputed strong New En- 
gland mill, do not brighten up the market for im- 
mediate prospects, and it is quite evident that the 
recovery of confidence cannot occur until a better 
financial situation lends more impetus to general 
trade. Sales at. New York: 81,000 pounds of do- 
mestic, including 5(100 spring California, 10,000 
scoured new, 467 000 foreign and 50.000 camels. 
Sales at Boston: 1,214,600 pounds of domestic, in- 
cluding 40,roo spring California at 15@17c and shout 
half a million Territory at 10%@19c; also 146,000 
Australian and 270 000 other foreign. Philadelphia 
reports a quiet market, with prices ranging from 
10@18c for unwashed wools and a small sale of fleece 
at 28c extreme. 

Lima beans — The ship Charmer has landed per in- 
voice, but the market still holds at 82 15@2.20. 

Beeswax— Easier. California, 26c. 

Honey— Light amber is quoted here, free on board, 
at 514c. 

Hons— Light spot business. Brewers are receiving 
supplies from former contracts. The rains have fa- 
vored growths. The market here is fairly firm at a 
range of 1 9@22c for State and Pacific. Export for the 
week, 1289 bales. 

California Fruit at Chicago. 

Chicago, June 27.— California dried fruits are nil - 
ing about the same as lately quoted. There is a 
moderate buving in prunes, but all other lines are 
quiet. Raisins are the most plentiful and they are 
slow. Apricots are scarce and firm. Raisins— Lon- 
don layers. 2-crown, per box, S1.65@1.76; fancy, 
Sl.86@2; Loose Muscatels, 3-crown, according to qual- 
ity, per box, 81 25<al 35; 4-crown, sucks, per lb., 5H@ 
6c; 3-crown. f @5V<0: 2-crown, 4%@5c; off goods, 3K@ 
4c. Prunes— 40 to 60 to the lb , sacks, per lb . 12%@ 
\2Mc: 50 to 60. 10%m\c; 60 to 70 10@10%c: 70 to 80, 
9V£@10e; 80 to 90, 9(ffi9^C; 90 to 100, 9(a9J<C; 100 to 120. 
HVc Apricots— New choice to fancy, in sacks, per 
lb.. 15@15Kc; fair to good, 13M®14c. Peaches- 
Peeled. 25-lh. boxes, per lb., 22<a24c; sacks, 20@22C; 
unneeled. 8@l0c. Nectarines— Red, in sacks, per lb., 
10@llc: white, 10@12c. 

Oranges— The supply is in few bands. Choice 
oranges rule steady; some are soft and these usually 
sell at auction at low prices. Seedlings, ordinary to 
good. 82fi*2 25: Riverside, sound, 82 25@2 75; unsound 
goods. 8'@1.75: Navels— Boxes, sound, smooth. 83@ 
3.60: boxes, rough. 82 26@3; Blood oranges. S2.25@3.25. 
California green fruits In good demand. Cherries, 
10-lb. boxes, 81 25@1 50: Cherry apricot, crates, 81.25@ 
1.40: Peaches 20-lb. boxes, 81.40@1.85; Cherry plums, 
20-lb. boxes, 81.51@2; Pears, 20-lb. boxes, 81.50. 

Chicago, June 27.— Porter Bros. & Co. sold three 
carloads of California fruit to-day as follows: Brill 
plums. 82: Clvman, 82 20@2 85; Montagamet apri- 
cots. 81.40(^1.60; Royal apricots, 81.20@1.30; Alexander 
peaches, S1.10@1.40. 

California Fruits at the East. 

Nkw York. June 27.— E. L. Goodsell sold threecar. 
loads of California fruit to-day— two of apricots and 
one of cherries. The cherries were only in fair 
order, about three-fourths of the lot showing mold; 
hut notwithstanding this, prices were very good. 
Black Tartarian, 81 15<»t.85: unsound lota were lower; 
Black Biearreau, 81.25(91.46; Royal American, 82.10® 
2.20. One car of apricots, only fair size and order, 
hroneht 81.15@1.76; and one car, soft and ripe, 

Rodeo Live Stock Market. 

Rodko, June 27.— The market was firm at the Union 
Stock Yards to-day. Sheep and calves were In strong 



July 1, 1898. 

demand. Prime eteers, 82.6092.76; cowi, »2@2.26; 
canners, I1.25Q1.50. Sheep— Good fat wethers, 
♦3(93 25: ewes. 82.78<33; lambs, »3.75@4. Calves— 
|3<$3.60 for good light weight*. 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closing prices paid for wheat options 
per otl. for the nut week: 

June. July. 
Thursday.... 5sU7»d SsOSid 

Friday 5s07}d fisuSJd 

Saturday.... Ss07}d 6*08M 

Monday 5e08 d 5K0S t d 

Tuesday Es07}d 5a08 d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for the past week: 

Aug. Sept. 

5s09id SslOJd 

EaWM SelOfd 

SsO'.ud 6sl0,d 

MOld 5sl0kd 

5s09jd SslOJd 

Oct Nov. 

6sllM SsOOid 

Pell id 6sO0.d 

5sllld '>'■•! 

5sllid SsfCJd 

6sllid 6s00 d 

724 744 

71} 744 

71* 75! 

724 77i 

7l| Ui 

O. O. P. 8. W. D. Market for P. 8. 

Thursday... »9s6d 3fc,9d 29>M Quiet 

Friday 1to3t %*d 298^ Easier 

Saturday.. 29*3o . 29s6d Doll 

Monday 29s Jd 30s6d 29s3d Inactive 

Tuesday. .. .29s3d 30s6d 29s3d Steady 

To-day s cebleeran) Is as follows: 

Liverpool, June 28 — Wheat— Quiet but steady. Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 6s lltd; off coast. 29s 3d; just thlpperi, 
30s 6d; nearly due, 29s 3d; cargoes off roa t, quiet; on pas- 
sage, very little inquiry; Mark Lane wheat, turn easle-; 
wheat and Hour in Paris, slow; weather in England, show- 

Eastern Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices per bushel of wheat 
for the past week at 

New York. 

Day. June. Aug. 

Thursday 721 744 

Friday 71f 


The following is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
" New Yobk. June 28. - June, 70fc; August, 73}c; Decern 
her, 8t|c. 

Day. June Sept. 

Thursday 65 70 

Friday 64 i 69i 

Saturday 64 1 

Monday 6*! 

Tuesday 65| 

The following Is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
Chicago, June 28.— June, 64Sc; September, 69Jc; Decern 

ber. 741. 

Local Markets. 



Thursday, highest 

" lowest.... 
Friday, highest t*l 

" lowest t 1 SO 

Saturday, highest 

" lowest. 
Monday, highest ♦ 1 S3 

" lowest * 1 22a 

Tuesday, highest t 1 21! 

lowest t 1 21J 

♦ New. 

The following are to-dev"s recorded sales on fall: 
Morning Informal Session. -Wheat — December, 200 tons, 
SI 31: 30T. 31 30J per ctl. Seller 1893. new. 1C0 tons, $1 20, 
per ctl. R-gular Session. — December, 1100 tons, .<I.3T»; 200, 
Jd.304; 400. KM Seller 1893, new. 200 tons, $1.20; ioc, 
$1191- ]'n. $1.19J per ctl. Afternoon -December, 120U 
tons. |X Hfc 1000. *1.3U i j>er ctl. 


N ' •' 1 

Thursday, highest $ 8l' 90J 

lowest 81 90 

Friday, highest 80* 894 

" lowest • 79} 89 

Saturday, highest 82 90j 

'• lowest 81! 904 

Monday, highest 821 Hi 

lowest W 9IJ 

Tuesday, highest 82} 91} 

lowest 82 91J 

The following are to-day's recorded sales ou Call: 
Regular Session. — Barley— No sales. Afternoon. — Decem- 
ber, 200 tons, 89Jc; 300, 89Jc; 200, 89c per ctl. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected, iu good packages, fetch an advance on the 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
.luotatlonB. Junk 28, 1393. 

Strawberries, chest Extra choice fruit for special 

Longworth. 6 00 6111 00 purposes sells at an advance 

Sharpless 4 50 <g 7 00 on outside quotations 

Gooseberries, lb 2JSJ 5 

Raspberries- Beets, sk - ■ 1 25 

chest 4 00 <a 7 00 Carrots, sk 85 @ 1 25 


1 22} 
1 311 
$1 20? 

I 1 SO 
.t 1 21j 
.1 I 21} 








#1 33i 

1 32 
1 31 
1 301 
1 32} 
1 314 
1 33$ 
1 3'2 
1 33 
1 31 1 

Cherries, box 

Black 25 O 

Royal Ann 40 @ 

White 25® 

Limes, Mex .... 4 00 (£ 

Do Cal 75 

4 50 (o 7 00 iokra, dry, t>. 

Parsnips, ctl 

50 Peppers, dry. lb 
— Peas, common, 
40 per Back, . . . 
4 50 Peas, sweet, sk. 
1 00 Turnips, ctL 

Lemons, box.... 1 50 f» 3 00 Cabbag". '00 lbs 

Do Santa Bar.. 4 00 @ 5 00 Garlic, "f lb 

Do Sicily choice 4 50 <3 5 50 Cauliflower 50 

Oranges, pr bx- Celery M 

Navel s,Rlver*de 2 50 ft) 3 00 Tomatoes, box. 
Heedl'g.River'de 1 25 ft* 1 50 String Beans... 

Do, Fresno 1 25 (3 1 50 Rhubarb, bx. . . . 

Green Apples.ctl. 40 ft/ 60 : Asparagus, box . 
Currants, chest. 3 50 C? 5 00 jOucurobera. doz 

Apricots, box- 
Royal 25 (a 

Plums 50 g 

Pears, hskt 15 <0 

Peaches, box ... 25 


1 50 fti 3 00 

6 @ - 

so <a - 

75 @ 1 60 
- ■ 1 00 
SO ft* 1 15 

4@> - 


25 @ 1 75 
3 <9 4 
30 <g 75 
50 @ I 25 
75 (a 1 50 
50 (3 60 
8 <S 10 

Figs. Black, boi 1 00 (a 1 60 I 

Artichokes, doz 
50 I Eggplant, tb . . 
65 Summer squash, 

II box 35 ft! 1 26 

50 Green corn, dz 

114@ 20 

Live Stook. 


Stall fed. 

Grass fed, extra.. 
First quality — 

Second quality 5 

Third quality 4 

Bulls and thin Cows... 2 

Range, heavy 4 

Do fight 6 



r— 'Wethers 6 fit— 

Ewes 6 ft?— 


5 j Light, * lb, cents RJl8- 

I 4j Medium 7 <*— 

I- Heavy 7 «- 

8oft 6 «- 

Feeders I ; t— 

J7 Stook Hogs. 5|ia- 

»7 Dressed 9,® 9J 




Embodying the Experience and Methods of Hundreds 
of Successful Growers, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by which the Inexperienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for wnlch California is Famous. 

Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

M0 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street 


General Produce. 

Extra oho toe in good packages fetch an advance ou top 

quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. June 28, 1893. 


Bayo, ctl 2 75 <" 2 80 Standard Calc Grain, 

Butter 2 75 (* 3 00 ! Spot 6 <g 64 

Pea 2 60 (of 2 70 June 4 July delivery 6i ft* — 

Red 2 75 ft* 3 00 Potatoes, gunnies.. 14 @ 15 

Pink 2 80ftf2 90 Wool. 34 lb 304 (g - 

Small White... 2 60 & 2 70 Wool, 4 lb 324 <g - 

Large White... 2 60 ft J 70 Hops 
Lima 2 90 @ 3 00 lm , fair 14 

Cal., poor to 

fair, 8> 1 

Do g'd to choice 1 
Do Giltedged... 1 
Do Creamery... 2 
DodoGiltedge. I 
Cal. Pickled.... 2 

Cal. Keg 1 

Oal. choice 


Do fair to good. 
Do Giltedged.. 9 @ 

Do Skim 6 @ 

Young America '.ja 

8tore 17 <■ 

Ranoh ftt 

Eastern — 18 ft» 

Good 16 W — 

_ Choice 17 @ - 


20 lExtra,clty mills 4 10 ftt — 
oil Do country m'ls. 4 10 ft! 

_ Superfine 2 90 ftt 3 00 

■ I 

NUTS— Jobbing 
Walnuts, hard 
shell. Cal. lb.. 
Do soft shell . . . 
Do paper-sbell . . 
Almonds, sftshl 

c . I Paper shell 15 

,° 4 Hardshell 

Pecans, small. 

Do large 


Filberts 10 (» 

Outside prices for selected Hickorw 7 
large eggs and inside prices cheatnu {," " 
for mixed sizes— small eggs , 11IInv . 
are hard to sell. „ _ <JH™Ta i no 

Kl"KI> New California. 40 ftt 1 00 

Bran, ton 16 50@ 17 00 POTATOES. 

FeedmeaL 23 50ftjf 24 50 New, ctl. 

Gr'd Barley. ...19 OOfts 19 50 Early Rose... 

Middling 20 50SS 22 00 

Oil Cake Meal. . fti 35 00 


Compressed ... . 7 OOftt 11 00 
Wheat, per ton. 9 00(8 

76 ftt 1 10 

Peerless 1 00 (* 1 10 

Burbank 1 00 (a 1 10 

Garuet Chile 1 00 ftt 1 10 
Hens, doz R 00 ftt 7 00 

Do choice .. @ 12 00 Roosters, old.. . 5 50 (2 8 00 

Wheat and oats 8 00ft> 11 50 Do young. ... 9 00 (alO 00 

Wild Oats 8 fjniof — iBrollers, small. 2 50 W 3 00 

Cultivated do.. 7 00* 10 00 Do large 4 50 (it •; 00 

Barley 7 0C».r 9 00 Fryers 5 CO (3 6 00 

Alfalfa. 8 00@ 11 00 Young Ducks... 4 00 & 5 00 

Clover 8 OOftt 9 00 Old Ducks 3 50 & 6 00 

GRAIN, ETC. Geese, pair 1 25 & 1 50 

Barley, feed, ctl — (B (Turkeys, gobl'r. 13 & 14 

Do good — @ 1 Turkeys, hens.. 11 @ 12 

Do choice 82|(ffl Au kinds of poultry, if poor 

Do brewing 90 ftj 1 02J or small, sell at less thai 

Do Chevalier. . . 90 S quoted; If large and in good 

Do do Giltedge 1 15 & condition, they sell tot more 

Buckwheat 1 75 @ 2 00 than quoted. 

Corn, white. ...1 10 (3 1 15 I t „ — 

1 024 Manhattan Egg 
1 05 Food (Red Bal 

Yellow, large. . . 974® 

Do small 1 021«t 

Oats, milling...] 50 & 1 60 

Feed, choice I 40 «t 1 E0 

Do good 1 3 7 4^ 

Do fair 1 30 @ 

Do common.... 1 25 ft? 

Surprise 1 65 ftg 

Black feed 1 15 @ 1 25 

Brand) In 100- 
1b. Cabinets. . . 

Oal. bacon, 

heavy, per lb. — 1 

- @11 50 


Gray 1 25 ftt 1 30 Lard 94® 

Rye 1 07J@ 1 10 Cal sm'kM beef . 10 & 

Wheat, milling Hams, Cal — @ 

Gl'tedged.....l 25 ftt 1 30 Do Eastern — @ 

ShlppioK.choicel 20 ftt 1 224 SEEDS. 

Off Grades 1 05 Id 1 12j Alfalfa 9 (g 10 

8onora 1 20 ftjt 130 Clover, Red. ... 15 ftt — 

WOOL White 30 ftt - 

( 'ahfurnia. year's fleece 9@ 10c Flaxseed 2|ft? 3 

Do.6to8mnnths 9312c Hemp 4 ftt - 

Do.Foothlll 10»13cDv brown 5 ftt 5 

Do, Northern 12@14c HONEY. 

Do, extra Humboldt White comb, 

and Mendocloa 14(rfl«c 2-lb frame - @ — 

Nevada, choice, light. . '2(«14<- Do do 1-11. frame 12 (5 13 

Do, heavy in(ofl2c White extracted 54ft* 6 

Oregon, East'n, cbolce.l2<"15c Amber do 5 ftt — 

Do, Eastern, poor 9fttl0c Dark do 5 ffl 

Do, Valley 14(al6c Beeswax. tt>.... 23 @ 23 




Davis & Son's Horse Collars are 
not filled with Self-Pulverizing 

The U. S. Inspector of Harness Supplies and Horse 
Collars selected Davis & Son's make— both harness and 
collars. And so will all persons who want a solid, 
broad-faced, smooth collar which does not pinch the 
neck nor roll about unsteadily for three months before 
it settles down to a fitting shape or set squarelv back on 
the shoulder. If you want a collar not stuffed with 
wads buy our collars, as all other makes on this coast 
are wad collars. All wad stuffed collars flatten down in 
a short time so that a sweat collar is needed to protect 
the horse from the wads or ropes of straw. Davis & 
Son's Collars are all put under a powerful shaper or press 
before finished, which solidifies them into a perfect 
shape, which allows the collar to set with its whole face 
against the shoulder. When a wad-stuffed collar Is 
brought under this force It shows the o'd wad-stuffed 
collar to be merely a Puff Ball Send or bring in to our 
factory In this city any collar and see this done, and see 
what a Pan Cake you have been selling to the people for 
collars. Our Boston Team long straw collars have no 
wads. The Rod of our Great Machine Is supplied with 
small teeth on its lower surface like a fine saw. It picks 
up and carries with It as it flies through the straw a long 
straw in each tooth, all of which arc deposited in the 
collar, one behind the other, with more precision and 
regularity than human skill could ever accomplish, thus 
avoiding all lumps and wads, not even two straws cross- 
ing each other. 


No Collars on this Ooast or else- 
where have as good Fame 
Room as the Davis & Son's 

410 Market St.. San Francisco. 



626 California Street. 

For the half year ending June 30, 1898, a dividend has 
been declared at the rate o( live and one-tenth (5 1-10) 
per cent per annum on Term Deposits, and four and ore- 
quarter (4jJ per cent per annum on Ordinary Depoilts, 
payable on and after Saturday, duly 1, 1893. 

GEO. TOL'RNY, Secretary. 


Bowens Academy, 

University Awe., Berkeley. 

For Boys and Young Men. 

Special university preparation, depending not on time 

but on prcgress in studies. 
T. 8. BOWBNS. M. A Head Master. 


Is the Largest Illustrate, and Leading Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Weekly of the West 
Established 1870. Trial Subscriptions, 60c for 
S mos. or $2.40 a year (till further notice). DEWBV 
PUBLISHING CO., 220 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Belmont Scliool. 

BKLMONT SCHOOL, most delightfully and advanta- 
geouelv located 26 miles sjuth of San Francisco, pre- 
pares for any college or school of science. The consoli- 
dation of the Hopkins Acad my with It brings $66,000 to 
the $100,' 00 already invested, and so greatly ad is to the 
resources of a school already well eq ip ed as to place 
it. permanence and Its ability to off r the h -st and the 
broadest instruction beyond question. Twenty scholar- 
ships invite f-arnest and able young men of slen er 
means A gymnasium and athletic grounds, unsur 
passed by those of any secondary school in the entire 
country, un 'er the direction of the present physical in- 
structor in Williams College, Insure unexcelled physical 
training. The school invites inspection References re- 
quired. For catalogue address. W T. Reid, A. M. (Bar- 
vard). Head Master Belmont, Cal'fornia 


34 POST ST, 8. F. 

1? College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book, 
keeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all thi 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
Its graduates In every part of the State, 
Mr Sure ros. Cisculae. 

K. P. HKALD, President 

0. 8. HALEY, Secretary. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 

Open All Year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLKN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, $2$; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assay, 
$25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Pull course of assaying, $60 
ROTA RUSHED 18M. AW Send for circular 

Commission Merchants. 


Commission Merchants, 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Oonslfcrnmenta. 

808 * 810 Davit St., Ban Francisco, 

[P. O. Box IBM.] 
ssVConslgoments flojidted. 


404 & 4-06 DAVIS 


601, 6O8, 60S. B07 A BOS Front St., 
And 800 Washington St, SAN FRANCISCO. 





Treatise on the Horse and His Diseases. 

By B. J. KsjrDALii, M. D. 

86 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal medicines used 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of mod- 
diclnos. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en- 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at eaeh year. It Is printed o- fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 74x6 Inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five for $1, on receipt of wblcb we will send 
by mall to any address DEWEY PUBLISHING CO., 130 
Market Street. San Francisco. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St.. 8. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

JVPeraonal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of Interest. 





88 Clay Street and 38 Commerclai;atreet 
8a* Fkakoisoo, Cal. 


p A g Fruit Dryer 



PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Cheapest, Beet and Only One to Protect Trees and Vines 
from Frost, Sunburn, Babbits, Squirrels, Borers and Other 
Tree Pests. 

For Testimonials from Parties who are using them send 
for Descriptive Circulars. 

Sole Manufacturer of Patent Tule Covers, 


July 1, 1893. 



Analyses of Figs and Fig Soils. 

(Continued from page 8.) 

Nitrogen. — As above stated, the fig leads 
among onr fruits in its demand upon the soil 
for this substance, apricots only coming near 
it in this respect. 

Thus we find that, for the southern localities 
especially, the same necessity of early replace- 
ment of nitrogen in the fig and stone fruit as for 
orange orchards, and partly for the same reason, 
viz., that California soils are usually not rich 
in their natural supply of this substance; how- 
ever, tliey contain about double that found in 
the Asia Minor soils, as indicated by the 
humus. Of the other ash ingredients, lime 
in the fig ranges about twice that in the prune 
and three times that in the apricot, while the 
orange and lemon show some 2.5 to 3 times 
more. As our soils usually contain plenty 
of lime, even for oranges, only in exceptional 
cases would there be any necessity of replacing 
this ingredient by fertilization. 

(Continued in our next issue.) 

California Crops. 

I Summary of Report of Observer James A. Barwick 
for Week Ending June 25, 1893.] 

The past week has given us the most re- 
markable weather ever recorded so late in 
June. Heavy frosts were noted in the Sierra 
valley of Sierra county and also in Plumas 
county, which are mountain counties, and 
the oldest inhabitant says such heavy frosts 
are an unheard of occurrence at this time of 
the year even in these elevated regions. 
Heavy frosts reported from Del Norte 
county, but no damage done. Nevada 
county reports slight damage to youDg 
sprouts from frost, and even in the elevated 
regions of Santa Barbara county a light 
frost was reported by Mr. L. E. Blochman 
of Santa Maria. 

The weather of the past three weeks has 
benefited the agriculturists of the great 
grain-growing regions of this great State, 
although the horticultural interests have suf- 
fered from the retardation of the ripening of 
their special products. In answer to " What 
will the harvest be ?" it can truthfully be 
said that the prospects are now bright for 
most excellent crops of all products. 

Mendocino County (Ukiah) — Hops doing 
well, though north wind somewhat damag- 

Sutter County (Meridian) — Vegetables, 
corn, etc., looking well. Watermelons will 
be In market in a few weeks. Corn, beans, 
potatoes, etc., will produce good crops. 

Yuba County (Wheatland) — Hops in good 
condition. Some sections more favored 
than usual. 

Placer County (Penryn) — Crop of early 
peaches good. Cool weather retarding fruit 

Yolo County (Arbuckle) — Barley, of which 
not much was expected, turning out 15 sacks 
to the acre. Grain generally turning out 
much better than anticipated. (Davisville) — 
Prospects excellent for a good crop of fruit, 
especially grapes. 

Sacramento County (Orangevale) — The 
shipping of apricots to Chicago has com- 
menced. The crop is a large one. 

Napa County (St. Helena) — The vineyards 
look well. (Berryessa)— Grain crop good. 
(Napa)— Royal apricots in market. (Brown's 
Valley) — Corn nipped slightly by frost; no 
serious damage done. 

Sonoma County (Sonoma) — Potatoes 
promise a large yield. More fruit than 
usual will be dried. (Healdsburg) — Cherry 
crop nearly all marketed; yield fair. (Mark 
West Springs)— The grape yield will be 
large. (Forestville)— North wind ripened 
grain rapidly and broke down many hop 
vines. Prunes and plums falling from the 
trees; blackberries promise well. Potatoes 
being planted for late crop and acreage 

Solano County (Tremont) — Apricot crop 
will be large. (Maine Prairie)— Grain turn- 
ing out poorly, falling below expectations. 
(Binghampton) — Harvesting begun and yield 

Santa Clara County (San Jose)— Fruit is 
in a wonderful state of development and 
promises to be the best in quality ever har- 
vested in this county. Prunes are a third 
larger than usual and peaches and apricots 
are large in proportion. 

San Joaquin County (Lodi)— Cool, pleas- 
ant weather. Grain ripens slowly. Barley 
harvest begun; output fair. All fruits com- 
ing on well, though late and the crop short. 

Alameda County (Livermore) — Growing 
crops are doing well, though later than com- 
mon. Harvesting now in progress. Grain 
in good condition and fair as to quantity. 

Fresno County — The apricot crop is very 

Kings County (Lemoore) — Fruit picking 
begun and yield excellent. 

Tulare County (Milo) — Weather pleasant. 
Haying finished. Cattle plentiful but buyers 
scarce. (Three Rivers)— Having over, 
crop short. There is a fair prospect for a 
good crop of mast this fall. (Visalia) — Grain 

in the Monson country is averaging five to 
seven sacks per acre. Yield will be as large 
if not larger than last year. Fifteen har- 
vesters are at work in the grain fields and 
the yield promises to be something extra- 

San Luis Obispo County — Strong trade 
winds affected the tender bean plants. Bar- 
ley crop spotted. Prunes doing well. 

Santa Barbara County (Santa Maria) — 
Wind slightly injured the wheat crop. On 
Monday, 19th, light frost nipped beans in 
the bean belt. Pears and apricots very 

Orange County (Anaheim) — G. W. 
Schneider is now thinning an acre of sugar 
beets on land which he irrigated on the 1st 
of June. All the hay in this district is now 
cut excepting one or two pieces that were 
sown late. 

Los Angeles County (Downey) — In this 
vicinity this will be an off year for fruit. 
Deciduous fruit will yield barely a half crop. 
The seedling orange crop will be an entire 
failure. The Los Nietos and Ranchito 
Walnut Growers' Association estimates half 
a crop of walnuts. 

Riverside County (San Jacinto) — The 
haying season has nearly closed but harvest- 
ing will keep many men and heading ma- 
chines busy until September 1st. The hay 
crop is reported to be immense and the har- 
vest from wheat and barley will pan out ex- 
tremely good. 

To the World's Fair ! 

Weekly Excursions ! 
Are you going ? If so, call on 
or write to the undersigned before 
arranging for your trip. The •' SANTA FE ROUTE 
is the only line under one management 
from California to Chicago I Palace and Tourist 
Sleepers through to Chicago every day 
without change I Excursions every Tuesday. 
W. A. BISSELL, O. P. A., 650 Market 
Street, Chronicle Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 



California Fruit Grader 


Which carry it along smoothly until reaching the proper 
space, it slides into the boxes w.iting to rec ive it. The 
Roller keeps the Fruit gently re 10 ving until it is per- 
fectly assorted according to s ze. Gravity no longer 
depended upon, but perfect, accurate and rapid giading 

Write for Description and Price List. 


3 and 5 Front St., San Francisco. 

221 So. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 
14i Fr^nt St., Portland, Or. 



Height: Five feet, the standard. 

Spaced: Close at the bottom where prowls the obtrusive 
pig. Wi le at the top where sweeps the un- 
obstructed view. 
Strength: To stop tbe mad career 
Of running steeds 

Though wild with fear. 
Every foot of every panel, a perfect self-regulator. 
This is the ready-made lence built by the 




636 Cal'fornia Street, corner ansome. 
Br.nch. 1700 Market Street, corner Polk. 

For the half year ending with 30th of June, 1893, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of flv (5) per c-nt 
per annum un Term Deposits and four and one- sixth (4&) 
per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, 
payable on and after Satuidty, 1st of July , 1893. 






91 9 Geary St. || 

- OFriCI 6. » 


TONGUELESS, Self Guiding. 


depending on size of plows 
and kind of wort 

Instead or three. 

One wheel landslde resists 
pressure of three furrows. 
No bottom or side friction. 

Weight of furrows, 
frame and plowman 
carried on three greased spindles 
Draft reduced to 

lowest possible limit 

Foot ibrake j prevents Gang running on team. .Leversandturningdevice in easy reach. Can be turned in the 

st^ighter Fu r ir"wMfi LIGHTER DRAFT »^ c »n^ 

Made with stubble, sod and stubble, or breaker bottoms, In steel or chilled metal. Ten or twelve Inch cut. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bend, Ind., or Stanton, Thomson & Go., Sacramento. 

W Special prices and time for trial given on first orders from points where we have no agents. 



The Rural Press appeals to its readers to assist in the work 
of extending its circulation. If you have friends or neighbors who 
are not but who ought to be readers of the Rural, please give us 
their names and we will send them sample copies of the paper 
with subscription blanks. 

If any subscriber of the Rural will send us three new names, 
accompanied by cash, for one year in advance ($2.40 each), we 
will advance his own subscription one year on our books. Or if 
he will send us one new name with payment in advance for one 
year we will advance his subscription four months on our books. 

To any present subscriber or member of his family who will 
undertake to act as local agent for the Rural in the way of getting 
new names and collecting from old subscribers we will give liberal 
cash commissions. A young woman in one of the central counties 
of the State averages, by thus acting for us, a monthly cash income 
of $15.00 without neglecting her domestic duties. 

The paper is putting forth renewed efforts to answer the 
demand for a journal clean and pure in tone, independent and 
intelligent in its dealings with public questions, thorough and 
practical in its treatment of agricultural, horticultural and live-stock 
subjects and careful and accurate in its market reports. It has 
within the past year taken on a new editorial department — " From 
an Independent Standpoint" — which deals with public questions of 
political character without partisan bias. It is the aim of the 
writer of this department to tell the exact truth about public ques- 
tions and public men, without regard to party faith or partisan 
effect. It seeks to give the reader straightforward statements of 
fact and the best results of a sober, non-partisan judgment. 

The chief strength of the Rural is the friendship which has 
grown up between its readers and itself. Confident in that friend- 
ship, it appeals to them to speak a good word for it whenever they 

Address all communications to the Rural 
Press, 220 Market Street, San Francisco. 

A. T. Dewey 
W. B. Ewhbr. 
Geo. H. Strong. 

}Dewey ft Co.'s Scientific Press Patent Agency{ E9 i8 B eo KD 

Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find It greatly to their advantage to consult this old, experienced, first-class 
Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents In Washington and the capital oities of tbe principal 
nations ot the world. In connection with our editorial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of orlglna 
cases in our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can be ottered home inventors by other agencies 
tha Information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent examination of 
patents already granted, lor the purpose ot determining the patentability of Inventions brought before us, enables 
us often to give advloe which will save Inventors the expense of applying for Patents upon Inventions which an not 
new Circulars ot advloe seat free on reoelpt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO. Patent Agents, San Francisco 



July 1, 1898. 

TheELI challenge 



ELI CHALLENGE PRESS, weight 3200 pounds, makes bales 17 
Inches by 22 inches and any length disired. 

WE CHALLENGE comparison with all other presses and beg the 
hay ball r to notice that no other press has all the following points of 
excellence combined in one machine. 

THE POWE t is made wholly of -it" 1 and mall- a le iron, hence no 
dancer from broken castlnea, T i£ PITMAN 1) wholly or steel. TIE 
PLUNGEK or heater and 'he I bum connecting * me to pitman is of 
steel THK BALE ( H AMBER is constructed of steel plate* fas'ened 
by steel bolts to steel angles whi h form the edges. THE WHEELS 
have ste> I tires ■ nd spi kes an run on steel axles. EXTRA LA GB 
FEED OPENING, which in condenser shown b low and which is 
attached to all our presses, makes total feed opening 46 inches. There 
is no jar or rk when plunger rebounds. The holes through which 
shafting passes are drilled out as smooth as a babitted box. All have 
an extra pole that goes on tongue to which the doubletree it attached 
when horses are at work. 

All presses have Oil-Can, Monkey Wrench, Feeding Fork, Lifting 
Jack, Doubletrees and NecK-Yoke. 

EVERY PERSON KNOWS that more hav can be fed into a Urge opening than Into a small one. With 
this fact in view, we have recently made an improvement in the feeding device of our and now oner 
to our patrons th* advantages of an enormous oondecelng feed opening, the length of which, when expanded, 
is 46 inches, or nearly douole the length of the feed o enlngs in most other presses. By reason of the Con- 
denser, the feeder on one of these presses has very light work, as the opening is so Urge that it Is no trouble 
to feed ihe very largest cf charges with ease. The operator is saved the trouble of lapping and f jrming tne 
charges in the press hopper, as this is accomplished by the irachlne, and will at once b* appreciated by any 
experienced operator. Again the Condens r utiliztB the expansive force of the hay and acta a* a cushion to 
the rebound of plunder. However, it is not entirely dependent upon the expansive force of the hay for Its 
action, but will work equally well in light work as when making heavy bales. 




ing Hay Presses always in stock: 






and Haying Tools We carry the follow- 


Send for Catalogue. 


Cheaper than wire and better than rope. 





. . and . . 
. IRON . 


The Best Windmill for Deep or Shallow Wells. 


Warranted to Run with Less Oiling than any other Windmill. 

Thirty > »-» _ ?6*o Z' l, ' y - 1 *93 Mired. 


Save money by DEALING DIRECT with the MANUFACTURER. 

Improved Davis, San Joaquin and Hercules Windmills. 



Works, Cor. Mail and Otter Sts. ; Office, 347 Commerce St., 


ONLT 25 "Z"0S^.H,S OLD 





Some ration, why yon should keep H. H. H. Llilment: 

1st— Became It la the beat (or Man or Beast. 

2d— Because It la the Cheapest. One bottle mixed with double its quantity of oil Is then as strong a* most 

3d— Because you don't have to wait for it You can buy it anywhere. 

H H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 



1 you want to know about California 
and the Pacific States, send for the 
the beet TlUurtrated and Leading Farming and Horticultural 
Weekly uf the Far West. Trial, 60c for 3 moe. Two semi le 
oopiea, 10c. E>UbUib ( d 1870. DEWEY PUBLIBHINQOO. 
t» Market Bt, 9. W. 


M A P H ' Y A " "'"''*' Wa,,r - <*"• on 

111 H U II I Mining, Ditching, Pumping, 
Wind and Steam. Heating Boiler; io. WW 
pay uou to r.M jJ.. for fr.orctop.rffa. of 

isoo engraving.. The American Well Works. AnrcrajH. 
♦Uo. Chto^o. I1L; Dallas. Tex.: Svdney N & W 

F. W. KROGH & CO., 






Steam and Irrigating 


Pumping Machinery 


Also, several different kinds of 

F. W. KROCH <£ CO. 

■---jr^ij^"" Send for Catalogue and Price List. 
* Kindly mention this paper. 

The Jndson 
Fruit Company, 

308 and SIO 
San Francisco, Cal. 

= We are now better than ever prepared to 
receive consignments of all kinds of perishable 
products, such as Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs, etc. Our 
facilities for cool, dry storage and packing for long- 
distance shipping cannot be excelled. It le oar con- 
stant aim to make our consignors and our customer* 
stay with us. 

Vol. XLVI. No. 2. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

California Tomatoes. 

The tomato has not hitherto ranked high aa an exponent 
of California climate, and yet it has made a creditable rec- 
ord in such capacity. The degredation of the tomato to 
the level of garden sass, and robbing it of position as 
flower or fruit have apparently prevented its association 
with the all-the-year strawberry, the 
winter-blooming rose and the winter- 
ripening orange as evidence of frost- 
free winters. And yet the tomato 
continues to declare its loyalty to the 
clime. It puts forth its golden bloom 
and fills its glowing scarlet skin with 
delicious juice, thus declaring its ap- 
preciation of high winter tempera- 
tures. In the thermal belts of the 
State it is prone to live and bear fruit 
into the second summer, thus starting 
on a perennial course. This behavior 
is also of more than thermometrical 
moment, for usually the earliest toma- 
toes in the San Francisco market are 
the fruit of hold- over vines growing 
in the warmer regions of the south. 
They do not have the size nor the 
flavor of the first crop, but they 
answer well for an early treat and 
are often measurably profitable. There 
is another tender vegetable which fol- 
lows the same course, and that is the 
garden pepper. It is, however, much 
hardier than the tomato, and is held 
over the year in the field for second 
year's bearing in places where the to- 
mato would not survive. 

Our engraving shows something of 
the rapid growth and free bearing of 
the tomato in choice parts of Cali- 
fornia. The engraving is from a 
photograph, taken January 1, 1893, in 
San Diego county, and shows a plant 
eight months old which in that time 
had attained a height of 19 feet and a 
width of 25 feet. Indisputable evi- 
dence of these dimensions is found in 
the figure of the man which the 
photograph has introduced. Whatever 
may be the standing of the so-called 
" tree tomato," which eastern seeds- 
men have recently catalogued, it can 
be safely claimed on the basis of this 
engraving that California can grow to- 
mato trees, if not tree tomatoes. 

the time-honored Zante currant. Fortunately the downy 
mildew has not gained a foothold in our vineyards, yet 
though we have the erysiphe and other troubles to contend 

Foreign fbuit.qbowers are seizing upon the spirit of 
the year. They are marketing in New York an orange 

ProducEbs of seedless raisins will 
be interested in the statement which 
we find in an eastern exchange that 
the downy mildew has appeared upon 
the vines in Patras Zante and other Greek regions pro- 
ducing " currants," and that much damage is anticipated. 
This disease can be checked by spraying with copper 
solutions like the Bordeaux mixture, but how far the 
growers will use such treatment does not appear. 
The production of the true currant grape, the grape 
of Corinth, does not attain great extent in Cali- 
fornia though some are grown. The profitability of 
these varieties is not fully demonstrated here, but we 
have other seedless raisins, the Sultana and Thomp- 
son's seedless which can be produced in any amount which 
the traffic will bear. If the eastern cooks will try these 
clean seedless fruits they will find them vastly superior to 

A Special Edition on Fruit Drying. 

The next issue of the Rural Press will contain a nota- 
ble contribution to the literature ot drying fruit by sun 
heat, as practiced in California. We have in hand articles 
written by those who themselves produce first-class dried 
apricots, prunes and peaches, describing in detail their 
methods and the labor-saving devices 
which they have found most satisfac- 
tory. These writers are resident in 
different parts of the State, from Marys- 
ville on the north to Santa Ana on the 
south, so they represent not alone suc- 
cessful individual experience, but suc- 
cess achieved under different local con- 
ditions, and are therefore broader in 
their scope and applicability than 
the experience of a single producer or 
a single region could be. 

We are glad to make this publica- 
tion of practical points on fruit drying 
just at this time, because of the prob- 
ability that drying must be largely re- 
sorted to this year in view of the mod- 
erate requirements of canners. The 
articles fortunately reflect the most ad- 
vanced practice and systematic manner 
of operation on a large scale, and will 
therefore be suggestive even to those 
who have been themselves successful 
driers. They also have points for the 
beginner, and are explicit in the small 
details which the novitiate might over- 
look at his cost. For this reason we 
shall be glad to secure as large circu- 
lation as possible for next week's Bu- 
bal. There is not attainable in any 
prin d form such records as actual, 
successful practice in fruit drying as 
will appear in next week's Bural. 


called the Columbus, which comes from Bodi, Italy, and 
it is said by a New York paper, Garden and Forest, to be 
" superior to any other Mediterranean fruit, best of the 
summer oranges and ranks with first-class Florida fruit in 
winter." The Columbus sells in New York at 60 cents 
per dozen. Here is another variety for our fruit-growers 
and nurserymen to look after. 

Bepobts from Delaware and New Jebsey are to 
the effect that the peach crop will be heavy. In Delaware 
it is expected to be the heaviest for three or four years. 

The first bale of hops for the season was shipped from 
Sacramento Monday by John Markley. 

It is estimated that there are now 
in stock in this State 16,5^0,000 gal- 
lons of wine. Wine has been shipped 
out of the State duiiDg the last six 
months at the rate of 1,100,000 gallons 
a month, and the local consumption 
is about 500,000 gallons monthly. On 
this basis there will be on baud when 
the next vintage commences about 10,- 
000,000 gallons. This is the smallest 
stock on haud at the commencement of 
the season for any year since 1886, and 
the outlook for good prices is therefore 
excellent. The yield for the season is 
estimated at from 13,000,000 to 15,000,- 
000 gallons. 

The Bural Press two weeks 
since mentioned a contest on Puget Sound between 
English and American hop sprayers. Its result, or, 
rather, lack of result, has reached us. The general testi- 
mony of the Sound hop men is that the test proved the 
superiority of American sprayer, while Mr. LeMay, the 
English contestant, and some others, are equally firm in 
the opposite opinion. There the matter rests. 

Evbry time The State Flobal Society meets alter 
this — and that's once every month — valuable and attractive 
art premiums are to be given for the best show of cut 
flowers. The meeting this month will be held a week 
later than usual, on Friday, July 18th inst. 



July 8, 1898. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., San Franciico., Gal. 

Annual Subscription Rati Three Dollars a year. While this notlc 
appears, all •ubtcribtjra paying $2 In advance will receive 15 mouths' (one yea. 
and 13 weeks) credit. For $2 In advance, 10 months. For $1 in advance, five 
months. Trial subscriptions for twelve weeks, paid In advance, each 50 cent*. 


1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) * .26 $.50 ( 1.20 « 4.00 

Half inch (1 square 1.00 2.50 6.50 22.00 

One inch 1.50 6.00 13.00 42.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing In extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

ANY subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rural Press, with 
a pontage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 


J. F. HALLOKAN llusioeiM Manager 

San Francisco, July 8, 1893. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— A. TomRto Tree In Ban Diego County, 21. 

EDI TORI A i S. — California Tomatoe*; A Special Edition on Fruit Dry- 
ing; Mlscelloneou«, 21. The Week; Death In the Milk; From an In- 
dependent standpoint, 22. 

MISCELI.ANEOUS.-dleanlngs, 24. California Crops, 39. Co-operation 
In Sonoma County, 37. 

THE DAIRY. — The Black Pepsin Butter Fraud; World's Fair Dairy 
Tests. 2">. 

THE STABLE. — Speed Programme at State Fair, 26 . 
THE APIARY — Honey at the World's lair, 26. 

POULTRY YARD.— Sulphur Process of Preserving Eggs; Green Food 
lor Fowls, 26 

HORTICULTURE — An Australian in a California Orchard, 26. Shrink- 
age in Dried Fruits; To Take In More Fruit Growers; Kerosene Emul 
sion and Lice; Prices for Packing Raisins; Cure for Curl Leaf in 
Peaches. 27. AnaHses of Figs and Fig Soils, 28. 





PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Worthy Master Davis; An "Aver- 
age" Meeting of Yuba City Grange; Field Day at Grass Valley; From 
North Butte, 88. 





Road-Making Machinery— Deere Implement Co 40 

Carriages, Carts, Wagons, Etc.— Allison, Nell & Co *o 

Fruit Pltter-G. G. Wickson & Co 88 

Gaa Works— Badlam Bros 87 

See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

As we go to press on Wednesday, the shadow of the 
Fourth of July still lingers over the city. The long 
respite of which many in the trade availed themselves ex- 
tended practically from Saturday until to-day, and to-day's 
commercial affairs consist in vain efforts to remember last 
Friday's situation after the lapse of distractions which has 
intervened. The ordinary individual, too, is much in the 
same condition as the course of commerce. But the 
doctors proclaim the advantage of " complete changes." 
8o the body politic must be improved even if it does take a 
day or two to find it out. 

The weather has been very favorable for the progress of 
the fruit crop and no great mishaps are reported, though 
as a rule "dropping" has been more complained of than 
usual. Drying will soon be in full swing, having already 
been opened with apricots in the earlier regions. There 
will be a good lot to sell and growers will not care particu- 
larly whether they get silver or gold for it, so long as they 
get enough. 

Death in the Milk. 

We have so often commented upon the utter uselessness 
and folly of dwellers in San Francisco and her suburban 
belongings partaking of unclean and dangerous milk, that 
we fear our readers will consider us afflicted with a sort of 
lacto-phobia. If, however, our suggestions and exhorta- 
tions had been heeded, there would have arisen no occa- 
sion to repeat them, accentuated as they now are by a 
most grievous and fatal epidemic of typhoid fever which is 
now raging in the city of Oakland. 

California is, perhaps, the best place in the world to 
produce pure milk. The climate favors health in the 
animals. The long dry season does all that natural 
agencies can possibly do to promote the health of the 
animals, and consequently the purity and wholesomeness 
of their products. In the bay region of the State, at least, 
there is no earthly excuse for miasmatic pools or swamps. 
There is no high heat and humid air which are such a tax 
upon animal life in the moist climates of the world. There 
is abundant circulation of air, moderate temperature, and 
where any decent care is taken there is pure water. There 
can be nowhere any better natural conditions for the pro- 
duction of pure, wholesome, nutritious milk. 

And yet even in such a region and encompassed by such 
advantages there has cropped out an epidemic, which has 
- 1 ready reached several hundred cases, of which the ex- 
citing cause seems to be infected milk attended possibly 

by defective sewerage of the region encompassed. There 
is some doubt as to the relative influence of bad milk and 
bad sewage, but it is claimed that the doctors' carriages 
in visiting patients, follow the routes of the milk wagons 
from the infested dairy, and that other parts of the city 
as badly sewered, but not having the same milk supply, 
are not included in the outbreak. 

Nor does the source of infection in the dairy remain in 
doubt. It is stated that for some time there has been a 
case of typhoid at the milk ranch, and other cases have 
appeared later in the same immediate region. Chemical 
examination of the drinking water of the cows showed 
filth and organic matter in large excess, and besdes this, 
there is a shallow well, from which water was taken for 
can-washing and for domestic use, the well being con- 
taminated with sewage, although the chemical examination 
did not find the same objection to the water that pertains 
to the tank-water used by the cows. It seems likely, 
however, that this well water, by bacteriological examina- 
tion which will probably be made, will disclose the deadly 
germs which have brought death and disease to so many 

Such is the record of the evil work which has been 
wrought upon an unsuspecting community by carelessness 
and lack of proper precautions which present knowledge 
prescribes and the neglect of which is little less than crim- 
inal. In this case, however, the criminal charge lies 
against the community rather than against any individ- 
ual. The dairyman who will supply cows water which he 
does not know to be pure and wholesome is not to be freed 
from an atom of the blame which should pertain to such 
criminal neglect or ignorance. Well-informed and pro- 
gressive dairymen know that impure water in dairy prac- 
tice is deadly and they exercise the utmost precaution in 
their practice. There are, however, especially in the 
neighborhood of cities, milkmen who are ignorant, care- 
less and filthy in their life and work, and upon them the 
progress of dairy art and science can exert no influence. 
They keep filthy cows upon filthy food and drink in a 
filthy place, and filthy milkers put the filthy product into 
filthy cans from which is drawn the food supply of the babe 
and the invalid, as well as the strong man — all drinking 
disease instead of the health and strength which pure, 
wholesome milk would freely bestow. Is the public to en- 
dure it? 

This is the phase of the question which touches most 
closely upon our field as publishers of a producer's journal. 
We hold that it is the consumers duty to himself and to 
the lives entrusted to his care, to know that the source from 
which his milk is drawn and the surroundings are such as 
wholesomeDess requires. In the case of large towns and 
cities, it is, of course, impossible that each consumer 
should personally know these things. For this reason 
municipalities should give the consumer the assurance 
which he cannot personally secure. There should be care- 
ful and unimpeachable inspection. The parade of the 
ward-striker whom political interests may sometimes make 
custodian of the peoples' food and drink, does not answer 
the need. There should be expert, honest, disinterested 
inspection. The result would be that the abominable city 
milk ranches would be made unprofitable, and the crowd- 
ing together of animals, and its unavoidable dangers would 
be done away. The city should have pure country milk 
from cows which have suitable range and the purest air, 
food and drink. If the present epidemic does not exert 
an influence toward the improvement of the milk-supply 
of our cities, we wonder what sort of a dispensation will 
be required to secure it. 

The peach crop of the State of Delaware and the 
Maryland portion of the peninsula for this season is esti- 
mated at 5 600,000 baskets and exceeds that of 1891, which 
was considered an excellent year. The peach-growers 
have sent out the following circular : " From present ap- 
pearances the peach crop of the Delaware and Chesapeake 
Peninsula will be very large and the fruit fine ; and the 
attention of dealers and consumers is invited to these 
facts. If proper facilities of transportation are offered, and 
proper arrangements for sale and distribution are made in 
time, every town within 1000 miles can be supplied with 
good fruit at reasonable prices." 

Kansas is getting on nicely with her wheat harvest. 
The weather in the largest part of the State has been quite 
favorable for gathering the crop. It is not yet known 
whether it will be 20,000,000 or 30,000,000 bushels. 

The Santa Clara Fruit Exchange, in a recent mar- 
ket bulletin, says it believes the opening price for dried 
prunes should be six cents per pound /. o. b. in California. 
Sales have been made already at five and one-half. 

A Pkab from Oregon displayed at the Horticultural 
building at the World's Fair weighs 4f pounds. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

The financial situation, which seemed bad enough be- 
fore, was made worse on Thursday of last week by the an- 
nouncement that the In lian Council — that is, the adminis- 
trative body in India through which England imposes her 
policies upon the country — had closed the mints to silver 
and put the finances of India upon a gold basis. The 
significance of this act lies in the fact that India has been 
the backbone of silver as a money metal. Her change of 
policy, therefore, removes the main prop of silver, and 
leaves the United States supported only by Mexico and 
half a dozen small South American and Asiatic countries 
in the effort to hold up the white metal to its natural and 
proper place in the world's fiical system. The demone- 
tization of silver by India could not have come at a worse 
time for the United States. It finds us in the throes of a 
panic largely the consequence of an effort to uphold silver; 
and to a situation already very serious it has added a new 
element of alarm. All this was fully understood by the 
English financiers who are, of course, the real authors of 
the Indian policy, and who have purposely promulgated 
that policy at a time nicely calculated to demoralize the 
financial market in the United States. 

The basis of the present agitation, the reason why 
money is tight and the primary cause of dull markets and 
low prices, is nothing more nor less than the fear that we 
shall be forced from a gold to a silver basis; that is, that 
our Government will find itself unable to meet its obliga- 
tions in gold coin of which it has but little, and thus be 
obliged to pay in silver coin of which it has much. The 
suspension of gold payments by the Treasury would in 
effect displace gold as the measure of values in the United 
States and substitute silver as the measure of value. Now, 
the difference between the actual bullion value of the gold 
dollar and the actual bullion value of the silver dollar is 
approximately 40 cents, and the change from the yellow 
to the white standard, if it should in fact come about, 
would involve the wiping out of two-fifths of all the prop- 
erty of the country which is owned in the form of credits. 
This would be the inevitable consequence of adopting 
the silver 60-cent dollar in the place of the 100-cent gold 
dollar. Those who are creditors — that is, holders of obli- 
gations in the form of Government paper, stocks, bonds, 
certificates of deposit, notes, insurance policies, bills re- 
ceivable, or any or all of the ten thousand intangible 
forms which property takes under our system — will readily 
comprehend what this would imply. It would, in fact, 
scale down all property in the form of credits of whatever 
kind or character by at least two-fifths. It is the fear of this 
scaling down that is back of the uncertainty and distrust 
which just now fills the air; it is the fear of this scaling 
down which makes those who have gold hesitate to ex- 
change it for credits upon which they may be able to collect 
two-fifths of the value of the gold given for them. The 
current " uncertainty " means doubt as to the ability of 
the Government to keep to the present gold standard; and 
the current " distrust" means doubt of the stability of 
values as they stand adjusted to the gold standard. This 
is the secret, the who e of the reason, why there is a panic 
just now. 

This brings us face to face with that bug-a-boo, the 
silver question, which confronts the country and 
which is very soon to become the subject of Congressional 
consideration. It is our desire to place that question fairly 
before the public and it can only be done by sketching 
the lines so broadly as to include not only the history and 
present status of financial legislation in the United States 
but, as well, by reviewing the financial situation of the 
commercial world at large; and this we shall do at the risk 
of being tedious. Our silver problem, it will be seen, is 
a mere side question of a much broader question, and it 
can only be settled by and through the settlement of that 
broader question. To begin at the beginning: By the con- 
sent and concurrent action of the commercial nations, gold 
and silver have for many centuries been regarded as royal 
or money metals. The ratios at which they have been 
relatively equal have been changed from time to time, but 
for the past three hundred years the figures have stood 
approximately at 15$ to 1 — that is 15} grains of silver 
equal to 1 grain of gold. This ratio has prevailed in 
European exchanges until a few years past. In the first 
law regulating American coinage the ratio was fixed at 16 
to 1, and permission given to holders of silver bullion to 
coin silver dollars on their own account in the Govern- 
ment mints at the fixed ratio — 16 to 1. The result was 
that for three- fourths of a century, or up to 1873, few 
silver dollars were coined and none remained in circula- 
tion. Those which were coined at the ratio of 16 to 1 
were upon Government account and, being worth as bul- 
lion more than gold dollars, they were gathered up by 
speculators and soon found their way through the melting- 
pot to the bullion market. Up to 1873 we had practically 
no silver currency save subsidiary coins used for con- 

July 8, 1898. 


venience in making change — that is, half and quarter dol- 
lars and dime pieces — and these were coined on Govern- 
ment account and were purposely made light weight or 
less than standard to save them from the melting-pot and 
the bullion dealer. 

In 1873 Congress undertook to embody in one single 
enactment all that was valuable in a long series of coinage 
laws. In this enactment, which superseded everything 
which came before it, no provision was made for the 
coinage of silver dollars, and this omission is what is 
termed the " demonetization of silver." By Senator Sher- 
man, who was chairman of the committee which compiled 
the enactment of 1873, it is claimed that the omission was 
accidental; that, as a matter of fact, no silver dollars had 
been coined for many years, and that the provision 
authorizing owners of bullion to take their own silver to 
the mint to get it made into dollars was dropped as un- 
necessary and as cumbering the statute book. This claim 
is scouted by silver advocates, who charge that the omis- 
sion was a deep and villainous scheme to drop silver 
from the money system of the country in the interest of 
gold as the single standard or sole measure of value. Be 
this as it may, when the bill of 1873 was before Congress 
nobody thought enough about it to note the omission, and 
among those who voted for its adoption was Senator Wil- 
liam M. Stewart of Nevada, now the first of silver advo- 
cates and the most positive of those who denounce the 
" demonetization " of silver as a crime. 

About this time the bullion markets began to show the 
effect of the enormous development in silver mining in 
Nevada, Mexico and South America. The world's yearly 
average production of silver from 1851 to 1875 was 
$51,000,000, while from 1875 on to the present it has been 
$116,000,000, an increase of 127 per cent. On the other 
hand, the yearly average product of gold has largely de- 
clined since 1875, but of this we shall speak later. In 
1873 silver bullion was worth $1 30 per ounce; in 1874 it 
dropped to $1.27 per ounce; in 1875 to $1.24; in 1876, to 
$1.15. The mine-owners, whose profits were of course 
seriously curtailed by the decline in the market price of 
silver, saw, or believed they saw, in that decline the effect 
of the " demonetization " of silver in the enactment of 
1873; and, supported by a large body of public sentiment, 
they undertook to restore the right of silver to coinage — 
that is, to enact a law directing that any owner of silver 
bullion could take it to any United States Mint and have 
it coined into dollars, under the ratio of 16 to 1, for his 
own benefit. But silver at $1.15 per ounce was worth 
much less than under the ratio of 16 to 1, and Congress 
refused to make the desired law. After a long contro- 
versy and many delays, Congress decreed in 1878 as a com- 
promise a law which resulted in the purchase of silver by 
the Government of two million dollars' worth per month 
at the market price, and requiring that it be coined into 
silver dollars at the ratio of 16 to 1, the Government 
issuing the money and making the profit between the 
market price of bullion and the face value of the minted 
coin. Under this law, which remained in effect from 
1878 to 1890, 405,000,000 silver dollars were coined by the 
Government. Of this vast sum approximately sixty 
millions are in circulation and approximately $345,000,000 
lie stored in the vaults of the Treasury at Washington. 

It was hoped that the purchase by the Government of 
two million dollars' worth of silver bullion per month 
would hold up the price of silver bullion, but the result 
did not justify these hopes. In spite of the monthly 
purchase on Government account, the bullion market went 
steadily down and farther down till in 1890 the price of 
crude silver per ounce was approximately one dollar, 
which made the value of the bullion contained in the 
minted silver dollar about 66 cents as compared with the 
100 cents in the gold dollar. The agitation for free silver 
coinage had been kept up, and in this year, 1890, a strong 
stand was made in Congress for a free coinage measure, 
the claim being that such a measure would at once put 
silver on a par with gold. On the other hand, it was the 
judgment of the financial men of the country and of people 
generally that instead of raising silver to equal value with 
gold, free coinage would put the country on a silver basis, 
send gold to a premium and ultimately drive it out of the 
country. The fight in Congress was long and very bitter, 
and its end was, as usual, a compromise, this time Con- 
gress decreeing the purchase of 4,500,000 ounces of silver 
per month at the market price and leaving it discretionary 
with the administration to coin the bullion so purchased 
or to hold it in store. Under this law we are now, and 
have been since 1890, paying out approximately $4,000,- 
000 in gold per month from the United States Treasury. 
The silver bullion bought with this money is not minted 
(for it has been found impossible to force it into circula- 
tion), but stored in the treasury vaults along with the 
three and a half million minted dollars above referred to. 

The regular monthly outlay has been a steady and 

severe strain upon the resources of the Government. At 
first it was easily borne because prior to the last modifica- 
tion of the tariff we got in a great deal more money than 
was necessary for current expenses; but of late we have 
received from ordinary revenues barely enough to support 
the charges of the Government, and the monthly pay- 
ments for silver have been taken from a reserve gold 
fund which has been held as a support to the greenback 
currency of the country. This reserve fund, which three 
years ago wan about two hundred millions of dollars, is 
now reduced to approximately ninety millions (less, it 
is claimed by financial experts, than is safe, considering 
the volume of the greenback currency based upon it); and 
this remainder of ninety millions of gold is rapidly melting 
away under the operation of the law which decrees that 
four millions per month shall be spent to buy silver 
bullion and store it in the vaults of the Treasury. It 
is easy to see that it will not take long to exhaust all the 
gold that is on hand, and that if things go on as they are 
going now, the Government will soon have to meet its 
obligations with silver coin. It is this prospect of silver 
payments which the world of business dreads, for it means 
a drop to the silver basis with all the disadvantages that 
were outlined in the opening paragraph. 

The gravity of the situation — that is, the fear of falling 
to a silver basis, which makes the present financial pinch, 
with its accompaniment of dull markets and low prices — 
has profoundly alarmed the country. The President, 
whose note of warning we quoted last week, has determined 
to convene Congress to meet in special session on the 7th 
of August. His announcement is in the following 

Executive Mansion, Washington (D. C ), June 30,1893.— 
Whebeab, The distrust and apprehension concerning the finan- 
cial situation which pervade all business circles have already 
caused great loss and damage to our people and threaten to 
cripple our merchants, stop the wheels of manufacture, bring 
distre°s and privation to our farmers and withhold from our 
workingmen the wage of labor; and whereas, the present peril- 
ous condition is largely the result of a financial policy which 
the executive branch of the Government finds embodied in un- 
wise laws which must be executed until repealed by Congress; 
now, therefore, I, Grover Cleveland, President of the United 
States, in performance of a constitutional duty, do, by this 
proclamation, declare that the extraordinary occasion requires 
the convening of both houses of Congress of the United States 
at the Capitol in the city of Washington on the 7th day of 
August next, at 12 o'clock noon, to the end that the people 
may be relieved through legislation from present and impend- 
ing danger and distress. All those entitled to act as members 
of the Fifty-third Congress are required to take notice of this 
proclamation and attend at the time and place above stated. 
Given under my hand and the seal of the United States at the 
city of Washington on the 30th day of June, in the year of our 
Lord 1893 and of the independence of the United States the 
117th. Gbovee Cleveland. 

The terms of this proclamation leave no room for doubt 
as to Mr. Cleveland's views concerning the financial situa- 
tion or as to what in his judgment should be done at this 
time. The administration finds, he says, the "financial 
policy of the county embodied in unwise laws;" he 
makes it plain that in his judgment the act requiring the 
purchase of 4,500,000 ounces of silver bullion per month, 
should be repealed. This is the compromise measure 
of 1890 outlined above, and is known as the "Sherman 
law." There will probably be a great contest in Congress 
concerning it. The administration will urge its 
repeal and the business interests of the country will sup- 
port the effort. Bat on the other hand there 
will be fierce opposition for the silver-producing states 
backed by a large body of public sentiment which calls 
for "cheaper money, and is profoundly of the opinion that 
free silver coinage would give financial relief. 

The fight will not be a party fight, as between Republi- 
cans and Democrats. For repeal of the Sherman law the 
President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives; a 
large number of other prominent Democrats and with them 
such Republicans as Ex President Harrison, Senator Sher- 
man, Ex Senator Edmunds, Gov. McKinley and a host 
of others. On the other hand, scores of prominent Repub- 
licans will stand with scores of equally prominent Demo- 
crats for free silver. 

Those who supported and secured the passage of the 

Sherman law, including Mr. Sherman himself, are among 

the most earnest in the efforts for its repeal. The act did 

not at the time of its adoption express their views, for it 

was simply a compromise. It was prepared and supported 

to prevent something more radical. Ex-Senator Edmunds 

gives its history as follows : 

When we passed the Sherman act we were between the devil 
and the deep sea; something had to be done. A crisis was im- 
pending. I voted for the measure and am willing to take my 
share of the responsibility, although I was not personally in 
favor of it. A canvass showed us that if we did not pass the 
act the silver men would pass a free silver bill. About three- 
fourths of the Democrats and one-fourth of the Republicans 
would have voted for a free c »inage bill. I voted for the Sher- 
man law to prevent a financial crisis or a free silver bill. The 
Senators from New York, New England, New Jersey and Mary- 
land voted for the bill for the same reason. 

As stated above, ex-President Harrison is among those 

who oppose free silver coinage and who favor the repeal 

of the Sherman bill. He realizes the gravity of the situa- 

tion, and his utterances concerning it are worthy of his 

character. When interviewed a few days ago he said : 

Our bitter political struggles are only the safety valves for 
our emotions, and we should respect each other for the intens- 
ity of our respective beliefs. When trouble comes, as we have 
it now, there is no real question of Republicanism or Democ- 
racy. Eyery man becomes an American and tries to do his best 
for the common gaod. I have not the slightest doubt of the is- 
sue. We will emerge from all difficulty strong, reliant and con- 
fident of the future of the republic. 

Let us hope that the contest will be waged and ended 

in this admirable spirit. 

We have noted in passing that of late years while the 
annual product of silver has largely increased, the annual 
product of gold has decreased. The annual average pro- 
duction of gold between 1851 and 1875 was $127,000,000; 
and between 1876 and 1893 it was $108,000,000, a decrease 
of 15 per cent. While the production of silver has of 
late years as compared with former years increased 127 
per cent, the production of gold has decreased 15 per cent. 
This fact affords an explanation of the decline in the price 
of silver, independent of the " demonetization " in 1873; 
and it also affords a justification which the gold stand ard- 
ists either ignore or deny for the popular demand for 
cheaper money. Since the values of things — of all com- 
modities including silver — are practically measured by 
gold, the decline in the annual production of gold natur- 
ally gives to that metal an increased purchasing power. 
It is not to be denied that there is a distinct relation be- 
tween the general fall in prices during the past fifteen 
years and the steady appreciation of gold, and it is such a 
relation as justifies the clamor for a money whose value 
is stable and whose steady appreciation does not put the 
creditor and the producer at a disadvantage. 

Of course, an absolutely infallible standard of value is 
not possible since the conditions which create and destroy 
values, including the value of the standard itself, change 
from time to time; but it is the theory of bi metelism — and 
in the United States most of us are bi-metalists — that the 
highest practicable degree of stability is found in the con- 
current use of gold and silver at a ratio as nearly as possi- 
ble approximating their natural commercial relationship. 
Each metal, it is assumed, will under bi-metal sm check the 
rise or fall of the other and their point of balance will be 
a standard as nearly just as the wisdom of man has as yet 
been able to devise. It would seem that all the commer- 
cial nations would be willing to join in the creation and 
maintenance of such a standard, particularly since they 
once did so and though a long course of years proved its 
working efficiency. But England, the creditor nation of 
the world, sers in the decline in the annual yield of gold 
and the advance in the annual yield of silver, a chance to 
speculate to her own advantage. The nations of the earth 
owe her a thousand millions of money, and if the single 
gold standard be the accepted money policy of commerce 
then she gains vastly each year by the steady appreciation 
in the value of that standard. The circumstance which 
twenty years ago threw gold and silver out of balance, put 
a club in England's hand and she has not failed to wield 
it vigorously. She gains enormously through the steady 
increase in the value of the commercial standard of value 
— gold — and she resists the restoration of the old and good 
rule of bi-metalism because it would stop these gains. In 
this matter we have struggled against the commercial 
power of England, but in vain; not because we have 
wanted strength, but because we have failed to recognize 
the contest as an international affair. We have persisted 
in treating it as a purely American matter, and have tried 
to get relief by juggling with the currency at home when 
we should have been in the world's field of finance fight- 
ing England with her own weapons. 

Our mistake, we repeat, in dealing with the silver ques- 
tion, is in regarding and treating it as a purely American 
matter. There is to be sure a very serious American 
phase of it, but it is incidental — a mere symptom 
of a disease which is universal. Partly by accident, 
largely through the influence of England, gold has be- 
come the sole measure of commercial values. Therefore, 
since gold is growing scarce and relatively dearer the values 
of other things decline. Year by year the holder of gold 
— that is, as matters now stand in the world, England — is 
able to command a larger share of the world's earnings 
without a relative increase of nominal wealth. We, as a 
debtor nation, are at serious disadvantage; and that disad- 
vantage would be confirmed and perpetuated by resort'ng 
to the silver basis. It is the scheme of English financiers 
to put us on that basis, for it would imply perpetual com- 
mercial subordination on the part of America, and perpetual 
commercial dominance on the part of England. To concede 
to England possession of the gold, to consent, hold ourselves 
to the use of silver, would be to accept a subordinate por- 
tion, to submit to losses by every fluctuation of the silver 
market, to pay discounts and exchanges upon every trans- 

What we should do is to compel England to act with us 



July 8, 1893. 

In the restoration of bi-metalism. How can we do this? 
In the words of Mr. Andrews, one of the American mem- 
bers of the Brussels conference, we answer: " By ceasing to 
purchase silver and refusing to coin more until other na- 
tions will, and at the same time making a law ordering 
the Secretary of the Treasury to open our mints to free 
coinage of silver at any date when he shall be informed 
that England, Germany and the Latin Union, or any two 
of those, will do so. Such a stand would probably make 
impossible the proposed introduction of the gold standard 
in India. By dropping silver for the time being and join- 
ing the struggle for gold we shall perceptibly precipitate 
in Europe another fall of prices so aggravated that the 
most obdurate banker of Lombard street will have to ad- 
mit that gold cannot be safely taken as the sole interna- 
tional money." 

This is not the position of the Wall-street " gold bugs," 
for they, like England, want a currency by which the cred- 
itor may gain through the automatic appreciation of the 
standard of value. Mr. Andrews' plan is the true bi- 
metalist position , and it will lead to a sound and honest cur- 
rency; it will elevate the standing of our country in the 
commercial world ; it will help commerce and trade, and 
it will make justice between creditor and debtor. 

The policy proposed — to meet England in the contest 
for the world's gold — is put forth as good policy only 
for the time at hand. It is good only as it leads to bi- 
metalism just as war is good only when it leads to peace. 

In this outline — and it is of necessity only an outline, 
for the subject is a very complex one — we have made no 
attempt to conceal our own view. And it is the result of 
no calculation, of no attempt at smartness, that in 
one sense it contradicts the position of the gold 
men and in another contradicts the position of the 
silver men. We favor first, the repeal of the Sherman 
law whose operation makes us poorer in gold each day. 
Then, with all our resources at hand, we favor going 
boldly in and measuring swords with England in the fight 
for commercial and financial supremacy. She cannot live 
six months without the benefits which come to her through 
commercial relations with this country. Surely, with this 
advantage and backed by our vast national resources and 
a high degree of resolution and fortitude, we can bring 
England to terms. And those terms should be the accept- 
ance of bi-metalism — that is, the concurrent use of gold 
and silver — upon such conditions and under such ratios as 
will imply justice in commercial exchanges, justice be- 
tween nation and nation, justice between creditor and 
debtor, and justice between buyer and seller. 

We recognize no obligation on the part of the Govern- 
ment to the silver-mining industry. That is a business 
pursued by private parties for personal advantage, and is 
entitled to protection to the same, but to no greater degree, 
than coal mining or wheat growing. Our contention for 
bi-metalism is not in the interest of silver mining, but in 
the interest of the world of production and exchange, 
which demands honest money — money measuring 
the same value this month, next month, and next year, 
and which will yield no advantage to the creditor as 
against the debtor, to the purchaser as against the pro- 

The theory of the advocates of free coinage in the 
United States, is that a law permitting any holder of silver 
bullion to take his metal to the mint and have it coined 
into dollars (at the old ratio of 16 to 1), would at once 
jump the commercial price of silver from where it now 
stands (approximately 25 to 1) to par or 16 to 1, But 
against this theory is the judgment of the whole commercial 
world. The quantity of silver in the world seeking a 
market is vast, and under such a law it would at once flow 
toward us. Our financial system would break down, and 
we would find, not silver equal to gold, but silver as our 
sole money metal, and our gold flowing to England to be 
used as a club to keep us away from the solid rock of 
financial and commercial stability; and, after losses in the 
change of standard, frightful to contemplate, we should 
have a silver currency shifting in value with every varia- 
tion of the bullion market, while in the commercial world 
we would have to accept the disadvantages of the continu- 
ing appreciation of gold. 

There is one way out of it, and only one, and that is to 
meet England in the competition for gold, beat her at her 
own game, and compel her to yield to a financial policy 
based on honesty and equity. 

In a letter addressed to the editor, Ool. John P. Irish 
takes us to task for the suggestion in an article reviewing 
Senator Stanford's career that " a large meanure of Mr 
Stanford's wealth belonged in fact to the government if 
the debt of the Central Pacific railroad had honestly been 
paid," and sustains his criticism by reference to the pro- 
visions of acts of Congress relating to overland roads. 
Strictly speaking, Ool. Irish is right, and we have to 

apologize for a careless form of expression. Our intent, 
as every reader probably understood, was to refer to the ne- 
farious means by which a large part of the late Senator's 
wealth was acquired — namely, the frauds in the construc- 
tion and capitalization of the Central Pacific road, perpe- 
trated through the instrumentality of the Contract and 
Finance Company, etc., whereby the means intended and 
furnished by the public for the construction of the road 
were diverted to the private gain of individuals having the 
control of the Board of Directors. These things have been 
so frequently exposed through the press as to have be- 
come common knowledge. If a specification of details is 
desired, we refer Col. Irish to the proceedings in the suits 
brought by Samuel Brannan and Anthony Dugro, to the 
nine volumes of testimony taken before the United States 
Railway Commission, the record in the Colton case, etc. 

We cannot agree with Col. Irish in a suggestion which 
he makes in the course of his note that the " highest in- 
famy known in business is the dishonest evasion of an 
honest debt for personal enrichment ! " We hold it a 
greater depth of baseness, or greater " heighth of infamy," 
if that be the preferable expression, to avail oneself of a 
great crisis in the affairs of the nation, to promote selfish 
ends by legislation ostensibly designed for a patriotic pur- 
pose; to seize upon such a time and such an occasion, and for 
the sake of gain to hoodwink an honest-minded care-bur- 
dened President into the belief that the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains begin seven miles east of Sacramento; to em- 
ploy one's means and opportunities in corrupting public 
officers of all classes, legislative, executive, administrative 
and judicial; to obtain grants of public land and property 
under pretense of public benefit, and appropriate them to 
private gain and to the oppression of the public which 
granted them; to mortgage property for amounts far ex- 
ceeding its cost or value, and palm the securities off on 
the public by devices calculated to deceive people un- 
versed in the tricks by which railroad securities are mark- 
eted. Does Co). Irish wish specifications? 

We recognize the good points of Senator Stanford's 
character; for the public purpose to which he has devoted 
his wealth after he can no longer enjoy it we give him 
praise. It is especially due where so many others similarly 
situated have made themselves conspicuous by their 
niggardliness. But we cannot shut' our eyes to the facts of 


Fall account of the organization of the Sonoma County 
Fruit-Growers' Association will be fonnd on page 38. 

It is proposed to call it the " California Midwinter Interna- 
tional Exposition." Let us hope the fair will be as big as the 

A graduate op the Keeley INSTITUTE at Los Gatos has de- 
clared himself unanimously in favor'of changing the name of 
the pretty little city to Lost Jag-us. 

The State Horticultural Society proposes to find a more 
suitable term than " green " fruit. It is misleading and inade- 
quate. The objec'ions to continuance of its use are obvious. 

A Santa Cruz fruit company had 20 Chinamen shipped to 
Pixley, Tulare county, to work in their orchard at that place. 
The people took offense at their presence and ran them off with 

We have waited for it long and patiently, but up to the 
hour of going to press the New Jersey peach crop had not 
failed for this season. Something shipped a cog somewhere, 

A citizen of 8onoma county placed a gate across a public 
highway and was mulcted in $1150 damages by the road over- 
seer. He contended that it was not a public thoroughfare, but 
seems to have been mistaken. 

Lodi is discussing the possibility of securing a cane sugar- 
planting experiment station. The government has appropri- 
ated $10,000 for the purpose and wants from 10 to 40 acres of 
land to make its experiment upon. 

David Frye picked 280 pound3 of cherries Tuesday during a 
buret of speed, with George O'Brien close behind with 230, says 
the Petaluma Courier. This is an extraordinary day's work, as 
150 pounds is considered a good day's picking. 

The Visalia Delta announces that there is already quite a 
demand for help in the orchards in that vicinity, but it will be 
much greater when peaches commence to ripen rapidly, and 
will continue through the season. There is no excuse for idle- 
ness nowadays. 

D. W. Park hurst, of Fowler, Fresno county, last season 
imported a number of boys from Sao Francisco to pick grapes 
in his vineyard, and he announces that he proposes to do the 
same thing this season. A number of boys have already ap- 
plied for work. 

A war is reported likely between the sheepmen and farm- 
ers of Colorado. It is the irrepressible conflict between early 
and later material development. In the settlement of any new 
country shepp must inevitably retire before the plow, asserts 
tne Red Bluff Sentinel. 

The fruit-growers of Analy township should identify them- 
selves at once with the co-operative scheme inaugurated at 
Santa Rosa, ssys the Sebastopol Timet. Don't wait to see if the 
proposition is going to be a go, but get in line and make it go. 
The way to co-operate is to co-operate. 

Napa shippers of fruit complain of slow railroad service 
overland this season. They paid for passenger train time, but 
in no instance got it. One carload was nine days making a dis- 
tance which shonld have been covered in five. Such delays are 
always bad for the fruit, says the Register. 

The Fbesno Canning Company has closed its doors for the 

season, being unable to borrow money to conduct its business. 
During the two ypars it has operated, the canning company 
has paid out $50,000 or $60,000 for labor alone. The suspension 
of operations is keenly regretted in Fresno. 

A Selma man, says the Fresno Republican, has imported some 
edible frogs and placed them in a small lake on his farm, and 
will permit nature to take her course. The froggery will be run 
for profit as well as for the pleasure of listening to the mellow 
and musical notes of the amphibian songsters. 

Swarms or locusts have settled in the neighborhood of Dib- 
ble creek, Tehama county, and multitudes of insects are to be 
found all the way from a mile or so above Red Bluff as far 
north as Cottonwood creek. They have not troubled the crops 
or fruit trees as yet, seeming to subsist entirely upon chaparral 

The Oakland Enquirer says: "California fruit canneries are 
not running this year because there is no market for the goods 
and last year's stock has not yet been sold." The Enquirer is 
mistaken. A good part of the canneries are going and the 
prospect is favorable that others will start before the month 

Good or poor crops make but little difference to the grape- 
growers, says the Gilroy Qazette. Last year the crops were 
poor and the prices moderately good. This year the crops 
promise to be large and the prices immoderately bad. It's a 
case of heads I win, tails you lose, with the San Francisco syn- 
dicate of wine and grape buyers. 

It was feared that the failure of ex-Senator De Long might 
irjariously affect the Petaluma Packing Company, in which he 
was a principal stockholder. The statement is made, however, 
that the canning will go right ahead, the De Long stock being 
taken in possession of I. S. Wickersham, a well-known local 
capitalist. This intelligence is gratifying. 

One Kern county farmer a few days ago bought 23 000 grain 
sacks. It is significant that a very few years ago all the 
merchants in Kern county did not handle that many grain 
sacks in a year, says the San Jose Mercury. Kern county is 
making wonderful strides forward. It is annually bringing 
vast bodies of land under cultivation that only a few years ago 
were regarded as arid and desert. 

The State press is freely printing a law said to have been 
passed by the late Legislature giving a rebate of hiphway taxes 
to all persons owning wagons with wide tires. Editor Green, 
the Mentor of the Press, is constrained to remark in conse- 
quence that the alleged law is " BomethiDg that does not fit any 
road law California has had fir a quarter of a century at least." 
And he warns the brethren not to print. 

Several years ago Chinese pheasants were turned loose on 
the Rideout farm in Sutter county, and recently quite a num- 
ber were seen there, having increased rapidly. The pheasant is 
a fine game bird, and we want him in California, but not too 
much of him, for he is a nuisance in young grain fields. Under 
proper laws, however, he can be protected sufficiently and at 
the same time prevented from increasing too rapidly. 

The Yuba City cannery began 15 days since on the apricot 
pack with about 80 bands at work, and will continue on that 
fruit until next week. About 2000 cases of apricots will be put 
uo this year. The peach crop will begin to come in about July 
20th, when the force of employes will be greatly increased. The 
drying department will be run during the peach season. The 
engine and boiler of the cannery are being repaired. 

Reports to the Olive-Growers' Associatiom show that the 
California olive-oil product for the last season has aggregated 
about 10,000 gallons. All of this has been bottled, and nearly 
all of the product has been sold at prices ranging from 10 to 30 
per cent higher than the prices obtained here for French and 
Italian oils. The season's product was not so trreat, for various 
reasons as the output of 1891 when over 11,200 gallons of oil 
were made. 

California's production of prunes, which exceeded 20,000,- 
000 pounds last year, seems enormous, but twice that quantity 
was imported from Europe during the year, remarks the Los 
Angeles Eipreu. There may be enough prune trees planted in 
California to eventually supply a demand no greater than the 
present consumption, "ont population grows rapidly and there 
need be no fear that a prune orchard in this State will fail to 
be good property as production increases. 

The Travkr Advocate risks a heretofore unblemished reputa- 
tion by publishing the following: " They say ' the early bird 
catches the worm,' and it is astonishing what early-risers will 
see before breakfast. One morning last week we passed a 
blackberry patch and saw two ladies among the treacherous 
bushes of thorns picking berries with men's pants on." Truly, 
Tulare is a marvelous county. The tailor business ought to 
boom if there are grown many " berries with men's pants on." 

There is a prospect that a packing-bouse will be bnilt here 
soon, where the product of the vineyards may be bandied, sajs 
the Madera Mercury. This is something which is needed, and 
which will be of great benefit to the people of Madera aDd to 
the raisin-growers in the vicinity. All that is necessary to 
make the packing-house a fact will be for the raisin-growers to 
guarantee 100 carloads of raisins. This they can do if thay 
will operate together and take the interest which they should 
in the matter. 

Following is a list of cars of fruit shipped East from Vaca- 
ville for the week ending Thursday, June 29th: 


Earl Fruit Company and Garllchs & Robinson it 

Vacaville and Winters Fruit Company 8 

California Fruit Association 8 

National Fruit Association - 8 

F. H. Buck : • 

Total 46 

Total shipped to San Francisco 7 

Mr. F. Smith, of Ybeka, was killing woolly aphis in his or- 
chard with a pan of kerosene and sat the pan down, when to 
bis surprise a large number of moths came to it as bees wonld 
to honey. In a couple of hours there were over 200 of the 
moths in and around the pan. His chickens ate large numbers 
of them. He afterwards put a number of pie pans with kero- 
sene in them throughout the orchard and the results were as- 
tonishing. The early morning is the best time, aa the iun 
shines on the oil, the fumes rise and the moth is attracted. He 
think that it would be wise to have a flock of chickens in the 
orchard, as they readily eat the moths as they lie on the ground 
around the pan. 

July 8, 1898. 


TJie Black Pepsin Butter Fraud. 

The United States Department of Agriculture has just 
issued a Farmers' Bulletin on butter frauds, from which we 
take the following on " black pepsin:" 

D urine the year 1892 the department received many com- 
munications relating to the methods of increasing the yield 
of butter — nearly all the correspondents speaking of the 
agent employed as " black pepsin." Advertisements ap- 
peared in agricultural and other newspapers and many 
unwary and uninformed persons became victims of the 

In spite of the warnings given in the reports of the de- 
partment and by the dairy commissions and agricultural 
experiment stations of many of the States, a brisk and ap- 
parently increasing trade has been kept up in these sub- 
stances, greatly to the detriment of those innocently pur- 
chasing the nostrums and to the consumer of the product 
— a product not butter, but a mixture of butter fat with water, 
casein, milk, sugar, and other constituents of milk. Such 
a product soon suffers a separation of its constituents, and 
is exposed to the decay of its nitrogenous components and 
a speedy rancidity of its fatty ingredients. The magnitude 
of these fraudulent practices and the extent to which they 
have spread throughout the country have been revealed in 
quite a startling manner by replies to a circular asking for 
information on this subject sent to boards of health, mem- 
bers of dairy and pharmaceutical associations, and city 
officers throughout the country. 

The numerous replies to this circular which have been 
received have been referred to Mr. A. J. Wedderburn, 
special agent of the department for the investigation of the 
general aspect of food adulteration. As a result nf his 
study of these replies, Mr. Wedderburn has prepared the 
following preliminary report: 

"(1) Of over 2500 letters received from all parts of the 
United States only two indorse the use of black pepsin. 

"(2) While many of the replies state that nothing is 
known of the article, numerous correspondents say they 
have had inquiries for it. A large number have it in stock 
and are selling it. A majority unite in pronouncing it a 
fraud, and one writer says he has written the manufacturer 
that if any more of his printed matter is sent to him he 
will forward it to the postal authorities to ascertain whether 
the sender is not liable for prosecution for using the mails 
for fraudulent purposes. 

" A reputable chemist sends an analysis of the butter 
made with this solidifying adjunct, and it shows only 63 
per cent of butter fat. Butter should not contain less than 
85 per cent. 

"The advertisement above alluded to is printed on a 
postal card, and states that $125 000 will be spent this sea- 
son in advertising black pepsin and two other articles, one 
of which is a preservative powder for fruits and vegetables, 
and, as the correspondent states, nothing more nor less 
than salicylic acid, an article which, in unskilled hands, is 
most dangerous to health and life. The black pepsin is 
retailed at $2.50 a box of two ounces and wholesaled at $2. 
The preservative powder is sold at retail for $1.25 a box, 
and at wholesale at $10 per dozen. For obvious reasons 
the name and address of the vendor are withheld. 

"An analysis of the so-called ' black pepsin ' made for 
the Evening News, Detroit, Mich., and published in that 
paper April 1, 1893, shows the following result: 

Per cent. 

Salt 83 

Anatto IS 

Rennet and organic matter 2 

"The value of the two-ounce box sold at retail for $2.50 
is abiut three cents. 

" Extensive, advertising is undoubtedly creating a large 
inquiry for these products, though their sale and use are 
fraudulent. The milk solids are curdled and the sugar 
and casein 'turned to butter,' as the advertiser expresses it. 
The use of black pepsin certainly violates the spirit if not 
the letter of the oleomargarine law, and dairymen who in- 
sist that oleomargarine and other imitations of butter shall 
be properly branded of necessity must oppose the use of 
any chemical that certainly perpetrates as great a fraud on 
honest butter as any other imitation." 


So complete is the fraudulent nature of this material that 
it has been doubted by some eminent chemists whether the 
supposed active materiil in it is of any value whatever. 
This phase of the case is thoroughly set forth in the follow- 
ing extract from a letter received from Prof. H. A. Weber, 
of Columbus, Ohio: 

11 * * * Bi ac k pepsin is made and sold by a man 
named Bane, under the style of ' U. S. Salyx Co., New 
Concord, Ohio.' According to Prof. Kedzie, it consists of 
salt and coloring matter. It is sold for making two pounds 
of butter out of one pound of butter and one pound of milk. 
It is also claimed to be patented, and county rights are be- 
ing sold in this State. But as the assignments which have 
come to my notice do not even contain the number of a 
patent, it is reasonable to suppose that this claim is not 
true. Many people have been induced to buy the fraud, in 
hope of making money out of it. Numerous inquiries have 
come to the office of our dairy and food commission as to 
whether this butter could be sold under our laws as unadul- 
terated. But, as it is one-half butter and one-half milk, it 
could of course not be allowed to be sold. 

" It is true that a pound of soft butter and a pound of 
milk slightly warmed, churned or shaken together will 
unite to a solid mass weighing two pounds. But the black 
pepsin plays no part in this operation, as it can be accom- 
plished just as well without as with it. 

" About three years ago a party in Marion, Ohio, sold a 
preparation of this kind for the same purpose for $1 a box, 
containing about an ounce of a powder. He sent the pow- 
der through the mail to purchasers all over the country. A 
postal detective sent me a box for analysis. It consisted 

of alum, bicarbonate of soda and turmeric. The circular 
accompanying the box gave instructions for making butter 
out of equal parts of butter and milk, and for two pounds it 
was only necessary to add of the powder what would be 
held on the point of a penknife. I told the detective that 
the powder was a fraud, as the same thing could be accom- 
plished without the addition of the powder. The party 
was arrested, tried before the United States Court at 
Toledo, Ohio, convicted and sent to the penitentiary for 
using the mail for fraudulent purposes. This black pepsin 
is just as great a fraud. 

"If you wish to make the experiment, put a pound of 
soft butter into a wide-necked bottle, add a pint of luke- 
warm milk and shake for a moment, and you will see how 
readily the milk and butter will emulsify. * * * " 

From our correspondents we learn that many other nos- 
trums are in use besides those which we have mentioned in 
this report. All of these preparations make the same 
claim for increasing the yield of butter. Among others, 
one correspondent says that a mixture of alum, pepsin and 
yolk of egg has been employed, which with one pound of 
butter and one quart of milk will make two pounds of 
richly colored butter. 

It is not probable that butter made in any of the ways 
mentioned or by any of the means employed can secure a 
permanent hold in the market. Its tendency to separation, 
decomposition and rancidity would be so great as to con- 
demn it for general use. Nevertheless such butters are 
found in the Eastern market. 

A simple test can be easily applied by any one to dis- 
tinguish one of these so-called butters from the genuine 
article. On melting a genuine article of butter the amount 
of water which will separate on the top of the melted mass 
is very small and should not exceed 12 per cent in volume 
of the whole material. By placing a little of the suspected 
butter in an ordinary test tube and melting it at a gentle 
temperature, and comparing the same with a sample of 
genuine butter, the difference in the amount of material not 
butter fat will at once be noticed. In the adulterated 
article almost half of the whole volume will be a mixture 
of water, curd and other materials, while with the genuine 
article of butter the fat will separate in a clear, limpid mass, 
and a small amount of water and a little curd only will 
appear at the top. It is not difficult for any person, no 
matter how unskilled in manipulation, to distinguish the 
fraudulent from the genuine butter by the test described. 

World's Fair Dairy Tests. 

In the Breeders' Gazetle of June 14th we have the weight 
of butter recovered by the churn from each of the three 
herds in the World's Fair dairy test, for the first ten days 
of the trial. In no case does the credited butter equal the 
estimated butter (i. e , all the butter in the milk as shown 
by analysis) in weight, both being calculated on an 80 per 
cent fat basis; (or instance, when the butter churned shows 
by analysis more than 80 per cent fat, the quantity over and 
above that is added to the weight of the butter, the result 
being what is called the credited butter. The per cent of 
fat in the churned butter ranges all the way from 81 per 
cent up to 86 08 per cent. The latter is the highest, and 
from the Jersey herd on the sixth day of the test; in the 
Guernsey herd 86 per cent is the highest, and in the Short- 
horn 85.8 per cent the highest per cent of butter fat in the 
churned butter. 

Comparing the weight of the credited butter with that of 
the estimated for the ten days we find it to be as follows: 
Jerseys, 472.9 pounds estimated and 459 5 credited, being 
an average ot 1.8 pounds per day per cow. The Guern- 
seys have 397 8 pounds estimated and 385 1 pounds cred- 
ited butter, an average of 1.5 pounds per day, and the 
Shorthorns 318.5 pounds and 302.7 pounds, being an aver- 
age of 1.3 pounds a day for the 23 cows. In each of the 
other herds there are 25 cows. 

The above figures show that there is a considerable loss 
of butter in the churning, yet a loss which is probably less 
than the average in dairies where the gravity system of 
cream-raising is followed, a fact that should not be lost 
sight of in dairy practice at any time. 

The daily yield of butter from each herd has been 
scored from June 1st to 6th inclusive by the three Judges — 
Messrs Barber, Gurler and Eldridge — and the average of 
their ratings on each point (which pretty closely agree) is 
taken as the official score. 

In neither of the breeds does the butter containing the 
highest per cent of fat score the highest. The scale by 
which the butter is judged is as follows: Flavor, 55; 
grain, 25; solidity, 10; color, 10. Total, 100." 

The average of the five days scoring of Jersey butler was 
as follows: Flavor, 48.9; grain, 23.4; solidity, 9 7; color, 
8.4; total, 90 4. 

The average of the six days scoring of Guernsey butter 
was as follows: Flavor, 49.7; grain, 22.3; solidity, 8.6; 
color, 9.1; total, 89 8. 

The average of the six days scoring of Shorthorn butter 
was as follows: Flavor, 49.3; grain, 22.2; solidity, 8.5; 
color, 9 6; total, 85.5. 

The Gazette gives the results of each day's milking, as 
well as scoring of butter, as far as it is done, in tabulated 
form, but the averages, as given above, we think will give 
a sufficiently good idea of the performances of each sepa- 
rate breed. 

The Gazette also publishes, for the first time, the revised 
rules under which the dairy test is conducted, and says: — 
"The chief object of the test is clearly set forth; it is not to 
find the cow which will make the largest yield of product, 
but the cow which shows the greatest profit. Different 
results could doubtless be produced if no account of profit 
were taken by the feeders." 

We give below the dates for the test now on, and the 
ones that are to follow; it is also stated what disposition is 
to be made of the milk in each test, and the time for which 
it shall continue. 
d. Wednesday, May 31, to Aug. 28, inclusive, ninety days: Breed 

I Test No. 2. In tbis test all commercial products, i. e., butter, skim- 
milk, buttermilk, and increase or decrease in live weight, and cost 

I of color, if used, will be considered in making the award The test 

is to be conducted under such uniform methods of handling the milk 
and cream and of manufacturing butter as may be agreed to by the 
Committee on Tests, subject to these rules and the approval of the 
Chief of the Department of Agriculture. 

e. Tuesday, Aug. 29, to Sept. 27, inclusive, thirty days: Breed 
Test No. ?. In this test no product will be considered in making an 
award except butter. The authorized representative of a breed shall 
have the right in this test to decide the method by which the milk 
and cream of such breed shall be handled and the manner in which 
the same shall be manufactured into butter, subject to these rules 
and the approval of the Chief of the Department of Agriculture. 

/. Saturday, Sept. 28. to Oct. 27, inclusive, thirty days: Breed 
Test No. 4. This test will be of young herds, entered in accordance 
with Sec. 7 of these rules and will be conducted under the same con- 
ditions and requirements, and the a*ards will be upon the same 
basis as provided for in Test No. 2. 

Thursday, Sept. 28, to Oct. 27, inclusive: Illustration of meth- 
ods of handling cream and manufacturing butter. Under a. c. and 
g. records will be kept as provided for in the regular tests. 

A. and c. refer to illustrations of methods of handling 
milk and cream during the month of May. 

Since writing the above we have received the Gazette of 
June 21st, in which we have milk records for another week. 

There is a noticeable falling off in the quantity of milk 
given by both the Jerseys and the Guernseys, while the 
Shorthorn herd shows an increase ia quantity. 

From June 10th to 17th, inclusive, the 25 Jersey cows 
gave 6860.5 lbs. of milk, an average of 27.44 lbs. a day per 

The 25 Guernsey cows gave 5937.9 lbs. of milk in 
same time, an average of 23 75 lbs. a day for each cow, and 
the 24 Shorthorn cows gave 66124 an average of 27.55 
lbs. of milk a day, which, for the first time since the 
milking trials began, shows a fraction better than the Jer- 
seys in quantity of milk; the latter however, are still far 
ahead of the other two breeds in the quantity of butter 

©HE g>TABbE. 

Speed Programme at State Fair. 

Following is the speed programme of the coming State 
Fair at Sacramento: 

Thursday, September 7th — The Occident Stake (closed.) 

Pacing purse, $1,000, 2:17 class; to close August 1st, 
Horses making a record of 2:14 or better on or before 
August 26th are to receive a return of entrance money and 
shall be barred from starting in this race, but may re-enter 
August 26. h in their proper classes. 

Trotting purse, $i,coo; 2:22 class; to close August 26th. 

Saturday, September gth.— Two-year-old stake, closed 
with twenty nominations. 

Trotting purse, $1,000, 2:27 class; to close August 1st. 
Horses making a record of 2:22 or better on or before 
August 26. h are to receive a return of entrance money, and 
shall be barred from starting in this race, but may re enter 
August 26 h in their proper classes. 

Trotting pur?e, $1,000, 2:16 class; to close August 26th. 

Tuesday, September \ith.~ Three-year-old trotting stake; 
closed wiih eighteen nominations. 

Pacing purse, $1,000, 2:20 class; to close August 26th. 

Trotting purse, $1,000, 2:24 class; to close August 26th. 

Thursday, September 14th. — Four-year-old trotting stake; 
closed with sixteen nominations. 

Three-year old pacing stake; closed with four nomina- 

Trotting purse, $i,ooo, 2:20 class; to close August 26th. 

Trotting purse, $8oo, 2:30 class; to close August 1st. 
Horses making a record of 2:22 or better on or before 
August 26th are to receive a return of entrance money, and 
shall be barred from starting in this race, but may re-enter 
August 26th in their proper classes. 

Free-for-all pacirg purse, $i,ooo; to close August 26th. 

Saturday, September \6th. — Pacing purse, $700, 2:25 
class; to close August 1st. Horses making a record of 
2:20 or better on or before August 26th are to receive a 
return of entrance money, and shall be barred from starting 
in this race, but may re-enter August 26th in their proper 

Free-for-all trotting purse, $1,200; to close August 26th. 

Four-year-old pacing purse, closed with four nominations. 

Futurity stake for the two-year old division. 

Running Stakes. No. 1 — The openingscramble fortwo- 
year-olds. A sweepstake of $25 each; $15 forfeit, or only 
$10 if declared before September 1st; with $300 added, of 
which $50 to second. Winners when carrying weight for 
age, or more, must carry five pounds extra. Maidens that 
have started once, allowed three pounds; twice, five pounds; 
three or more times, ten pounds. Six furlongs. 

No. 2 — The Sunny Slope Stake, a sweepstake for two- 
year-old fillies of $25 each; $15 forfeit, or only $10 if de- 
clared September 1st, with $250 added, second to receive 
$50 from stake. Winners when carrying age weight or 
more to carry five pounds extra. Non-winners allowed five 
pounds. Five-eighths of a mile. 

No. 3 — The California Annual Stake, a handicap for two- 
year-olds of $50 each; half forfeit, or only $15 if declared; 
with $350 added, of which $75 to second. Weights to be 
posted by 10 a.m. day before race, and declarations to be 
made by 6 p M. same day. Six furlongs. 

No. 4 — The Autumn Handicap, for two-year-olds. A 
sweepstake of $50 each;half forfeit, or only $10 if declared; 
with $500 added, of which $ioo to second, third to save 
stake. Weights to be posted day before race; declaration 
to be made by 6 p.m. same day. One mile. 

No. 5 — The Del Mar Stake, for all ages, of $50 each, $15 
forfeit, with $300 added, of which $ioo to second, third to 
save stake; $200 additional if i:4iX ,s beaten. Stake to 
be named after the winner if Del Mar's time (1 41X) > s 
beaten. One mile. 

The remainder of the running programme will be an- 
nounced on Saturday, August 26th, and will provide for 
sixteen additional races to cover the four days' running and 
accommodate all classes of horses. The State Agricultural 
Society's rules are to govern. There will be no added 
money for less than three starters. 



July 8 1898. 

(She JECpiary. 

Honey at the World's Fair. 

To the EDITOR: — " Is California well represented at 
the World's Fair ? ' is a question we hear on all sides these 
days. We Californians take a great pride in our State 
and its resources. Eastern people say we are given to 
bragging about our products; that we have not half what 
we claim, and what we have is not near as fine as we repre- 
sent it to be. Those easteners who have been here to see 
for themselves, are no longer " doubting Thomases;" they 
saw, and they went away convinced that we are all that 
was said about us; that we can and do raise fine fruits, big 
vegetables, in fact, that nearly everything that we have is 

The California World's Fair Commissioners had it in 
their power to help disabuse the minds of a large number 
of the denizens of the East that we are not a wide-awake 
people; that we have and can raise a greater variety of 
agricultural products than any other State in the Union. 

I was at the World's Fair recently, and, like many 
another Californian, I was deeply interested in seeing what 
sort of a showing our State is making at the fair. I found 
some of our exhibits in several different buildings; these 
exhibits were for the most part good — they were a credit to 
the State, yet, I did not approve of the way some of them 
were placed in position. I don't know whether this lack 
of artistic display was due to the non-esthetic taste of those 
directly engaged in installing said exhibits, or to some red 
tape rule of the head management of the exposition. But 
this is ajminor matter— one hardly worth noticing at this 
late day. 1 shall not undertake to tell what there is of 
California at the big show; that would take a good deal of 
space. Neither will I say anything about how money has 
been foolishly spent in getting a lot of truck into some of 
our exhibits. 

One of the most glaring oversights at the fair is: We are 
not represented in the honey exhibit. This is all the more 
noticeable from the fact that this State has a world-re- 
nowned reputation for being not only a sort of a bee para- 
dise, but the greatest honey-producing country in the world. 
At the fair I was told by a gentleman who was installing 
the honey exhibit of one of the western States, that the 
California commissioners had a large show case, such as 
are set apart for the States and countries that desire to 
make an apiarian exhibit of the product of the beehive, set 
apart for California; that they had to pay $250 for this 
case, and that they had it nicely lettered wi h the name of 
our State. This was all the State or even the general man- 
agers did to have the greatest honey State of America rep- 
resented at the exposition. There our great long honey 
and beeswax case remains unfilled and unused. Those 
who see it wonder what it is there for. 

New York has a honey show that it well might be proud 
of; even some of the States that are not of half of the im- 
of California, have very creditable exhibits. From present 
appearances it is more than likely that some of the S'.ates 
or Canada, which already have their exhibits in place, will 
carry off the prizes for honey and other products owing 
their origin to the honey-bee. 

The non-appearance of a California honey exhibit is not 
the fault of the apiarists of this State, for during the winter 
they made application to the California commissioners for 
the means to make a respectable honey exhibit; they were 
informed by the commissioners that if they wanted to make 
such a showing they would have to make it at their own 

When the members of the California State Bee-Keepers' 
Association heard this reply to their request they decided 
to do nothing in the way of an exhibit; and it is more than 
probable that the S'ate will not occupy the grand show case 
that so conspicuously bears its name in golden letters. It 
is not loo late yet to make a display, for this year's honey- 
that is not later, I believe, than June's — can be placed in 
the exhibit. I trust that the palm for fine honey won't be 
allowed to pass away from California on account of the 
meanness of the aforesaid commissioners. 

I will not pass the honey side of this question without 
saying that the first honey sent east this year was from Ala- 
meda county, and it was left at the office of the American 
Bee Journal in Chicago, for one of the managers ol a cer- 
tain county exhibit to call for and place it in his county's 
exhibit. It remained there three weeks, and up to the time 
of my leaving the city of the big fair it was still uncalled 
for. This gives but a single instance of how things have 
been mismanaged. All the time these men are drawing 
the people's money — money from the county funds appro- 
priated by the supervisors that their county might be 
properly represented at the fair. I shall not go further into 
the injustice of this manner of doing things. 

Then, I was unable to find any of our wool at the fair. 
As a wool-producing country we are not a bit behind the 
rest of the world. We can show about as fine fleeces as 
one could well desire to see. But these samples of our 
wool are not to be seen at the World's Fair, at least, I 
could not find them, and on inquiry, I was told that we had 
none there. Now, if this is not a great injustice to our 
State, I don't know what is. 

There are a few other things which we might have had 
represented, if the right sort of brains were brought into 
use at the fair. It will not be necessary to multiply cases. 
The above will suffice to show that our State is not as well 
represented at the Columbian Fair as Californians who 
have any interest in their State could wish for. 

We are making a pretty fair exhibit of native stones and 
minerals, preserved truits and oranges, native woods and a 
few other things; many of our staple crops and commodities 
are not shown at all, and if shown, they are of such insig- 
nificant size as to proportions and quality that they will not 
attract that attention which they should. Anything Cali- 
fornian ihould be done on a scale gigantic— this is the way 

to call attention to our products. Southern California 
understood this, for we find the counties which are allowed 
to be designated as "Southern California" making a grand 
display of their oranges. These oranges are the talk of 
the fair. These exhibits of oranges from the lower part of 
the State are not confined to one building but are to be 
found in several. The oranges from our State are so fine 
when shown beside the Florida oranges that the latter are 
"not in it," to put it in the slang language of the day. 

Just see what an impression we would have made upon 
the world if we were to have formidable arrays of our wool, 
honey, beet sugar, salt, etc., at the fair. And we could 
have had it if our commissioners had gone about getting up 
an exhibition in the proper manner. 

If we are to have a winter fair here, let us have the right 
sort of men take charge of it. Let them not be a lot of 
men who care more for the amount of patronage there is 
in the affair for their relatives and lady friends than they do 
for the State. Politics and patronage are things which 
should be kept out of the management of fairs, as well as 
churches. W. A. Pryai,. 

North Temescal, Cal., June 29, 1893. 

J?OUbTh\Y ^*ARD. 

Sulphur Process of Preserving Eggs. 

The Poultry Keeper recommends the following method 
of preserving eggs. In the beginning it should be said 
that eggs so packed in a box as to permit them to be turned 
over daily will keep twice as long as those not so treated 
By packing them in a box with oats for a filling, and then 
turn the box upside down, a large number can be turned 
at once. Another point is that eggs from hens that are 
confined in yards without the companionship of cocks keep 
better than under the reverse conditions, or rather, infertile 
eggs keep better than those that are fertile. Supposing the 
reader intends to try one dozen eggs as an experiment, one 
of which is to be broken each month for a year (of course a 
large number may be used if preferred) we will give the 
sulphur process: "Taken a common starch box with a 
sliding lid. Put the eggs in the box, and upon an oyster 
shell or other suitable substance, place a teaspoonful of 
sulphur. Set fire to the sulphur, and when the fumes be- 
gin to rise briskly shut up the lid, make the box tight, and 
do not disturb it for half an hour. Now take out the eggs, 
pack in oats, and the job is done. If the oats or packing 
material be subjected to the same process it will be all the 
better. If a barrel full is to be preseiv;d, place the eggs in 
a tight barrel two-thirds full, with no packing whatever. 
Fire a pound of sulphur upon a suitable substance, on top 
of the eggs in the vacant space over them, shut up tightly, 
let stand an hour, and then take out the eggs. As the gas 
is much heavier than the air it will sink to the bottom, or, 
rather, fill up the barrel with the fumes. In another barrel or 
box place some oats, and treat in the same way. Now 
pack the eggs in the oats, head up the barrel, and turn the 
barrel every day to prevent falling of the yolks, using each 
end alternately, and they will keep a year ; or, according to 
the efficiency of the operation, a shorter, or even a longer 

It will be seen from the above that the process is a dry 
and neat one, and very inexpensive, sulphur being a very 
cheap article. The process was sold several years ago by 
certain parties in Cincinnati as " Ozone," but it is an old 
one, and the parties were exposed, not that the process was 
a fraud, but because they sold a pound of sulphur for $2 as 

Green Pood for Fowls 

When I began taking care of poultry I had not read any 
article about the benefit that clover was to them, says 
"Country Gentleman." It is only in the last few years that 
the poultryman's attention has been called to its usefulness 
as a food to help hens in the formation of eggs. I com- 
menced using it the first season I had the care of poultry 
through observing the hens night and morning picking in 
the clover field not far from the house, and, concluding it 
must be good for them, I plucked it by hand until it was 
high enough to mow with a scythe, and I prepared it for 
their use by rolling it up in a wad and with a sharp knife 
slicing it off about half an inch long, holding the clover and 
cutting down over the edge of a board as one wouid cut 
dried beef. It used to take me some time to prepare 
enough for 200 hens, but now, with a clover-cutter, it 
is only a few minutes' work. I think it very necessary to 
have it cut short, for I fed some once about three inches long 
to some game roosters in coops that had not had any 
green food in a number of days, and they gorged themselves 
so that 1 lost two valuable ones. One I saved by opening 
his crop and taking out the contents and then sewing it 
up. He came out all right. The clover was a'l wadded 
up and would have surely killed him; so I have been very 
careful ever since. I have followed gardening the last 20 
years in connection with poultry, and when weeding in my 
vegetables I keep a wheelbarrow near and whenever it 
was filled I wheeled it to my hens, and it is astonishing 
how many weeds a flock of hens of from 200 to 350 can 
utilize. It is a good deal better to let the hens turn them 
into a fertilizer than to pile the weeds up in a corner as 
some gardeners do and let them rot down. The wheel- 
barrow I used had a tire on the wheel about y/ t inches 
wide, and I could wheel it in the garden over son ground. 
I think it is just as necessary to have some kind of green 
food for fowls as any other ration, and for winter I have 
usually put all my soft heads of cabbage that were not 
salable where I could get them at any time and have fed a 
great many every winter. When these were gone I have 
fed malt sprouts from the breweries and consider them 
very good. Prof. Steward says they are very nitroge- 


An Australian in a California Orchard 

|'Mr. Fred C. Smith, horticultural representative of the S juth Aus- 
tralian government, has been making systematic investigation of 
California fruit culture during the past six weeks. At the request of 
the Rural Press he his furnished us a copy of one of his first let- 
ters 10 Australian papers. It tells of a visit to the great orchard of 
Mr. Frank Buck, near Vacaville, and is altogether so interesting and 
is such a clear and intelligent statement of the methods of a success- 
ful fruit-grower, that we present it in full.] 

Here, in California, the busy fruit season has begun. 
Cherries and all the small berries are being canned, and 
early peaches and apricots shipped East to the great cities. 
You will be in the middle of pruning and will shortly, or, 
where necessary, should be doing your spraying. This let- 
ter will deal principally with those two subjects, as being 
most opportune. Calitornia, as the majority of our Austra- 
lian growers know, is by far the most progressive and en- 
terprising fruit region in the world. 

One of the foremost of its fruit-growers, both in intelli- 
gence and in the size of his orchards, is Mr. Frank Buck, of 
Vacaville, some 60 miles north of San Francisco. This 
district, extending some miles up a narrow valley to Win- 
ters, contains about 12,000 acres of fruit trees and vines, 
though the latter are gradually being superseded by fruit 
trees, owing to the phylloxera. Being the earliest district 
of the State, it is able to pick and send fresh fruits very 
early and to great advantage to the Eastern States. The 
earliest apricots here are the Pringle and Newcastle. These 
should ripen in Australia, in early situations, during No- 
vember, or even before. They are, however, much too 
small for canning or drying, and the former is a clingstone. 
The Royal is the great apricot of the State, setting better, 
ripening more evenly and earlier than the Moorpark and 
Blenheim, perhaps the two next best in favor though a lit- 
tle smaller in size. The Centennial cherry is a very fine 
fruit, but apt to split or crack. The old Napoleon Bigar- 
reau is undoubtedly the great standard cherry in the State 
for canning and shipping. 

The orchards of this valley consist principally of prunes 
(Petite Prune d'Agen), pears (Bartlett), peaches and apri- 

Mr. Buck has over 1000 (one thousand) acres of orchard, 
and is said to make more per acre per annum than any 
other large orchardist in the country. The reason is, that 
he personally supervises every operation in the orchards or 
the packing-rooms and spares no time nor expense to have 
everything done thoroughly. It is for these reasons that I 
have decided to describe some of his methods, particularly 
of course where they could be followed to advantage by our 
Australian growers. One of the first things that struck me 
was the remarkable uniformity in the pruning, bearing and 
shape of his peach trees ; so different from those in far too 
many of the orchards of our country, where the trees are 
allowed to grow up, too often, with long bare branches and 
a bunch of twigs at the end. Mr. Buck treats his young 
trees up to the third and fourth year much in the same way 
as we do, but after he has got them into the shape he in- 
ends them to grow, he cuts the previous season's growth 
back half way, thins out (as a rule) every other twig on the 
branch and cuts those left back by a half. He showed me 
whole blocks of 1 2-year-old trees, bearing a heavy uniform 
crop right through and well clothed with spurs and foliage 
to within three feet of the butt. I was hardly astonished 
when he told me that his most expert Chinese pruners 
could not get over more than eight or nine of such trees in 
a day, while the average was six or seven per day per man. 
In reply to my remark that in very many places in our 
country the profitable and consistent bearing life of the 
peach appeared to be from the third to the eighth or tenth 
year, he stated that in the eastern peach-growing States, 
and in some parts of this State, the very same idea was en- 
tertained. He felt sure that by a proper pruning this idea 
would soon disappear. He assured me that peach trees, 
with him, bore regularly and well long after their twelfth 
year. Another feature of Mr. Buck's peach culture is the 
evenness of size and shape of his fruit. This is the result 
of careful thinning. 

I passed by blocks of nectarine and peach trees with 
thousands of fruits lying under the trees as if a hurricane had 
passed over them. It takes as long to thin the trees as it 
does to prune them. His rule in thinning is, roughly, to 
leave a hand's breadth between each fruit on the wood. 
The result is in every way preferable to the system of over- 
cropping so often pursued with us. Though he gathers 
less fruit in number, he gets superior quality and weight 
and far more money for the crop than if he had not thinned. 

In addition to this, his trees having less drain upon them, 
are in better condition for the following season. The re- 
production of its species is the highest form of energy and 
most exhaustive of any living thing, and where, as it has 
been stated it takes several times more of the amount of 
the vital force of a tree to mature the kernel of its fruit than 
the outside pulp, the common sense and value of thinning 
will be readily understood. 

Again, as Mr. Buck observed, where the twigs are 
thinned out and kept well clipped back, the enormous num- 
ber of blossoms usually to be seen upon a peach tree, is 
largely reduced and the setting of the fruit greatly helped. 
He thins both apricots and peaches before the kernel has 
become white and firm, and while still watery, as he holds 
that after that the mischief is done. Pointing to some trees 
that were shedding immature fruit, he said: 

" We have occasionally to take the risk of the tree doing 
that after we have thinned, and then it looks as if the man 
who lets things take their course and does not thin, will 
get ahead of us. Where the season has been exceptionally 
wet and there is plenty of moisture in the soil to support 
the tree and perfect the crop, he may do so, but in quite 
three seasons out of four the careful gardener comes out on 
top, and it pays well to consistently prune and thin every 
year and take no chances." 

The buyers who come early in the season to contract for 
the future crop will hardly look at a heavy, unthinned tree, 

July 8, 1898. 



It costs Mr. Buck $30 (£6 is id) per acre per year for the 
combined work of pruning and thinning alone, but then he 
everages over four tons per acre per year at $40 (,£8 is id) 
per ton sold to the canners and a great deal more than that 
for what he sends East. Here are a few facts of remark- 
able yields of peach trees on the Buck orchards. Seven 
acres of Salways produced 102 tons of fruit one year at $90 
per ton, $9000, or over 1800 pounds sterling. From 91 
trees of Alexander's Early, upon one acre of ground, he one 
year took 2630 i6-pound boxes of fruit, or more than 19 
tons. Big figures, though, prove of very little use except 
as curiosities. 

I noticed that some of the peach trees had curl leaf and 
found that they had been forgotten during the spraying 
time. Most of these trees were so badly effected that the 
crop had all fallen. 

Mr. Buck is an enthusiastic believer in spraying and 
some years back spent thousands of dollars experimenting 
with different washes and mixtures to try and kill the San 
Jose scale, an Insect pest that for some time threatened the 
orchards and their owners with absolute ruin. Now, by the 
use of the lime, salt and sulphur mixture this deadly enemy 
is no longer feared; though one spraying in the winter just 
before growth commences, is applied as a preventive, and 
this particular mixture has proved to be a capital combined 
insecticide and fungicide. I mentioned that in the experi- 
ments conducted by myself and others as a committee on 
behalf of the Agricultural Building of South Australia the 
"Bordeau mixture" had proved a perfect preventive of curl 
leaf. This he was glad to know, because the lime.salt and sul- 
phur mixture is very much more tedious and difficult to make 
than the Bordeau. I found that, right through this State, 
spraying is looked upon, where necessary, as simply one of 
the ordinary operations of orchard work, and that years 
ago just the same sort of suspicion of and prejudice against 
it prevailed here as at present is the case with compara- 
tively few exceptions throughout the colonies. I have been a 
strong advocate of spraying in South Australia, but am, if 
possible, now more convinced than ever of the immense 
value of judicious spraying to Australian orchardists. Mr. 
Craw the State Entomologist of California tells me that there 
are only two diseases or pests known here, which are fatal 
to the production of trees, or rather vines, which have 
as yet defeated all the efforts of science to find a cure, and 
they are "phylloxera" and another and mysterious disease 
on vines in the southern part of this State. In face of the 
fact that hundreds of tree and vine pests are known here 
and all but these two are as yet incurable, we should be far 
more advanced in our knowledge and practice in this mat- 
ter than we actually are, in Austialia. 

Mr. Buck had tried, among other things, " Kerosene 
Emulsion" and " Resin Compound." The former he con- 
demned as being too expensive, dangerous and uncertain, 
and the latter, though good, was not absolutely effective. 
He uses the lime salt and sulphur mixture successfully for 
the " pear phytoptus " or mite, which is particularly partial 
to the Bartlett. 

In the Vacaville valley, Chinese or Japanese are usually 
employed, and they work for $1 per day and keep them- 
selves. In some places they receive the same wages as 
Europeans, viz.: $1 and their keep. Mr. Buck cultivates 
his orchard, after the plowing, five or six times during the 
season, and the ground round the trees is hoed up to a 
distance of one or two feet with pronged hoes. The lands 
are then finally rolled with a roller with iron teeth all round 
it, which breaks up the clods and does not pack the soil 
down too tightly. This implement he calls a clod-crusher, 
and it cprtainly does the most perfect work I have ever 
seen. Wherever the butts of his trees are too exposed to 
the sun by being too tall or from part of the top having 
been cut back for grafting, or budding, a thick coat of 
white wash is applied to about 3 feet from the ground. He 
pointed out some pears that he had budded to Bartletts. 
These had been cut back, half at a time, and the other 
branches left till the buds were a year or two old. By 
this means, he saved a crop of good fruit all the time. The 
buds grew slowly enough to grow strong and not blow off, 
and the roots had plenty of outlet for their sap instead of 
throwing up innumerable suckers. Incidentally he stated 
that he had dried the worst and smallest of his Bartlett 
pears, and that they were really the only pear worth drying. 
This agrees perfectly with my own experience in the mat- 
ter. We went from Mr. Buck's pear orchard into a neigh- 
bors, and the contrast in the matter of pruning was very 
marked. The former cut well back even into the old wood 
and the trees were well laden in the centre and on limbs 
well able to carry them. The latter were not pruned, and 
in consequence already bending down hundreds of their 
branches though the fruit was not more than one-fourth 
grown, and as the Bartlett wood is brittle, one can 
imagine the state of the trees when next pruning season 

I can as yet see no difference between what we in South 
Australia call " Duchesse d'Augouleme," and the Victor- 
ians call " Williams Bon Chretien," and the Bartlett — in 
every respect they appear to be one and the same. Mr. 
Buck has 70 acres of these pears. He had a contract with 
a cannery for 5 years to supply Bartletts at 2 cents (or one 
penny) per lb., none to be delivered smaller than three to 
the pound. After the sixth year the average crop per tree 
per annum was 100 lbs. His pears are planted upon some 
of the richest soil in his property, but a common saying 
there is, if you have soil that pears or myrobolan (cherry 
plums) will not grow in, no other fruit tree will thrive 

To illustrate the striking difference between careful 
and careless cultivation. Mr. Buck drove me over to a 
15-acre block of apricots planted by him 4 years ago, which 
in their fifth year were 12 to 16 feet high and loaded with 
fruit. In the third year (1891) he took $50000 and last 
year $2000.00 worth of fruit from that tract, and expects to 
take more this year. On our way back we drove through 
a 10-acre block of apricots planted the same season; but 
the owner had sown almonds and peach pits between the 
rows and had not properly cultivated it. Last year he got no 
apricots worth speaking of, and very little for his youDg 

stock, and this season he has sold the little fruit on his 
stinted trees for $25.00 (five pounds sterling.) 

A very noticeable feature of the fruit industry here is the 
absence of small orchards, with a few trees of each of 
several dozen kinds of fruits in them, as we see too often in 
Australia. "It does'nt pay" as one man remarked when 
showing me his ten acre garden all planted to the best sort 
of prune, "I can have the fruit all picked and handled and 
dried or shipped off fresh in the shortest possible time and 
do other work after." If Australia is to have a large foreign 
trade with her fruits, there must be a large enough number 
of trees planted of the sorts best suited for that market, to 
be able to send large shipments of uniform quality, size, 
flavor, etc. No one here would think of planting Coe's 
Late Red Damson and scores of other really second and 
third rate fruits. A first rate fruit must be fit not for jam 
and pie-making only but for drying and canning too, and 
must be healthy and prolific also. The inferior pears, 
peaches, plums, apricots and apples must be grafted to 
sorts best fitted for two or three uses. Possibly the jam- 
makiDg industry in the colonies has had unwittingly no 
little part in the present state of things, because as long as 
growers could get any sort of price from the factories they 
would not cut their trees back to work them and so lose 
two or three years in some cases. 

The tinning of jams is hardly known here, and only a 
small quantity of whole fruit jam sold in glass jars. The 
most progressive men here and those who most carefully 
study the markets, both domestic and foreign, pooh-pooh 
the cry of over-production, which is at regular intervals 
raised here and indeed everywhere else. 

Mr. Buck is making pear, peach, apricot, prune and 
table grape growing pay well on land that cost him $600. 
per acre. Think of it, you Australians, with land every 
bit as good, to be bought for from $25 to $100 per acre. 
What you want is to know what to grow for the foreign 
markets, and know how to grow and handle it, and make it 
fit for competition with the very best in those markets. 

Fred C. Smith. 

San Francisco, June 29, 1893. 

Shrinkage in Dried Fruits. 

Mr. Adams' article in the RURAL of June 24th opens up a 
very important and interesting question, and it is to be 
hoped that others will contribute further results of experi- 
ments until the table already begun can be extended to 
cover a full line of fruits and vegetables with the accuracy, 
required in choice business estimates. 

When the Alden process was introduced, twenty years 
ago, tables were carefully prepared showing the shrinkage 
of different kinds of fruit and vegetables. If any one has 
any of the pamphlets or circulars left they may serve as a 
guide, until better and more accurate data are at hand. 

The writer kept a close account for two seasons of almost 
every kind of fruit and vegetable grown in the vicinity of 
Vacaville. The books are in Iowa, but he can remember 
some of the data. Some Hale's Early peaches yielded 
only percent of pared fruit, while the general average 
was I2£ per cent for pared peaches and 16$ per cent lor 
unpared peaches. The larger fruit was pared and the 
smaller unpared. At that time there were very few or 
none at all of the Muir, Susquehannas, Salway, and many 
others that have since grown famous as drying peaches. 

Probably a season's run in that section, at this time for a 
factory that did not start before Imperials and McKevitt's 
ripened, would show as high an average yield as 15 per 
cent for pared peaches and 20 per cent for unpared. If 
they slipped the peel off when loosened by sulphur, thev 
would realize a still better yield on the pared fruit. It is 
very likely that first-class Muirs would run as high as 25 
per cent. 

Apples and pears yielded an average of 12}4 per cent. 
Had account been kept of separate varieties it would have 
been likely to show as much variation between Red Astra- 
chan and Roxbury Russet as between 8 and 15 per cent. 
Onions yielded 10 per cent., potatoes yielded 25 per cent., 
tomatoes yielded 7 per cent. These latter were the small 
early varieties then grown at Vacaville for the San Fran- 
cisco market. It is probable that some of the more solid 
meat varieties lately introduced would yield at least 10 
per cent. Currants, blackberries and raspberries were then 
dried in considerable quantities. A large concern was 
built at San Lorenzo, mainly to supply a market for the 
currants which were then beyond the demands of the mar- 
ket as fresh fruit. Almost everything eatable was dried in 
an experimental way, and goods were taken at prices to 
justify the hope that a permanent trade might be built up 
in most articles. The price of rights and machinery gen- 
erally loaded down the factories with so heavy a capital 
that it was impossible for them to buy fuel and compete 
with the results realized from sun drying, especially after 
the introduction of the sulphur process made the appearance 
of sun-cured fruit equal to the evaporated. With such 
machinery as is now used in curing raisins, operated upon 
a line of fruits and vegetables planted with a view to fur- 
nishing a long and constant supply for the machinery, and 
operated by a firm prepared to use the means necessary to 
introduce the products to the trade, it is quite probable that 
success might now follow where failure has pointed out the 

For Destroying Moths. 
Mrs. Kerrick, of Sanger, recommends burning rags 
saturated with turpentine in pans attached to stakes, at an 
elevation above the vines and trees, as efficient in attract- 
ing and destroying the moths that deposit the eggs that 
produce cutworms. They fly during the early part of the 
night when warm weather approaches. Perhaps some 
cheaper and more efficient material might be provided, but 
it seems as though this idea might be extended to plans for 
destroying much insect life. 

A Point In Running Harvsters. 
Upon asking Mr. Clark, of Reedley, why he had three 
mules in the lead of his harvester team, he replied that 
when hitched in that way the off mule walked in the track 

made by the leader wheel, and so guided the team that the 
machine always cut a full swath and kept a steady motion 
without turning from a straight line. This was one of 
many useful points that he had learned in running a 
Houser Harvester for eight years, and it seemed strange to 
think that all others had not adopted the same plan. 

Frank S. Chapin. 

To Take in More Fruit Growers. 

To the Editor:— Campbell Fruit Growers' Union has 
just decided to increase its fruit-drying plant to more than 
double its present capacity. Enough stock will be sold, in 
addition to that already placed, to cover the cost. All 
those now wanting stock can be accommodated provided 
the stock to be placed will go around. A portion of the 
stock can be paid for out of the returns from the present 
fruit crop, which gives the incoming stockholders a little 
advantage over the old stockholders since the newcomers 
get the benefits before fully paying for them. 

The June drop has been a very heavy drop of apricots, 
and the end is not yet. Some of the half crops of apricots 
are more than half gone. What is left will be worth some- 

Peaches are dropping but not so badly, but the prunes 
thus far give no evidence of dropping. 

The Directors of the Fruit Exchange hold regular meet- 
ings on the first Saturday of each month. 

The Fruit Exchange building is being pushed rapidly to 

Santa Clara County has put a man into the field to gather 
fruit to be exhibited at the Columbian Exposition for a 
time, and then sold for account of the grower who furnished 

The financial flurry seems to have come and gone. 

Offers oi S'A cents for the 4 sizes, new crop of prunes, 
are being made freely but holders are not disposed to con- 
sider a price so low. Some business could be done at 6 
cents f.o.b. A few sales of choice apricots at loyi cents 
f.o.b. are reported from the southern part of the State. It 
is thought that most of these have been made by buyers 
who have sold short. What they will have to pay to fill 
their shortage will be determined later. It now looks as 
though it would be considerable more than thev will get. 

Campbells, June 28, 1893 Campbellite. 

Kerosene Emulsion and Lice. 

Some of our readers desire us to repeat the kerosene 
emulsion, which formula we have frequently given. There 
are several methods given, the following being according to 
Prof. Riley: 

Soap Half pound. 

Kerosene Two gallons. 

Water One gallon. 

Use hard soap, cut into slices, and boil it in the water 
until the soap is dissolved. Add the boiliog solution of 
soap (away from the fire) to the kerosene, and churn the 
mixture by means of a force pump and a spraying nozzle 
for five or ten minutes. The emulsion, if perfect, forms a 
cream which thickens on cooling, and should adhere with- 
out oiliness to the surface of glass. Dilute, before using, 
one part of the emulsion with nine parts of water, The 
above formula gives three gallons of emulsion, and makes, 
when diluted, 30 gallons of wash. A frequent cause of 
fuilure is the attempt to form an emulsion churning together 
a small quantity of kerosene and a large quantity of dilu- 
tent. Only a very unstable compound is thus formed. 
The very essence of the process requires that the oil shall be 
broken down by driving into union with it a smaller, or at 
most, an equal quantity of the emulsifying solution; after 
which, if a genuine emulsion is formed, it may be diluted 
to any extent with water. No insecticide is equal to the 
kerosene emulsion against lice. It is much more impor- 
tant to make the treatment thorough than to have a strong 
emulsion. A two per cent emulsion is as strong as ever 
need be used against plant lice if the application be thor- 
oughly made. Much weaker emulsions have given good 

Prices for Packing Raisins. 

The California State Raisin-Growers' Association has 
formulated a basis of prices for packing raisins, as follows: 

London layers, 40 cents per box; plain paper. 35 cents; extra loose 
25 cents; plain loose, 22^ cents; loose, extra for facing, io cents; 
stemming and sacking. $7.50 a ton; 20 cents added for half boxes 
and 50 cents for quarter boxes. 

The packers agree not to pack or put up in boxes any layers except 
clusters and the two grades of London layers. 

Reports must be made daily to the State executive committee of all 
sales made, etc. Commissions 5 per cent, and Eastern brokerage not 
to exceed 2% per cent. 

No raisins shall be sold for prices less than those fixed and deter- 
mined upon by the executive committee. 

Twenty-five cents per ton must be paid on all raisins purchased or 
handled outside of members of the association. 

The packers will pay the association for its support $r for each car- 
load shipped. 

The pack on each grade must be uniform. 

The recent meeting of the association at Fresno was 
somewhat inharmonious, the executive committee, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Gordon, Narris and Motheral, withdrawing. 
At the next meeting a definite plan of action will be deter- 
mined upon. 

Cure tor Curl Leaf in Peaches. 

R. C. Kells of Sutter states that a certain and positive 
cure for curl leaf in peaches has been discovered. Spray- 
ing wi h lime, sulphur and salt has demonstrated beyond 
all question thit curl leaf can be readily and cheaply cured. 
Mr. Cutts at Marysville took a number of trees he sprayed 
portions of. The lower half of the trees, fully sprayed with 
the lime, sulphur and preparation, were bright and clean 
and free from any sign of curl leaf, while the upper half of 
the same trees were seriously injured by this disease. An 
expert who examined the trees thinks that spraying with 
sulphur alone would fully answer the purpose. 



July 8, 1898. 

Analyses of Flsfs and Fig Soils. 

University Experiment Station Bulle 
tin No. 102. 

( Continued from last issue. ) 


It is not our purpose to make a complete 
discussion of fig soils, but merely to present 
the analyses of the soils from the Asia Minor 
districts whence comes the Smyrna fig of com 
merce; and, by way of comparison, we givesome 
analyses of typical soils from different regions 
in this State where fig culture seems to succeed 

With the exception of the analysis of soi 
No. 1466, from Miramonte, Kern Co., published 
here for the first time, all the descriptions 
analyses, etc., of the California soils are taken 
from previous reports of this station. 

Unfortunately, we have for the Asia Minor 
soils no data regarding the area which each soil 
analyzed represents, the depth of the soil, dis- 
tance to water, the natural growth, etc. 


A. Soil from Smyrna, Asia Minor, received 
at the University May, 1891, with some fig cut 
tings, imported by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture — a calcareous loam, dark gray in 
color: somewhat plastic on wetting and knead 
ing; contains fragments of limestone, together 
with considerable fine quartz gravel. 

B. Soil from Erbeili, Asia Minor, said 
to grow the finest commercial figs. Sample 
sent by Geo. C. Roeding, Fresno, Cal. This is 
a micaceous sandy soil, of light buff tint, does 
not become plastic on wetting and kneading, 
and consists almost entirely of fine earth. It 
shows effervescence with acids. 

C. Soil from Erbeili, Aidin district, Asia 
Minor. 8ample tent by D. Van Lennop, 
Auburn, Cal. A sandy, gravelly loam, light 
color; showing no plasticity upon weftine and 
kneading. The soil contains quite a large 
amount of coarse gravel, and does not effer- 
vesce upon the addition of acids. 

It will be seen from an inspection of the 
analyses of the Asia Minor soils that they are 
all exceedingly well supplied with lime and 
phosphoric acid and in the case of soil B from 
Erbeili district, notably also with potash. 
This latter soil appears, apart from the hnmus 
contents, to be the richest, with its 1.09 per 
cent of potash, 1.96 of lime and .29 per cent 
of pbo«phoric acid. It does not contain as 
much lime and phosphoric acid as soil A, which 
shows 4 44 and .37 per cent respectively, but 
the potash percentage is just double that found 
in soil A, and figs draw quite heavily on this 
very important ingredient. Soil B. has another 
very striking advantage over both soils A and 
C, in that while they have 35 and 40 per cent 
respectively of coarse materials, soil B has only 
one per cent of these. 

The percentages of potash and lime in soil C 
are somewhat below those of the other two; 
while in phosphoric acid It rates the same as B. 

When comparing the nitrogen contents as 
indicated by the humus percentages, we note 
a marked deficiency in soil B, with only 27 per 
cent. T*ie figure for soil C, .44, about 13 times 
that of soil B, is only fair; and in soil A, 
showing nearly three times as much humus as 
does soil B, is satisfactory. 

The moisture absorption is low in both 
soils B and C and only fair in soil A. The 
higher factor in A was to be expected, 
owing to its rating so much ahead of the other 
two in humus. 


No. 1466. Sandy loam soil from S. W. i Sec. 
17, T. 26 8. R. 23 E., Miramonte, Kern Co. Sent 
by Geo. A. Ravmond. Consists almost entirely 
of fine earth. Original vegetation, tar weed and 
pepper cress. It is of a dark buff tint, becom- 
ing somewhat plastic on wetting and kneading. 
Mr. Raymond writes, under date of September, 
1890, regarding this soil: 

"Top soil of a fine fig orchard, a quite large 
streak running from S. E. to N. W. and compris- 
ing about200 acres. Everythingdoes well in tbis 
soil, even when new and without previous culti- 
vation. The growth of weeds last spring was 
tremendous. The figs (White Adriatic) are 
now in the third year from the nursery, with 
trunks from four to six inches in diameter and 
corresponding tops. The trees have made a 
heavy growth this year, though setting but lit- 
tle fruit. The soil bakes hard when flooded, 
but is tillable when moist." 

The analysis of this soil shows it to contain 
high percentages of potash, lime and phos- 
phoric acid, the latter approaching very nearly 
to three times the average for California soils. 
The nitrogen as indicated, by the hnmus is 
in a fair supply. 

No 1159. "Sandy toil from the Experiment 
Station tract near Tulare City, of a buff tint, 
quite sandy, not assuming any plasticity on 
wetting and kneadintr, and capable of tillage at 
all times. Originally timbered with scattering 
but large white oaks. Sample taken to the 
depth of 12 inches; at 18 to 20 inches the color 
changes slightly toward yellowish, but texture 
continues unchanged; at 36 inches to 40 incbe9 
there underlies a more compact material or 
hardpan, fairly coherent and of somewhat finer 
texture, preventing leachiness. Effervesces 
with acid." 

This soil, as may be seen from the analysis 
given in the table below, is rich in potash and 
lime; contains an adequate supply of phos- 
phoric acid. It is very low in humus in the 
the spot sampled, but doubtless this is not the 
case thronghout, judging from the appearance 
of the land. Its high percentage of soda tells 
of the vicinity of alkali spots. So far as can be 
judged this soil is fairly representative of the 
higher portion of the sandy plains generally 
from Kern to Stanislaus county. 

No. 570. Alluvial soil, 12 inches; Eisen vine- 
yard, Fresno Co.; reddish-brown, only moder- j 
ately heavy, with much coarse sand intermixed 

No. 51 ; Slate Soil, Twelve Inohes ; Au- 

No. 764) Valley, Loomls Station. 

No. 766; Hill Pine, Loomla Station. 

1 Cl — - • - - 


r -_r> O t^- o o 

No. 110; Soli, Putah Valley ; 


Dlzon, Solano 







No 972 ; Subsoil 971 ; 

Twelve to Twenty-four 

No. 971 ; Soli, Twelve Inches; Mountain View, 
Santa Clara Co 

: o<5~ — c 

No 11E9; Soil, Twelve Inches; Experiment 
Station, near Tulare City 

« — — - 

No 571; 8oil, Fancher Creek Alluvium; Elsen 
Vineyard, Fresno Co 

No 146IS; Soil. Twelve Iooh-s ; 8 W. J, 8. 17, 
T. 26 S. R , 23 F. . Miramonte, Kero to 



S gj ? ;* 2 -~ £J £ 

Soli, ErbelU. Aldln District 

Soli, Erbeili Dietrict. 

<M -r _ ©■*•— rto 

—• — CO CO 

n« E in 

Soil, Smyrna. Sert from Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington 



: : : : : s :© :~ : : « 


: : ■ : : : ?? :-0 3 *i 
b : • i a-i-<£5 2 

2 : ■ : :~8 : ?o~-3~* 

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15 :* i - 

3 » ^ '= >, » 

easily tilled, except when very wet. This soil 
represents the alluvium of the minor streams 
heading in the foothills. The phosphoric acid 
n this soil is very low, but tbis deficiency is 
some respects modified by the great depth and 
perviousness of the soil. The supply of lime is 
abundant and that of potash above the average. 

Not. 971, 972. Dark gravelly loam soil and tub 
tuit. from vineyard and orchard of Mr. J 
Sladky, Mountain View, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 
The soil is a mouse-colored clay-loam, inter 
mixed with a good deal of gravel, some of the 
latter quite coarse, and both rounded and an- 
gular. The lumps of dry soil can be crushed 
between the fineers with some difficulty, and 
on wetting it becomes only moderately ad- 

This soil represents the extreme western edge 
of the sloping, gently rolling plain that forms 
the western portion of the Santa Clara valley, 
southward of Mountain View. Along the 
streams the soil is of great depth, sometimes 
howing hardly a perceptible change for 12 or 
15 feet in depth, and the roots of trees are found 
penetrating freely to such depths in the gravelly 
material. This great depth, perviousness and 
perfect drainage would constitute alone no 
mean advantage if the soil were only of moder- 
ate fertility. But the analyses show a very 
good snpply of plant food. The potash, lime 
and humus are high, and the phosphoric acid 
is found in very fair amounts. It is true that 
these percentages apply to only one-half of the 
soil mas«, the rest being eravel. But the great 
iepth and easy permeability of the soil more 
than make up the difference in comparison, 
1 g., with an adobe soil of similar composition. 

These soils may be considered as well adapted 
to the production of almost any fruit consistent 
with the local climate. 

No 110. Soil of Putah Valley, near Dixon, 
Solano county, sent by Mr J. M. Dudley from 
the " middle land " of the plain, on the slopes 
of the swales about three feet ab~ve the lowest 
land. Depth taken. 12 inches. The soil is rep- 
resentative of the rich alluvial plains of Yolo 
and Solano counties, the soils of which are of 
pre-eminent fertility, being a mix'ure of the 
finest natural sediments of the Sacramento 
river with those carried by the streams heading 
in the volcanic portion of the Coast Range (of 
which Cache and Putah creeks are the chief). 
The plain is scarcely broken bv the slight 
swales or undulations coming down from the 
foothills; but the region is thickly settled and 
is largely occupied by orchards and vineyards. 
The analysis of this soil confirms the experience 
stated above relating to the fertility of the soil, 

of this sec'ion. The amount of potash is large 
and those of limeand phosphoric acid adequate. 

No. 766. Granite toil, from near Loomis (for 
merlv Pino station.) C. P Railroad, Placer Co. 
sent bv E. W. Maslin of Sacramento, who thus 
describes the soil: " There are about 80 square 
miles of such land lying between Boulder tidge 
and the North Fork of the American river and 
between Roseville on the south and Auburn 
ravine on the north. The ground is gray when 
dry; when damp, brown or reddish. In places 
the soil is from 9 to 10 feet deep; in some places 
not over one foot. The subsoil also varies in 
depth and character. On the hills the subsoil 
rests on a red, rotten granite, into which the 
roots of trees and shrubs penetrate. It has been 
dug with the pick to the depth of 20 feet. In 
the valleys there underlies a gritty clay, here 
called 'cement,' but also penetrable by roots. 
Water is within 10 to 12 feet of the surface of 
the hills in summer. The natural growth is 
live oak, white oak, digger and nut pine, chap- 
arral 8 to 10 feet h'gh, abundance of poison oak 
and California holly." 

"The growth of the fig tree is very satisfac- 
tory. I do not irrigate, and my observation is, 
that the fig tree at a producer of first-class figs 
does better in the foothills than in the valley. 
Where the soil is too rich the tree is apt to 
overgrow and go to wood instead of fruit." 

Toe hill soil, which seems to be a typical 
one, is a reddish-gray sandy loam, the sand 
mostly coarse, and consisting largely of granitic 
debris; it should till easily at all times. The 
subsoil below the depth of 12 inches is some- 
what lighter colored and more sandy. The 
soils from the depression or vallevs seem to 
differ from the hill land mainly in being some- 
what heavier and also of a darker tint. 

No. 764. Volley toil from same locality as 
No. 766; a brownish dun-colored, rather sandy 
loam, darkening materially on wetting and be- 
coming but slightly plastic. Contains much 
coarse granitic debris. Sample taken to depth 
of 12 inches. 

The subsoil of this land is more reddish and 
somewhat sandier than the surface soil, the 
sand being decomposed micaceous granite, in- 
creasing downward. Beneath the subsoil at 
depths varying fiom 3 to 10 feet is a porous, 
sandy hardpan (cement) quite coherent from 
clavey binding material and not readily pene- 
trable bv roots. Beneath this comes " rotten " 
eranite (sometimes to 20 feet depth) in which 
the feldspar masses are kaolinized. 

These two granite soils show the usual large 

percentages. The valley soil differs from that 
' of the ridges, as might be expected, in some- 
what higher percentages of lime— of which sub- 
stance, however, there is enough in both— and 
of phosphoric acid, of which the supply is small 
in both, and will doubtless be the "first de- 
ficiency to be supplied. Potash is present in 
adequate amounts, and hnmus is in fair supply, 
especially in the valley soil, causing the higher 
absorption of moisture as compared with the 
ridge soil. In both, however, that factor is 
low, hence irrigation would doubtless be very 
beneficial to the thrifty growth of the crops. 
The somewhat slow progress of vines and trees 
in the granitic soils of the foothills is at many 
points a matter of popular remark and com- 

No. 51. Red surface toil from near Auburn, 
Placer Co., taken 12 inches deep; sent by Mr. 
N. S. Prosser of Auburn; original vegetation, 
oak, pine, manzanita and chaparral. 

This is a fair sample of the red soil of the 
placer mines, which seems to contain a small 
amount of gold everywhere, and has been 
washed on a small scale eversince the discovery 
of gold in California. It is of a dark orange 
color, rather light in tillage, and pulverulent 
when dry, forming a very fine reddish dust. It 
contains throughout numerous fragments of 
slate, more or les? decomposed, of all sizes, and 
is usually underlaid by the same, or its debris, 
at a variable depth, 'rarely less than several 
feet, unless lying on steep slopes. The soil be- 
comfs slightly plastic on wetting, and can be 
worked soon after rains; its color darkens con- 
siderably on wetting. When dry, its lumps 
are easily crushed between the fingers. 

The Auburn soil— a typical slate one — differs 
from the granitic soils of Pino in one very es- 
«ential respect— it has on the ridge land over 
five times as much phosphoric acid as the soil 
and four times as much as the subsoil, derived 
from the granite. In other respects it does not 
differ widely except that it contains much less 
inert matter as ind ; cated by the insoluble mat- 
ter. But its well-known high production, both 
in quantity and quality, and its thriftiness con- 
firm the forecast given by the analysis. Prac- 
tically the same soil prevails near Newcastle 
and to the southeast of Penryn — all localities 
noted for the production of fine shipping fruits. 


The comparison of the analyses of the Asia 
Minor soils with those from this State shows 
very strikingly the richness in phosphoric acid 
of the former over the latter. The lowest per 
centage of this ingredient in the Asia Minor soils, 
.29 found in Soil B, is more than one and one- 
third times as much as the highest, .22 shown 
in soil No. 1466 from Miramonte, of the Cali- 
fornia s.»ils, and the average, .32 per cent of the 
three Smyrna soils, is almost exactly four times 
the average for all California soils examined 
(about 200 in number) and nearly three times 
the figure .113, denoting the average of phos- 
phoric acid for 466 soils of the humid region 
fea«tofthe Rocky mountains) of the United 

With reference to lime, the average for the 
Asia Minor soils is 2.60 as against 1.08 fjr Cali- 
fornia. The figures .690 for Asia Minor and 
.614 for California, representing the averages 
for potash, show that both sets of soils are 
about equally well supplied with this element 
of plant food. 

A marked difference, in favor of California 
soils, is at once seen when the humus percent- 
ages are compared. The average for the Asia 
Minor soils is only .47, being less than one-half 
that, 1.08 per cent, found for the average of 198 
California soils. 

Below is a tabular view of the averages just 


Soil Isoreuisntj 



Phosphoric Acid. 




8 e 




CO | 




f > 

ST * 

I * 

• »■ 

: ? 













The above little table conveys a forcible 
illustration of an arid region showing far 
greater amounts of potash and lime in its soils 
than does a bnmid one. 

M. E. Jaffa, 
George E. Colby. 

Berkeley, June 22, 1893. 

" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Insecticide. 

C. X*7". JACKSONdtOO., 

Sole Agents, 

No. 6 Market Ptreet. San F-andseo, OaU 



638 Cal • rt, 4 Street, corner 1 aunoroe. 
Br.nch. 1700 Market Street, corner Polk. 

For the half year endinir with 80th ot June. 18SS, a 
dividend hag been declared at the rate cf tiv ?6) per c-nt 
per annum on Term Deposits and four and one sixth (4}) 
per oent per annum oi Ord-oary Deposits, free of taxes, 
payable on ami after Satuid »J, 1st of .1 il , IS93. 

LOVELT, WHITE, Ca«hler. 

Back Filrs of the PAoirio Kuril Puns (unbound 
can be bad for 13.60 per volume of tlx months. Per year 
amount of inert material (granitic sand or de- (two volume*) $4. Inserted Id Dewey's paUal btadu 

bris) which naturally depresses the plant food 1 M cento additional per volama. 

July 8, 1893. 



Jieeds, Wants, tie. 







years by the large number of trees sold by me that 
nnrsery stock grown on the river bottom of Sutter 
count} is far superior to any grown In the State. I am 
prepared to supply In large or small quantities: 

Bartlett Pears, Plums and Prunes 

On Myrobolan Plum Roots. 
— ALSO— 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Apple, Almond 
Trees. Etc. 

Special Bates on Large Orders. 
Send for Price Liet for 1893-94. 

James T. Bogue, Marysville. Cal. 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona. Oal. 


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trees. Palms, Ferns, Orange 
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The numerous diseases that are usually 
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wholesale and retail. 

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f you want to know about California 
and the Paciflc States, send for the 
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Weekly of the Far Wert. Trial, 60c for 3 mos. Two «am| le 
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Gentlemen :— Having read one of your Treatise 
on the Horse and seeing the Spavin Cure adver- 
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and drew it across the hock or spavin until the 
hock or spa'vin got very warm with the friction, 
then putting on Spavin Cure. I had a mare that 
had a running from her nose for 12 or 14 
months. I rubbed the Spavin Cure from her eyes 
down to nostrils, then from back of Jaw bone 
down under the throat for a week. I have not 
seen any discharge for two months. 

Yours truly, HUGH McDADE. 

Price $1.00 per bottle. 
Enosburgh Falls, Vermont. 


4 Tory 




I if Delivered at jocr R. R 81*tion and ample time fst 
building and testing .Sowed before acceptance. 

OSGOOD & THOMPSON, Binghamtou.ll. T. 


fwenty-flve per cent oheaper than any other on th. 
market Send for Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 


Back Filss of the Pacific Rokal Prbbs (unbound 
can be had for $2.60 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) $4. Inserted in Dew.y'i patent binder 
H cents additional per volum.. 



July 8, 1898. 


A Grocery Oraole. 

Oh, I've hcerd Daniel Webster, an' he spouted like 
a good 'un, 

An' the rippin', roarin' ravin' of the slam bang 
Rufus Choate, 
But for undiluted elerkunce an' intellechul pudd'n 
Sam Pickering at Blancom's store jest gethers in 
my vote. 

With jollygy and gogffry and rifeetick he rastles, 
An' he grabs the cyclopedy an' he slings it fair 
and flat, 

An' he rings up all the sciences an' flings em 
roun' in passels, 
For the reservoy of wisdom spouts frum jest 
beneath his hat. 

He knows the Preesidents' messages from Wash- 
ington to Grover, 

An' the eighteen-ninety census, he can say the 
hull thing over. 

The congressional reports lie packed inside his 

An' then jest turn it back'ards an' say it once 

An' we all gether rcun' to get the drippin's of his 

An' we drink it in an' like it ol' an" young an' 
great an' small, 
'Tain't no good to go to high school or to waste 
four years at college, 
Or to take the county paper, for Sam Pickering 
knows it all. 

Oh, I've heerd Daniel Webster, an' he spouted like 
a good 'un, 

An' the rippin', roarin' ravin' of the slam-bang 

Rufus Choate, 
But for undiluted elerkunce an' intellechul pudd'n' 
Sam Pickerirg at Blancom's store jest gethers 

in my vote. 

—Sam Walter l-'oss in the Yankee Blade. 

The Little Arm Chair. 

Nobody sits in the little arm-chair, 

It stands in a corner dim; 
But a white-haired mother gazing there, 

And yearning'y thinking of him, 
Sees through the dusk of long ago 

The bloom of her boy's sweet face, 
As he rocks so merrily to and fro, 

With a laugh that cheers the place. 

Sometimes he holds a book in his hand, 

Sometimes a pencil and slate, 
And the lesson is hard to understand, 

And the figures hard to mate; 
But she sees the nod of his father's head, 

So proud of the little son, 
And she hears the word so often said, 

" No fear for our little one." 

They were wonderful days, the dear sweet days, 

When a child with sunny hair 
Was hers to scold, to kiss and to praise, 

At her knee in the little chair. 
She lost him back in the busy years, 

When the great world caught the man, 
And he strode away past hopes and fears 

To his place in the battle's van. 

But now and then in a wistful dream, 

Like a picture out of date, 
She sees a head with a golden gleam 

Bent over a pencil and slate. 
And she lives again the happy day, 

The day of her young life's spring, 
When the small arm chair stood just in the way, 

The center of everything. 

— Margaret E. Sangster in Harper's Bazar. 

California Flowers at the World's 

fWritten for the Rural Press by Laura B. Everett.] 

rjO, NO, it will not do when 
one talks of flowers. " Her 
poppies fling a cloth of gold.' 
One quotation leads to an 
other, and Ina Coolbrith, 
Lilian Shuey, E. R. Sill and 
a dozen others stand ready to give us poetic 
words to describe California's flowers. 

Do they really need description ? Not 
when one can see them, or their perfect 
likenesses, gathered into a Flower Congress, 
as has been done in the California building. 
The room opens upon the upper gallery, 
from which it is separated by burlap curtains 
that hang from the oak-branch fresco below 
the words: 




The matting on the floor is light green, 
and the walls, painted to match, are wreathed 
with grapevines and festooned with leaves 
and with oak-tree moss. The flower paint- 
ings, in plain frames that take nothing from 
the beauty of the pictures, are a very well 
chosen selection of California's blossoms 
If words could bring the flowers before the 
reader, it would be worth while to name 

them over. So rarely, however, are the cor- 
rect names used that many fail to recognize 
blooms that are entirely familiar. 

A young artist was heard lamenting that 
so few children are familiar with the correct 
names of plants. " I asked a little girl what 
flowers grew over in the field, and she said, 
' Candlesticks and blankets, and rat-tails and 
ladies' watches.' Her father said reprov- 
ingly, 'Can't you tell them so we shall know 
what you mean ? ' ' That's all the names 
they've got,' said the little girl, and no won- 
der she was so positive. She had never 
heard others. Yet I am sure that a child 
who remembers "Harkasi, quartis>, quin- 
derum, quee" (a line of the counting-out 
rhyme) would have no trouble with calo- 
chortus or mimulus. The suggestion of 
color in the first name and the meaning of 
the second (monkey-face) will hardly be 
needed by the child of nine or ten, for until 
the age of twelve, sometimes beyond it, the 
word-learning faculty is most active. 

Without, however, adopting the long 
names, children may use intelligent terms. 
Mariposa lilies is not bard to remember. 
We find these represented, as we enter at the 
right hand of the flower-room, by two groups, 
the second con'aining broditea and harebells. 
" California's Flower," the largest picture in 
the room, shows every variety of our wild 
poppy {eschschollzia). Of the room devoted 
to this flower, more anon. Familiar buckeye 
waves its feathery spikes near the iris (ant 
lily), and beyond is the tiger lily in a family 
group. Five varieties of thistles, delight of 
a Scotchman's heart, are neighbors to the 
common lobelia and several colors of gilia, 
one being our little cream-cup. 

Convolvulus, the wild morning-glory that 
strikes terror to the farmer's heart while it 
strikes its roots deep into his best soil, is 
here also. It looks as innocent as the col- 
umbine, manzanita, pipe-vine and azalias 
among which it hangs. 

The mosquitc-bill {dodocatheon) is most 
natural. Do you want to know a scientist's 
way of telling it from the cyclamen (culti- 
vated)? Volney Rattan points out that the 
wild flower has the protruding nose or bill 
not possessed by the garden flower. "The 
wild variety," he says, " is the dodocatheon; 
cut off its nose and it becomes a sickly 
man" If Prof. Rattan can thus play with 
the weighty name?, we need fear them less 
than we do. 

We can have no long-name objection to 
the pitcher plant, and, as one of the curiosi- 
ties of the vegetable kingdom, it interests 
every one. Another rare plant from a high 
altitude is the snow plant of the Sierras. 
There is a pretty Indian legend telling that 
this edelweiss of the New World was once 
a dusky maiden, who, to escape an unwel 
come suitor, became the sarcodes sanguinea 
of the mountains. Perhaps she would have 
gained a more poetic name had she adopted 
that of the young brave who sought her. 

For "blue eyes" {nemophild) and violets 
and larkspur and the others that are more 
or less familiar to you according as you live 
in northern, central or southern California — 
for these, what? Praise for the selection, 
praise for the painting; and whom shall we 
praise? What is this work ? The vacation 
sketches of some young artist? No, it is a 
life work. May we not say so when forty 
years have been devoted to it? The artist, 
Marianne Mathieu, an Englishwoman, be- 
gan her work at Napa. Her present home 
is in San Francisco. And her collection of 
wild flower paintings? "The finest at the 
World's Fair;" that is what is said of it 

ward path. Don't give them. Establish a 
reputation for keeping your own counsel. It 
will serve you well in many a crisis, and be 
no end of a comfort. 

Again, don't be forever setting people 
right. There is a household fiend with a 
memory for dates and details, who can never 
sit still and hear papa say he went down 
town on Monday, at eight, without correct- 
ing the statement with the remark that the 
hour was half past. If mamma happens to 
allude to Cousin Jenny's visit as having oc- 
curred last Thursday, this wasplike imper- 
sonation of accuracy interposes with the 
statement that It was Friday, not Thursday, 
which brought Cousin Jane. A dozen times 
a day exasperating frictions are caused by 
needless corrections of this sort, referring to 
matters where exactness is not really imper- 
ative, the affairs In question being unimpor- 
tant, and no violation of truth being for an 
instant intended. 

A manifest bit of wisdom is to refrain 
from criticism of food. The sauce may 
not be quite piquant enough, the salad may 
be wilted, but in the name of decency say 
nothing about it in either case. 

Silence is golden in nearly every instance 
where a defect obtains in the home economy. 

To abstain from superfluous apologies is 
also the habit of discretion. There should 
seldom be the occasion for apology in the 
household, where all would do well and 
wisely to be constantly gentle and courteous. 

Gems of Thought. 

Where a book raises your spirit, and in 
spires you with noble and courageous feel 
ings, seek for no other rule to judge the event 
by; it is good, and made by a good work 
man. — De la Bruyere. 

You despise books — you whose whole 
lives are absorbed in the vanities of ambi 
tlon, the pursuit of pleasure, or in indolence; 
but remember that all the known world, ex 
cepting only savage nations, it governed by 
books. — Voltaire. 

As the inheritance of an illustrious name 
and pedigree quickens the sense of duty in 
every noble nature, a belief in pre-existence 
may enhance the glory of the present life, 
and intensify t he reverence with which the 
deathless principle is regarded. — William 

Do you think that you can think selfish 
avaricious, lustful, uncharitable, revengeful 
deceitful or cruel thoughts and nobody know 
it? Well, indeed, you cannot. Everything 
that comes to you in your life is either the 
result of your own thoughts or the thoughts 
of some person or persons by whom you are 
influenced. — Anon. 

In books lies the soul of the whole Past 
Time — the articulate, audible voice of the 
Past, when the body and material substance 
of it has altogether vanished like a dream 
No magic Rune is stranger than a book. 
All that mankind has done, thought, gained 
or been, is lying in magic preservation in 
the pages of books. Do not books still ac 
complish miracles as Runes were fabled to 
do? They persuade men. — Carlyle. 

Out of Plato come all things that are still 
written and debated among men of thought 
Great havoc makes he among our original! 
ties. We have reached the mountain from 
which all these drift boulders were detached 
The Bible of the learned for 22 centuries 
every brisk young man who says fine things 
to each reluctant generation, is some reader 
of Plato translating into the vernacular his 
good things. — Emerson. 

assuming as cause and effect what is merely 
a coincidence. On the whole there is much 
cause for congratulation on the progress 
which irrigation has already made, hope for 
its spread in the future, and no reason to 
fear that its effect will be deleterious to the 
health of the community. — Exchange. 

Bits of Wisdom. 

A young girl once heard a bit of wisdom 
from the lips of a very aged woman — a wo 
man who had rounded the full terms of 90 
years, and with eyes still bright and clear 
looked out on the inrolling waters of eter 
nity. The girl was impressed by the empha 
sis with which the venerable dame said to 
her, " Bessie, never insist on having the last 
word." The determination to have the final 
word leads to more quarrels and more bit- 
terness of feeling at home than almost any 
thing else in domestic life. The fact is 
that one may so control her tongue and her 
eyes that she may allow her opponent the 
pleasure of this coveted concluding thrust 
and yet placidly retain her own opinion, and 
in the homely colloquial parlance of the up 
country, where one finds strong-willed peo 
pie living together in great peace with the 
most pronounced diversity of characteristics, 
"do as she's a mind to." 

Another bit of wisdom may be condensed 
into a pithy sentence. Avoid explanations. 
In some families every decision, every new 
departure, every acceptance or rejection of 
an invitation, must be endlessly talked and 
fussed over, explained and re-explained. In 
that way lie all sorts of stumbling-blocks. 
As a rule, beyond your parents or husband 
there Is nobody who has the right to demand 
of you explanations at each step of your on- 

Danlel Webster Did Not Know It All. 

During a debate in Congress in 1838, upon 
a measure to establish a post route from 
Independence, Missouri, to the Columbia 
river, Daniel Webster said : *' What do we 
want with this vast, worthless area, this 
region of savages and wild beasts, of deserts, 
drifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of 
cactus and prairie dogs ? To what use could 
we hope to put these great deseits or those 
endless mountain ranges, impregnable and 
covered to their very base with eternal snow ? 
What can we ever hope to do with the west- 
ern coast, a coast of three thousand miles, 
rock-bound, cheerless, uninviting and not a 
harbor on it ? What use have we for such a 
country? Mr. President, I will never vote 
one cent from the public treasury to bring 
the Pacific coast one inch nearer to Boston 
than it now is." But Daniel Webster did 
not forecast the discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia ten years later, or near Pike's Peak 
In 1859. Gold hr.s been to the settlement 
of the Pacific coast and to the opening of 
the Rocky mountains what the illusions of 
life are to us all. They lead us to different 
but greater things. The real wealth of Cali- 
fornia and of Colorado is in the harvest of 
1 heir fields, but it required the glittering 
attractions of gold and silver to bring in the 
populations which were to find independence 
and wealth in prosaic husbandry. — Watch- 
man, Boston. 

A Lesson to the Students. 

" Gentlemen, you do not use your facul 
ties of observation," said an old professor 
addressing his class. Here he pushed for 
ward a gallipot containing a chemical of ex 
ceedingly offensive smell. " When I was 
student," he continued, " I used my sense of 
taste," and with that he dipped his finger in 
the gallipot and then put bis finger in his 
mouth. " Taste it, gentlemen, taste it," said 
the professor, " and exercise your perceptive 
faculties." The gallipot was pushed toward 
the reluctant class, one by one. The stu 
dents resolutely dipped their fingers into the 
concoction and, with many a wry face, 
sucked the abomination from their fingers 
" Gentlemen, gentlemen," said the professor, 
" I must repeat that you do not use your 
faculties of observation, for had you looked 
more closely at what I was doing you would 
have seen that the finger which I put in my 
mouth was not the finger I dipped in the 
gallipot." — Medical Record. 

Irrigation Beneficial. 

The fact that portions of California have 
been under irrigation for a quarter of a cen 
tury, with no concomitant of fever or ague 
argues against the baseless theory of attend 
ant diseases. In this, as in other matters 
care should be taken to avoid the mistake of 

way in 
or even 

Incorrect Sayings- 

A remarkable instance of the 
which a word may be changed 
mutilated is found in the expression "jerked 
beef," which is a ready English substitute 
for " charqui," the Peruvian word for meat 
cooked in smoke or " jerked." Such a 
liberty taken with a foreign word may readily 
be pardoned when so happy in result, but 
the necessity for changing " lustrine," a 
French word for silk, into "lutestring" may 
be questioned, seeing we have many words, 
such as 11 lustre " and " lustrous," from the 
same root. But there is no accounting for 
fancies. The well-known phrase " Every- 
thing is lovely and the goose hangs high " 
is always misquoted. It should read : 
" Everything is lovely and the goose honks 
high." This saying originated away up in 
the Northern States, where, in rainy, foggy 
or stormy weather, it is a well-known fact 
that the geese fly low — skimming over the 
house-tops. In fine, pleasant weather you 
will remember that they fly in long strings 
so high in the heavens that their peculiar 
cry, " Honk, honk," can scarcely be heard 
on the earth below, hence the old saying 
that everything is lovely when " the goose 
' honks' high," and not "hangs high," which 
is a most nonsensical perversion of the 
original old New England saying. 

Ignorance of Military Rank. 

At the beginning of the civil war a great 
many people were quite ignorant of the 
pomp and splendor of military rank and the 
importance of military titles. Their ignor- 
ance led to many amusing incidents, one of 
which is told in connection with Gen. 
Hardee. It was at the time that Albert 
Sidney Johnston was in command at Bowl- 
ing Green, Ky., and Gen. Hardee was or- 
dered with his command to that place from 
Columbus, Ky. At that time the bridge 
over the Tennessee river at Danville, Tenn., 
had not been completed, and the General 
and his command had to be ferried over the 
river to cars on the opposite side. When 
Gen. Hardee had crossed the river — sup- 
posing, of course, that a special car had been 
provided for himself and his military staff — 
he accosted a brakeman belonging to the 
train with the question ; " Where shall I 
and my staff go?" The brakeman, having 
no idea who the General was, or of what his 
staff consisted, after surveying him and his 
sword thoroughly and somewhat contempt- 
uously, replied : " You can go into the car 
there, and you can stick your old staff out of 
the window." — Chicago Journal. 

Moon and Barometer. 
The influence of the moon on the barom- 
eter is dealt with by Mr. Bornstein in a 
recent article in the Meteorologische Zeit- 
schrift. He refers to the question as to 
whether there exists any relation between 
the pressure of the atmosphere and the 
altitude of the moon. This study Is based 
upon observations made at four different 
stations in Germany and Austria, and does 
not take into account the phases of the 
moon orher distance from the earth, but 

July 8, 1898. 



considers merely the lunar day. The re- 
sults obtained are : First, that the varia- 
tions of pressure do not indicate any atmos- 
pheric tides, and second, that at three of the 
stations the pressure shows but one oscilla- 
tion during the lunar day. At Berlin and at 
Hamburg the maximum takes place a little 
before the moon sets, and at Vienna, at the 
moment of least culmination, whereas the 
minimum takes place, at all the stations, at 
the moment of the moon's rising. 

Money in Times Past. 

India, cakes of tea. 
China, pieces of silk. 
Abyssinia, salt. 

Iceland and Newfoundland, codfish. 

Illinois (in early days), coon skins. 

Borneo (Africa), cotton shirts. 

Ancient Russia, skins of wild animals. 

West Indies (1500), cocoanuts. 

Massachusetts Indians, wampum and 
musket bails. 

Virginia (1700), tobacco. 

British West Indies, pins, snuff and 

Central South America, soap, chocolate 
and eggs. 

Ancient Rome, cattle. 
Ancient Greece, copper nails. 
Lacedonia, iron. 
Burmah, lead. 

Russia (1828 to 1845), platinum. 
Rome (Numa Pom.), wood and leather. 
Rome, under Caesars, land. 
Carthage, leather. 

Ancient Britons, cattle, slaves, brass and 

England (Jimes II), tin gun-metal and 
pewter. • 
South Sea Islands, axes and hammers. 
Ancient Jews, jewels. 
Africa, shells. 

Holland (1573), pieces of pasteboard. 
China (1200), bark of the mulberry tree. — 
Philadelphia Justice. 

in badly lighted apartments have little color 
and less health. I for one do not intend to 
spend my days in an atmosphere of gloom. 
— New York Ledger. 

Taking- the Husband's Name. 
The practice cf the wife assuming the 
husband's name at marriage, it is said, origi- 
nated from a Roman custom, and became 
the common custom after the Roman occu- 
pation. Thus Julia and Octavia, married to 
Pompey and Cicero, were called by the 
Romans Julia of Pompey and Octavia of 
Cicero, and, in later times, married women 
in most European countries signed their 
names in the same manner, but omitted the 
" of." Against this view may be mentioned 
that during the sixteenth and even at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century the 
usage seems doubtful, since we find Cath- 
erine Parr so signing herself after she had 
been twice married, and we always hear of 
Lady Jane Grey (not Dudley) and Arabella 
Stuart (not Seymour). Some persons think 
that the custom originated from the Scrip- 
tural teaching that husband and wife are 
one. It was decided in the case of Bon vs. 
Smith, in the reign of Elizabeth, that a 
woman by marriage loses her former name 
and legally receives the name of her hus 

To Make Washing Blankets Ea9y. 

If one has a suitable place for the purpose, 
the washing of blankets may become an 
easy matter. In an open space have a line 
tightly stretched out of doors. To this 
fasten the upper edge of the blanket. Have 
strips of cotton sewed to the bottom at inter- 
vals; tie these to pegs, which drive well into 
the ground. Now turn on the hose. Cold 
water, of course, and plenty of it. Drench 
the blankets well on both sides. If much 
soiled, rub spots with soap, and drench 
again. The force of the stream will do more 
than wringing. After the article is quite 
clean, leave it to dry; never mind if it does 
rain; if the work has been done thorough it 
will not streak, but be all the better for it 
When the sun has completed the task, you 
will possess blankets as white, soft and un- 
shrunken as new, and the nap will not be 
destroyed. — Ladies' Home Journal. 

Letting In the Sun. 

I think the superb health of my family is 
to a great extent due to the habit we have of 
almost living in sunshine. Every bright 
day all of the shutters are open, and the en- 
tire house gets the benefit of sunlight. It 
drives away dampness, mold, microbes and 
blue-devils, and puts us all in good humor 
and health. I cannot imagine good sani- 
tary conditions and darkness. Even my 
cellar is as light as I can possibly make it, 
and whatever fruits and delicacies need to 
be shut away from light I put In close cup 
boards or covered boxes. I have sheets of 
canvas that can be thrown over them before 
they are put away, and always take pains to 
so arrange my stores that nothing will injure 
by an abundance of light. People who live 

Good Advice to Young Women. 

There is nothing so certain to make you 
disliked as to tell your troubles to a friend. 
Prosperity means friendship, but once you 
take it into your head to retail your woes, 
you will soon discover that your company 
is not wanted, and the people who once 
bowed to you in pleasant recognition now 
walk on the other side of the way with a cold 
and stony glare that looks over your head 
or through your body, but never meets your 
eyes as of yore. 

The people are not hard-hearted that turn 
the cold shoulder to you. They are only 
averse to knowing of any more misery than 
they already have to bear. We every one 
of us have our little troubles. In some cases 
they grow to be very large ones, and it isn't 
pleasant to have the dark side continually 
thrust before us just when we begin to (eel 
a bit comfortable in our minds over some 
unpleasant occurrence that has upset us for 
a time. 

Take a bit of valuable advice, and when 
you feel like telling some one of your spat 
wiih your intended, or how low your finances 
are, just remember our warning and don't do 
it. Your mother, your father and your hus- 
band are the truest sympathizers, and, out- 
side of them, you are certain to be soon 
called a bore if you persist in your harrow- 
ing confidences. — Philadelphia Times. 

Children's Sleep. 

The amount of sleep needed by children 
is in inverse proportion to their ages, and in 
direct proportion to their mental and mus- 
cular activity. Thus, the younger the 
scholar is, and the more actively he exercises 
mind and body, the more sleep he requires. 
During the whole period of growth the child 
needs a longer night's sleep than does the 
adult. Many parents seem to be entirely 
unmindful of this fact, and the requirements 
of some schools which necessitate or encour- 
age more home study equally disregard one 
of the prime requirements for the present 
and future welfare of the child. The blood- 
lessness, weakness and hysterical excitabil- 
ity that characterizes the young lady of mod- 
ern life, who is neither well nor ill, are due 
mainly to her bad habit of taking too limited 
a supply of sleep at irregular hours. 

Fathers of Great Men. 
George Washington's father was a farmer. 
Shakespeare's father was a wool merchant. 
Lincoln's father was a farmer and a poor 

The father of Martin Luther was a peasant 
and a woodman. 

Virgil's father was a porter, and for many 
years a slave. 

Demosthenes was the son of a sword- 
smith and blacksmith. 

Benjamin Franklin was the son of a soap- 
boiler, and was himself a printer. 

Daniel Webster was the son of a farmer 
in very humble circumstances. 

Christopher Columbus was the son of a 
weaver and learned that trade. 

John Calvin was the son of a cooper, and 
helped his father in this humble calling. 

Clergyman and Baker. 
A clergyman in Scotland desired his hear- 
ers never to call one another liars, but when 
any one said the thing that was not true 
they ought to whistle. One Sunday he 
preached a sermon on the miracle of the 
loaves and fishes, and being at a loss how 
to explain it, he said the loaves were not like 
those nowadays; they were as big as some 
of the hills of Scotland ! He had scarcely 
pronounced the words when he heard a loud 

" Wha is that," says he, "ca's me a liar ! " 

" It is I, Willy M'Donald, the baker." 

" Well, Willy, what objection have ye to 
what I ha 1 told you ? " 

" None," said he; " only I want to know 
what sort o ovens they had to bake those 
loaves in ?" — New York Ledger. 


The Dram. 

O the drum I 
There is some 
Intonation in thy grum 

Monotony cf utterance that strikes the spirit dumb. 

As we hear 

Through the clear 

And unclouded atmosphere, 

Thy palpitating syllables roil in upon the ear! 

There's a part 
Of the art 

Of thy music-throbbing heart 

That thrills a something in us that awakens with a 

And in rhyme 
With the chime 
And exactitude of time, 

Goes marching on to glory to tby melody sublime. 
And the guest 
Of the breast 

That thy rolling robs of rest 

Is a patriotic spirit as a Continental dressed; 

And he looms 

Frcm the glooms 

Of a century of tombs, 

And the blood he spilled at Lexington in living 

beauty blooms, 
And his eyes 
Wear the guise 
Of a purpose pure and wise, 

As the love of them is lifted to a something in the 

That is bright 
Red and white 
Wiih a blur of starry light, 

As it laughs in silken ripples to the breezes day and 

There are deep 
Hushes creep 

O'er the pulses as they leap, 

As thy tumult, growing fainter, on the silence falls 

While the prayer 
Rises there 

With the sea and earth and air 
As a heritage to Freedom's sons and daughters 
everywhere. — James Whitcomb Riley. 

Children's Foods- 
Tea, coffee, beer and other stimulants 
should be wholly excluded from the dietary 
of young children. Food eaten without 
relish is not so likely to be beneficial to the 
system. Food should not be restricted to a 
purely vegetable diet, but meats and other 
animal products should be given in moder- 
ation together with cereals, vegetables and 
fruits. Dr. Fothergill says: " There is much 
reason to hope that ground cereals and milk 
will again become the favorite food for chil- 
dren, and the taste for fats will be revived. 
When that day arrives, the death-rate from 
tubercle, especially among the young, will 
be materially lowered." 

feared I suspected him, for as I pped U 
take breath he drew himself u 
pered in my ear : 

" Me no ky out and make Injm .ie ! " 

The redskins did not fire the house, as it 
would have been a beacon light to their 
pursuers, but they smashed everything 
breakable, took what they wanted, and, after 
about half an hour, continued on their way. 
I reached a point a mile from the house and 
then sat down on a rock in the deep ravine 
to pass the rest of the night. I took Tommy 
on my lap and hugged him closely, but no 
words weie exchanged. After awhile I 
thought he dropped off to sleep, and I was 
getting a bit drowsy myself when I suddenly 
heard a bear coming down the ravine. The 
click of his claws on the stones was proof 
that it was a bear, and his heavy step sig- 
nified that it was a b'g one. I could not see 
my hand six inches away, but pretty soon I 
got the odor of the bear. 

The ravine was about thirty feet wide, and 
I was sitting close to the west wall. Bruin 
came down sniffing and growling, and just 
opposite me he stopped, and doubtless had 
a good, square look at ihe invaders. I had 
lost my revolver in my flight, and was per- 
fectly helpless. I simply shut my eyes and 
waited for the attack. It did not come. 
The bear sniffed and growled for a while, 
and then took a sudden panic and 
started down the ravine. I was drawing 
long breaths of relief and feeling glad that 
the boy in my arms had known nothing of 
the danger when he suddenly reached up, 
drew my head down, and whispered in my 

" He went ' woof ! ' ' woof ! ' but I no ky 
out and bring Injuns !" — New York Sun. 

Up the Ravine. 

BOUT 1 o'clock in the morn- 
ing the settler whose cabin 
was on the Little Colorado 
river, under the shadow of 
the Mogollon mountains, 
aroused me from sleep and 
gave me the news that the Apaches had 
crossed the stream both above and below 
and were advancing on the house. He and 
his son, the latter a boy of sixteen, had been 
out scouting. My left arm was in a sling 
from a recent wound, but I had ridden thirty 
miles the day before to warn him and others 
that the band of redskins were making for 
Mexico by that route, burning and killing 
whenever opportunity offered. 

There were the settler and his wife, the 
boy above mentioned, a girl of ten, another 
of eight and a boy of five or six. In addi 
tion, there was a 1 tt!e boy four years old, 
whose parents had been killed by the Indians 
about a month before. It was decided that 
we should get into the ravine in the rear of 
the house at once. The man and wife and 
youngest child went first. His boy and the 
two girls followed, while I, having charge of 
the little orphan, brought up the rear. All 
the children were awakened, and there was 
fear that the two little boys would betray us 
by crying out. Before starting, I whispered 
to Tommy: 

" The Indians are coming, but if you keep 
still we shall get away all right. You will 
ride on my back. We are going among 
the brush and trees where it is very dark. 
If I fall down or the limbs switch your face, 
you must not cry out." 

" No, me no ky out ! " he whispered, as I 
bent down for him to climb on my back. 

I heard the clatter of the ponies on the 
hard road as I left the back door, and was 
only fairly concealed by the cedars when the 
Indians began yelling and battering at the 
door. The others had such a start that I 
could not overtake them. And, too, they 
turned into the first ravine on the right, while 
I kept straight on. A dozen times I almost 
fell headlong, and a dozen times the boy was 
brushed almost off my back. I felt that he 
was crying, but very quietly. Perhaps he 

X)0Jv1ESTI6 CJeonoMY. 

Chocolate Loaf Cake. — Cream one 
cup of butter, add 2 ]/ 2 cups of sugar and beat 
to cream. Beat the yolks of five eggs light, 
add to butler and sugar, with one cup of milk 
and three cups of flour. Beat until smooth, 
then add the whites of the five eggs beaten 
to a stiff, dry froth, and two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder. Mix lightly and gently as 
quicbly as possible, and add two teaspoon- 
fuls of vanilla and one-half of a cake of 
chocolate, melted. This seems to be a very 
difficult cake to make, and by putting in the 
melted chocolate last, it is not only mixed 
throughout the cake better, but avoids the 
heavy dark streaks. Bake in a moderate 

Cream Puffs. — Put one cup of water and 
one quarter of a pound of butter over the 
fire to boil. As soon as it is boiling stir in 
one cup of flour, stirring until it is perfectly 
blended and cooked, and the paste leaves 
the sides of the pan forming a ball. Stand 
away to cool. When cool, add five eggs un- 
beaten, one at a time, beating until each 
egg is well mixed in the dough before add- 
ing the next. Beat vigorously for two min- 
utes and let stand in a warm place for 15 
minutes, stirring occasionally. Drop with a 
tablespoon on buttered tins forming little 
cakes some distance apart. Bake in a quick 
oven 1 5 minutes. Watch carefully and try 
by picking them up, for if done they will be 
perfectly light. When cold make an open- 
ing on one side with a sharp knife and fill. 

Tomato Fricandeau. — Get some slices - 
of veal cutlets, pound and wash them, season 
them with pepper and salt, and fry them 
slowly till they are done. They should be 
of a light brown on both sides. Stew some 
tomatoes very dry, strain them through a 
sieve to get out all the seeds, pour the pulp 
into the gravy after the meat has been taken 
out, and thicken it with a piece of butter 
rolled in flour. Pour this over the meat and 
serve it hot. 

Fried Chicken. — Clean and wash it 
well, and with a sharp knife cut it open in 
the back. Dredge with flour, pepper and 
salt. Put equal quantities of butter and lard 
in a hot frying-pan. Then put in the chicken 
and keep it well covered until brown on both 
sides. The secret of a nice fricassee is in 
having plenty of hot lard or butter. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report. 





July 8, U»8. 


Eli Challenge Full Circle. 
Champion Full Circle. 
Junior Monarch. 
Miller Lightning. 


Write (or prices and get full particulars. 


On Hay Presses and Having Tools. 



San Francisco and Fresno. 


The Monarch, Junior Monarch, and other 
kinds of Presses, made by the Celebrated 
Hay Press Manufacturer, Jacob Price, for 
sale by 


San Leandro, Oal. 





Wood-choppers, try the 

Kelly Perfect fixe 

It will cat more wood 
than any other axe. 

The scoop in the blade 
keeps it from sticking in 
the wood, and makes it 
cut deeper than any other 
axe. Ask your dealer for 
it. Send us his name if 
he don't keep it. It is the 
An ti -Trust Axe. 

Kelly Axe Mfg. Co. 







Indigestion,**, Headache, OontHl- 

Gallon, OynpepAla, Chronic Liver Trouble*. 
'Izslne**, Bad Complexion. Dysentery* 
Offensive Breath, and all disorders or the 
Stomach. Liver and Bowel*. 

Ripans Tabu lee contain nothing lnjnriou* to 
the most delicate constitution. I']«anant to take, 
aafe. effectual. Give Immediate relief. 

Sold by druOTldt*. A trial bottle sent by mall 
on receipt of tt centa. Address 


10, 13 and 14 ft. 
Cheaper than an; 
Flrst-Claes Mill In 
the market. 
Ewery On* 
No bearings, no 
springs, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mUl to 
the world. 

10-foot Write 

12-foot fof 

^Fllli^ 14-foot Prices 

Agent. Wanted 

— 4DDRS8S— 

TRUMAN. HOOKER & CO., San Frucisco or Fresno, 


Now that the interest in the culture of the orange Is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience lo parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
suer! will be found of wide usefulness. 

"Orange Culture in California" >»a8 written by Those 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation In the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and Irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

Thebook is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 76 
cents per copy, In cloth binding. Address DEWEY PUB- 
LISHING CO., Publishers "Paoiflo Rural Press," 220 
Market it., Sao Francisco. 


A notable invention of the Columbian year, for transporting California's freeh fruit 
to market. Look Into It I It Is worthy of trial I Its advantages truly stated are: Fruit 
can be picked later and riper; requires no wrappers; no decay from pressure, bruising 
or rubbing; the ventilation Is absolute and positive; it grades and counts the fruit in 
the carrier; fruit all open to Inspection; no rehandllng or repacking at destination; no 
skilled labor for packing. Olves the grower all the advantage arising by arrival of his 
fruits In markets ripe, Bound, lnscious and attractive, Instead of half ripe, bruised or 
decaying. It Isolates each piece of fruit by double, elastic walls, with air spaces 
between, over and around It. It Is not an untried quantity. Messrs. Brown & Wells, of 
California Starker, San Francisco, cay: " We have made shipments of green fruit In It 
to Honolulu, Panama, Boston, New York. Philadelphia, Australia and Arizona, and 
have received report to the effect that the fruit arrived in perfect condition. We believe 
It is surely destined to become in the near future the universal package for short or 
long distance shipments " Nothing to equal it for floe apricots, peaches, plums and 
pears. Will oarry freeh figs successfully. Carriers now ready for delivery for apricots. 
Seed In early orders to insure supply. 

PRICE (for ordinary standard package) $15 00 per hundred, Including outside and 
inside cases. Call on us or send for circulars. 

STEVENS FRUIT CASE CO., 307 Front Street, San Francisco, 

Agents for the Pacific Coast. 







THE RIFE HYDRAULIC ENGINE Is the most simple and efficient machine yet devised for elevating water 
for Irrigation, filling railroad tanks, supplying mills, factories, dairies, stock yards, country residences, small 
towns, and fcr various ot er purpose*. This ram Is self-operating, constant in action, and Is not only much more 
efficient than anything of the kind ever put upon the market, but from absence ot wearing p rts, more dorab'e 
aid every w»y reliable. Many may be referred to that ruve run for years, elevating water in some cases from 100 
to 800 feet without any attention or expense in the way of repairs. 

These machines have already come largely into use In all part, of the country, and are rapidly superceding 
every other device for the purpose. They will work effectively under a head as low as two feet and tor every foot of 
fall wl'l elevate 30 feet. Bj means of an adjusting lever the capacity of any of the various elzes can be reduced 50 j er 
cent or more, as may be desired, O provide for a variation in water supply, with iut disadvantage or loss to efficiency. 

WATER RAISk.D AND WASTE. — The fall frcm the fprlng. stream or other source of supply to the engine de- 
termines the height of which the water can be elevated, as well as the relative proportion between the water raised 
and wasted, the quantity raised varying according to the height it Is carried jnd the distance conveyed For ordi- 
nary purposes It is sufficient to say that with a diseha'ge pipe 1000 feet In length, oce-slxth of the water can be 
raised and discharged at an elevation five times the heleht of fall or one-twelfth ten times the height of fall. 

Pai ties writing for information should give the quantity ot water that can be supplied to the engine, either In 
gallons, oubie feet or miners' Inches; the head or fall from source of supply to point where the engine is to be located, 
length of drive pipe, height to which the water is to be ralred, distance from engine to place of discharge and 
the quantity of water it Is desired to elevate. No reliable information can be afforded without an explicit answer 
to these inquiries. 


Hay Balsr ? If so. da ynu use mir PatBnt 


The Valves and work- 
ing parts of the Fulton 
Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the 
pump out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready 
to put in. 

Send for Circular and 
Price List to 

A. T. AMES, 





The Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 

San Francisco Office and Warehouse 
8 and 10 Pine Street. 



IS THE BEST, because 
it combines simplicity 
of construction with 
power and economy In 
space. It can be run 
with natural or manu- 
facture d gas or gasoline 
at a cost of £0 to 26 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as for all purposes 
where a perfeot engine 
is required, with the 
advantage of lessening 
the risk of explosions. 
Ne licensed engineer at 
a high salary needed to 
operate it. 

Send for circulars and 
prices if a good safe en- 
gine is what you need. 

Tie Oriental Launch is Perfection. 

BfX. A. AM, 

Inventor and Manufacturer, 




75,000 sold In 1891 . 
100,000 sold In 1892. 


•Sample mulled XC for ^ I ftfl 
Nickel, 81.50. *I.UU 
Stallion Bits 50 cts. extra. 

■ ' CINE, WIS. 
Davies, Mgr. 

o Till nun dub 


AGENTS ssotojioo^ 

Lit.! i « or Ot-uu. Beat -tiler known. Heed- 
d ut every hoose. place ofbo*luMu or T%rm 
be year round. W Urrlrtr Motor 
_uusallUDdaofl1((btmasolUD< > r7. Cbcap- 
est poweron earth, Ooooeated Instantly it 
wash or tewing mmohlne, corn ihelMt. 
pompe, tent, lotben, jrwelern' or dontMr 
machinery, Le- Cl«*na, 
a I Ire- time. No •mperti 
_ t now la ofMratfcn nmum • oaJa awm 
r***j aateed. Profiu limiim— Olrealara Hw. 
W. O. HARHIBON A OO, Oolurebwo, O. 

July 8, 18»3. 





Honcut Graphic: Last week V. Gianelli of 
this place shipped five carloads of barley. One 
car was shipped to J. J. Smith of Oroville, orje 
car to V. Giovanetti of the same place, and 
three cars to J. R. Garrett of Marysville. 

Biggs Argus: The importance and magnitude 
of the fruit intesests to this country can begin 
to be realized when it is known that the 
orchard men estimate that upwards of 200 car- 
loads of green fruit will be shipped from Biggs 
this season, about 50 carloads of dried fruits, 
almonds, etc.. and at least 100 carloads of nur- 
sery stock. This does not include the crop of 
Reed & Johnson, who will ship fully 100 car- 
loads of green fruit and considerable nursery 

Biggs Argus: A. L. Preble, who will have 
about 4000 boxes of peaches to ship from his 
three-year-old orchard this season, left a box of 
the fine Alexander variety on our table this 
week. He has but six acres in peaches, which, 
for three-year- old trees, prove the value of his 
young orchard. Some of these trees this year 
have produced 20 boxes. Besides his peach 
orchard, Mr. Preble has 34 acres in other 
fruits — nuts, berries and vines — consisting 
mostly of pears, apricots, grapes and black- 
berries. This young orchard will bring in a 
neat income this year. 

Biggs Argus: A. F. Stoudt and familv, who 
arrived last winter from Dakota and took 
charge of the Daniel Streeter place, on Feather 
river, about five miles southeast of town, have 
proved themselves good farmers. Mr. Stoudt 
planted five acres of potatoes just after taking 
charge of the place, from woich patch he has 
shipped one carload to Omaha, one carload to 
Marysville, and will have two carloads ready 
for shipment in a few days. A carload consists 
of about 180 sacks or 18,000 pounds. Four car- 
loads equal 720 sacks or 72,000 pounds. Of the 
potatoes raised on the patch above mentioned, 
two have been weighed in our presence, the 
largest weighing 44 pounds. How is that for 
potatoes ? 


Willows Journal : Mr. Balaam, of Farmers- 
ville, used to have a pet pig that ran under the 
fig trees near the house. When the fruit began 
to drop he ate figs and rested in the shade until 
he finally grew too fat to move about to gather 
the sweet morsels. By this time his owner 
became so much interested in the case as to 
carry him his regular figs three times daily. 
Gradually he grew so fat that his eyes closed 
entirely and he was blind and helpless. This 
story is well substantiated by reliable citizens 
of Farmersville. Where fig trees grow to such 
size and produce such enormous crops as they 
often do in California, this brings to mind the 
oft-repeated statement that an acre of figs will 
fatten more hogs than anything. 


Enterprise: From the vineyard of Mr. Frank 
Vietor, near Fowler, we have received some 
wonderful samples of growth. All fruit is 
backward this season and grapes especially so, 
but three bunches of grapes from these six- 
year-old Muscat vines are respectively 13, 15 
and 16 inches long. Though some of the green 
fruit has dropped, if the grapes remaining had 
matured the stem would have been solidly 
covered. From the same vineyard we have 
three large clusters from one stem less than 
three inches in length. The vineyard is of six 
and seven-year-old vines and will average all 
through fully two trays to the vine. All vine- 
yards in this vicinity, so far as we are informed, 
are loaded with fruit, and we hear many en- 
couraging things in regard to the promise of 
better prices. 


Home Journal: Cheering crop prospects are 
reported in the Blocksburg section. Peach 
trees there seem to have escaped the blight and 
are loadtd with fruit. An unusually large 
yield of apples is also looked for. 


The packing of green apricots for shipment 
East is about over. Up to date 30 carloads have 
been sent out of Kings county this season. The 
drying-houses are busy, and the crop is turning 
out very well. 

Hsnford Journal: We saw a small orchard of 
the Routier peach-apricot at Mr. Worswick's 
place, near Grangeville, a few days ago. This 
appears to be the coming apricot for this soil 
and climate. It is large, luscious and of beau- 
tiful color, and has the advantage of blooming 
a little later than other varieties, thus avoiding 
late frosts. We advise those apricot-growers 
who want to post up to see Mr. Worswick's lit- 
tle Routier apricot-peach at once. 


Kern Echo: The indications of abundant 
crops in the Weed Patch country are being 
realized by the farmers of that section. Har- 
vesting is going forward at a rapid pace, head- 
ers and harvesters doing the work. Within a 
mile of each other three combined harvesters 
are at work now, cutting and threshing the 
grain on about 100 acres per day. Owing to 
the low price of cereals, most of the grain will 
be shipped to Port Costa to be stored there 
until the market shows a more favorable tone. 

Californian: A combined harvester is at work 
on the Miller & Lux ranch harvesting barley 
that will average between 30 and 40 bushels to 
the acre. They have about 5000 acres. 

Echo: The second crop of strawberries is now 
coming to market, there are plenty of black- 
berries and dewberries, apricots are beginning 
to appear in quantity, early peaches, apples and 

plums are ripe and cherries are in market. So 
one doesn't need to go hungry for fruit. 

Californian: S. W. Wible has recently pur- 
chased for Miller <fe Lux a combined harvester 
with 16 feet sweep, which is now in full opera- 
tion in the big grain fields around headquarters. 
It is hauled by 26 horses, over which Capt. Bell, 
the king driver of the Wild West, holds the 
reins. Manager Hill instructs the outfit where 
to go, with the result that from 30 to 40 acres 
are now being harvested daily, yielding a little 
over 20 sacks of barley to the acre. There are 
5000 acres of barley to be harvested, from which 
there will be gathered at least 100,000 sacks. 


Chico Enterprise: The late cold weather will 
cause nearly an entire failure in the grain crop 
this year throughout Lassen county. Fruit 
and other crops will be about the average. 

Los Angeles. 

Pomona Progress: Fruit-growers say that 
some orange groves in this valley have a heavy 
crop of young orange? on them, while others, 
especially those which bore large crops last 
year, have set but little fruit. The experience 
of past years has been that a young orange 
crop is very deceptive, and trees that appear to 
have but few oranges on them when the fruit 
is small are often found to have a fair crop 
when the fruit matures. The size of the com- 
ing orange crop can be better determined a few 
months hence. 


Salinas Index: S. M. Shearer returned last 
week from a grain-inspecting trip through the 
valley. He says he never saw grain finer than 
it is this year on Three-Mile Flat and in that 
neighborhood. The Wiley brothers, on the 
Arroyo Seco, have 1500 acres hard to beat. 


Register : T. H. Lawson has charge of the 
blackberry farm of ex-Supervisor Trubody this 
season. He to-day advertises in our 50-cent 
column for pickers. From 28 acres he expects 
to gather 600 chests of 100 pounds each. The 
Trubndy blackberries find a ready market in 
San Francisco and adjoining counties. It is too 
soon to say what price will rule. 

Register : W. H. Evans' Brown's Valley or- 
chard yielded about 2500 boxes of cherries this 
season. Fifteen hundred boxes of them were 
sent East. The prices paid averaged a little 
above those of a year ago. A carload forwarded 
to Minneapolis reached that point Wednesday, 
after being 11 days on the road. This large 
consumption of time is more than the shippers 
bargained for, as passenger-train service was ex- 
pected, and passenger time is five days. The 
cherries must have been in pretty good order, 
however, as they sold at the rate of 70 cents per 
box. Mr. Evans brings to our office a box of 
Black Tartarians, picked when thoroughly 
ripe nine days ago and placed on ice. They are 
spotted with mold, and the question arises : 
" Is this the usual condition of cherry ship- 
ments when they have been iced that length of 
time?" Ventilation or the lack of it may have 
something to do with the mold gathering. The 
skin on the moldy cherry was in each case 
broken, and too snug packing is probably the 


Santa Ana Blade: Although the sheep inter- 
ests of Orange county are somewhat reduced to 
that of former years, when range was unlim- 
ited, yet the sheep and wool products even now 
cut no small figure in the commerce of the 
county. There are about 150,000 sheep now in 
Orange county, the largest owners being L. 
Moulton & Co. and J. Salaberrie <fc Co. The 
annual clip of wool amounts to 600,000 pounds. 

Anaheim Oazette: A very large acreage was 
planted to potatoes this year south and west of 
town, all of which is turning out a big crop. 
The spuds are now being dug and shipped in 
large quantities from the railroad deDOt, giving 
employment to a large number of men and 
teams. This one item of our county's agricul- 
tural products will form quite an item in car- 
load exports this season, and it is understood 
that the growers are realizing satisfactory re- 

Santa Ana Blade: The work done by Mr. 
Oiler last fall in poisoning the squirrels on the 
San Joaquin ranch has proven of great value. 
At least one-fifth of the grain crop has in for- 
mer years been taken care of by these rodents, 
which, if the same were true this season, would 
mean the loss of 125,000 sacks. The work done 
by the old squirrel poisoner, while not perman- 
ent, has proven a paying investment. There 
are not many squirrels to be found now on the 
ranch, still in a few years they will increase 

Anaheim Cor. Los Angeles Times: The grow- 
ing of sugar beets is more in the nature of an 
experiment with our farmers this year than 
anything else, yet from present indications it 
will prove a very successful and profitable one. 
The " experiment " also, it must be admitted, 
is being tried on a rather large scale, and some 
of the figures in relation to it are rather inter- 
esting. Something like 1500 acres have been 
planted to beets in this portion of the county. 
Ten tons to the acre is said to be a low estimate 
of the crop, but to haul this crop to the factory 
at Chino, the railroad company will have to 
put on a train of 15 cars a day for a period of 
100 days; it will require an army of men to har- 
vest the crop, and it will take scores of teams 
to haul the beets to the depot; lastly, it will 
bring to this section of the county over $100,- 
000, and perhaps $150,000 in hard cash. Truly, 
this is encouraging for a new industry's inau- 


It is learned from a hop-raiser near Perkins' 
that the dreaded fly is thought to have put in 
an appearance in some of the hop-fields there. 

At least, a small fly is eating the leaves full of 
holes and retarding the growth of the hops. It 
is to be hoped that it is not the hop fly, which 
has not up till this time appeared. 

San Bernardino. 

Chino Champion: The beet crop on the Chino 
ranch never looked better than it does to-day. 
Great fields of grain stretching away in every 
direction betoken a bountiful crop. Most of 
the work is done until harvest begins, which 
will probably be about the 20th or 25th of July. 

Chino Champion: It is expected that beet 
harvesting will commence about July 20, de- 
pending somewhat on the condition of the 
weather a week or two previous to that date. 
Heavy fogs may delay ripening, but if the 
weather continues clear the beets will probably 
be ready by that time. 

San Diego. 

_ The experiment which Mrs. Carrie A. Wil- 
liams has been making in raising silkworms for 
nine consecutive months of the year has been 
progressing successfully. On its completion, 
she will report the result to the United State 
Department of Agriculture at Washington. 
The eggs laid in May are now hatching. 

Santa Clara. 

Tree and Vine: Prunes are promising better 
than we supposed after hearing a good many 
growers report that they would give only one- 
fourth of a crop. We rode one whole day and 
found only two orchards that had so small a 
crop as one-fourth. All about Campbell's, with 
the exception of two or three orchards, there is 
a good, fair crop. If nothing happens during 
this month, Santa Clara county will be good 
for an output of 25,000.000 pounds of first-class 
dried prunes, and the crop of the State will be 
32,000,000 to 33,000,000 pounds. 


Anderson Valley News: Mr. Pettygrove 
showed us a prune limb that was cut from a 
tree in the orchard of Mr. Damon just above 
town. The limb was about two feet long and 
there must have been over 100 prunes on it. 
The yield of prunes and pears will be large in 
this section. 

News: Fred Johns, who was over in the 
Bald Hills country beyond Ono last week, 
showed us some wheat in the sheaf that was 
grown on the Benedict place, now leased by 
A. W. Baker. The heads were large and well 
filled, and prove that part of Shasta county a 
good wheat-raising section. 

Anderson Valley News: Major Lyons and 
H. K. Pettygrove Ijave been busy this week 
looking up fruit to ship to the World's Fair. 
They will send 40 or 50 boxes of apricots and 
early peaches in a few days. The fruit is large 
and of excellent flavor. Before the Fair is over 
Shasta county will convince the people in the 
East that as good fruits can be grown here as 
anywhere in the State. 


Dixon Tribune: Grain is now coming into 
the warehouses in a steady stream. The yield 
will, however, fall considerably below the usual 

Dixon Tribune: J. D. Parish has long had 
the reputation of producing the earliest vege- 
tables on the plains, and the present season is 
no exception. He had green corn on his table 
early last week, or before it appeared in the 
local markets. Corn of Mr. Parish's raising is 
sweeter and more palatable than the imported 
article, as we will cheerfully testify. 


Fruit-growers in the Geyserville neighbor- 
hood do not look for more than a half-crop of 
peaches and prunes. They say the pear crop 
will be almost a failure. The grapes promise 

Sebastopol Times: A limb from a cherry 
tree on A. J. Thompson's ranch was left at this 
office by that gentleman Tuesday. The limb is 
eight feet long and was loaded with cherries as 
close as they could be packed. 


Merced Herald: J. M. Canty, the rustling 
farmer down by the San Joaquin, this side of 
Grayson, is one of the citizens of Stanislaus who 
profited by the big rise in the price of hogs. 
During the last few months he has sold almost 
every hog on his place, realizing $13,000 in the 
aggregate. A large percentage of the porkers 
brought him eight cents a pound live weight. 
J. J. Crossley, the Turlock hustler, has also 
made considerable money in the same line, sell- 
ing about all of his own and all that he could 
purchase in this and Merced counties on terms 
affording a proper margin of profit. J. J. Mc- 
Dougald, the contractor, speculator and stock- 
raiser of San Joaquin county, says that h«gs 
can be raised at a profit for two cents a pound 
live weight. Hogs will rule at substantially 
the present high rates for another year, if not 
for two or three years, a material shortage ex- 
isting throughout the Union. 


Times : George W. Francis got 2600 sacks of 
oats and barley from 400 acres. The two grains 
were mixed this year. His land is near the 
foothills where oats seem to thrive best. 

The forty-third agricultural district (Tulare 
and Kings county) will hold its first annual 
fair and speed contest on October 3d, 4th, 5th, 
6th and 7th, the week following the Fresno fair. 

The proposition to vote bonds for $25,000 in 
the Tulare irrigation district was defeated, there 
being seven votes short of the necessary two- 
thirds. It is probable another election will be 
held shortly, as the district must have expense 

Tulare Citizen: None could doubt the 
value of the water of the Tulare irrigation dis- 

trict to this city and surrounding counti 
they could only take a trip south and west, 
where no water can be had to irrigate the 
parched grain fields, and then view our fields of 
golden grain that give promise of so bountiful 
a yield. 

Times: G. A. Botsford has two harvesters and 
three headers at work on his Kings county 
ranch, nine miles south of Hanford. He has 
nearly 3000 acres of wheat to harvest. In the 
last year he has built about twenty-four miles 
of ditch on the tract. 

Times : I. H. Thomas is back from a visit of 
several days in Fresno. He drove over and 
through about 20,000 acres of vineyard while 
there and says he never saw as good a grape 
prospect before. The grapes are dropping a 
little, but there are plenty left. 


Democrat: A representative of the Democrat 
met Mr. A. Shackleton, proprietor of the Vic- 
toria vineyard, near Mullen Station, Thursday 
afternoon, and was informed that the present 
indications were for the largest crop for many 
years. The berries are the thick on the vines 
and are already one-third their normal size 
when ripe. 

Capay Cor. Democrat: Hungry Hollow farm- 
ers have commenced harvesting and the wheat 
crop is turning out much better than was an- 
ticipated. Newt. Nickle's grain is yielding 
about thirteen sacks to the acre, and it is of a 
very superior quality. All the farmers with 
whom I have talked have the same story to tell 
of an agreeable surprise in the amount of the 

Democrat: J. H. Harlan says his crop on the 
home place is very fair and the quality is good, 
but on the Buckeye farm it is very light. He 
recently went out to that vicinity and saw har- 
vesters running in fields where the yield was 
not more than four or five sacks to the acre. 
From all reports, gleaned from the most re- 
liable sources, the Buckeye farmers will fare 
worse than those of any other section of the 

Madison Cor. Yolo Democrat : P. Saling, who 
is farming extensively a few miles south of this 
place, complains of a very short crop. He says 
that in eighteen years' experience this is the 
shortest crop he ever harvested. He thinks 
that by long years of very hard work he has 
earned the right to retire from business and 
spend the remainder of his days in the enjoy- 
ment of leisure, but he dislikes that his last 
year at farming should be such a lamentable 

Yolo Mail: F. D. Carsley has remembered 
this office with a box of Moorpark apricots, 
which for beauty and flavor excel any samples' 
of that delicious fruit we have seen this season. 
One of the largest measured 94 and 8i inches 
in its two circumferences. Mr. Carsley's orchard 
is six years old, located on the rich, alluvial soil 
of Cache creek, four miles northeast of Wood- 
land. The trees have not been irrigated, yet 
the yield is uniformly heavy and the quality of 
the very first order. 

Porterville Enterprise : At the meeting of the 
Horticultural Society last Saturday it was re- 
ported that scale had been found on deciduous 
trees, especially in old orchards. Some time 
back the society purchased a spray pump to be 
loaned out at 50 cents a day to members and $1 
to non-members. Before the pump was pur- 
chased there was always the cry, "If we only 
had a pump we could spray our trees." In six 
months the pump has only been called for 
once 1 We would warn our readers that our 
Horticultural Commissioner has the power, if 
an orchard is infested with scale, to have said 
orchard destroyed, and the Porterville Horti- 
cultural Society intends to see that this is done. 
If you find scale on your trees, get the pump 
and spray them thoroughly. 

Mail: Jacob Cunningham, one of Yolo 
county's farmers who goes through the world 
with his eyes wide open, saw, a good many 
years ago, that leading the world's forlorn hope 
in the wheat industry wasn't the proper caper 
to be cut by a California farmer, so he began to 
hedge for the future. A little hole of 40 acres 
would never count much anyhow, so four years 
ago he planted out that area in Adriatic figs, 
almonds and prunes, with a sprinkling of other 
fruit. Mr. Cunningham told a Mail reporter 
the other day that he didn't think Yolo county 
could show a fig orchard that could compare 
with his. The trees wonld have borne much 
frnit this year had not Mr. Cunningham pre- 
ferred to sacrifice the present for the future and 
pruned them severely last winter. Next year 
lie expects to reap a harvest, not only from this 
portion but from the whole extent of his or- 
chard. His place is located li miles northwest 
of Blacks, and the splendid growth made by 
his trees shows how admirably the soil is 
adapted to fruit culture. 


Wheatland Four Corners : A run through the 
hop yards east of town finds the vines in fine 
condition. Some sections are more forward than 
usual, and all, except the newly planted, is in 
fine condition. The new planting is backward, 
but in the end will pan out all right. 
The work on the yards is decreasing and the 
growers are at work on their houses. W. B. 
Roddan has in the course of erection a tine cool- 
ing room which replaces the one blown down 
last winter. The building is 62x160 feet. It is 
thoroughly braced, and is probably the strong- 
est cooling room in the State. A double 30- 
foot kiln has been built adjoining the old kiln, 
and the cooling room will take hops from the 
four kiln floors. The foundation for Mr. Jas- 
per's kiln and cooling room has been laid, but 
further work is delayed by the non-arrival of 
lumber. Mr. Wood is having an excavation 
made in the hill-side just south of his old kiln, 
where he will erect a double fire-proof kiln. 
The brick kiln from which the material will be 



July 8, 1898. 

secured will be fired in a few days. On D. P. 
Durst's place carpenters are busy building a 
30-foot addition to the cooling room, while ma- 
sons are putting up another fire-proof kiln. 
When this season's improvements on the hop 
houses are completed the hop country surround- 
ing Wheatland can boast of the best equipped 
curing houses on the coast. 


T<a Conner Phonograph : Captain Warner while 
here gave his experience with last year's crop 
of potatoes. Having planted quite a plat of the 
" Irish bulb," and fearing they had been touched 
with frost during the cold spell of several 
months ago, he offered the entire yield for $125 
to any one who would dig them up and carry 
them away. Finding no one willing to close 
in with the offer, the captain allowed them to 
remain in the ground until a few days ago, 
when he sold the whole crop, forty tons in all, 
to one purchaser for $30 a ton. thus netting a 
profit of about $800, over which the captain is 
feeling quite jubilant. 

Reardan Messenger : Last year John W. Den- 
ney caused the death of the enormous total of 
35.000 squirrels. These are the figures on the 
county records on which the bounty was paid, 
and is the champion record for Lincoln county. 
This does not include any which may have 
died where their scalps could not be recovered. 
Mr. Denney's success as a squirrel destroyer has 
caused much inquiry as to the method employed 
hv him in dealing with the little pest. The 
Messenger has procured Mr. Denney's formula, 
which is as follaws : He finds the most con- 
venient receptacle for preparing the poisoned 
grain to be a five-gallon oil can, one side of 
which has been cut open. In this put some- 
what more than a quart of water. Then add 
one ounce of strychnine and put over the fire 
to boil. There is no necessity for pulverizing 
the strychnine. Boil until the crystals are dis- 
solved, then stir in half a cup of sugar. When 
all is dissolved add three gallons of oats, and 
stir until the mixture is all absorbed by the 
grain. Then stir in another half cup of sugar. 
This forms a sweet coating over the poison and 
disguises it. The poisoned grain should be 
prepared in the morning and put out at once, 
as it loses much of its efficiency if kept stand- 
ing even for one day. Mr. Denney prefers oats 
to wheat as a vehicle for conveying the poison 
to the squirrels. He has tried various methods, 
but finds the one outlined above by far the 
most effective. 

American Tools. 

The manufacture of tools in the United 
States bids fair to surpass that of all other 
countries, including even England. The 
American implement is lighter, handier, and 
is usually made of better material than has 
been hitherto employed in Europe. The 
Americans have excellent iron and un- 
equalled wood. (Hickory hammer handles !) 
The American tool manufacturers appear to 
have entirely abandoned European tradi- 
tions, and to have struck out an entirely 
new path for themselves; hammers, augers, 
files, sharpening and cutting tools, axes, 
saws, spades, screws, nails, etc., even the 
handles of implements, appear to have re- 
ceived quite new forms. In the same way 
the genius of the American, extremely care- 
ful to save all unnecessary labor, uses cast 
iron far more than it is employed in Europe. 
A great many machines and parts of tools 
that we make of wrought iron are there ob- 
tained in excellent quality by casting. This 
has the important advantage that if a part of 
a machine is broken or worn another exactly 
similar can be procured by sending to the 
factory its catalogue number. 

The American always endeavors, as far as 
possible, to economize labor. The black- 
smith gets along without the man whom we 
consider absolutely - necessary to hold the 
horse's leg. There is contained in every 
American an inventor, a mechanic or an 
architect. It is marvellous with what sim- 
ple means they can succeed. As an example 
of the practical common sense of the Amer- 
icans, we may instance the following : The 
mason, who with us considers the cutting 
hammer an indispensable implement, does 
not regard it a separate tool in America; 
there the trowel is made of hardened steel, 
and so shaped that it is used to cut and 
break bricks in brick-laying. When one 
thinks of the time that is lost in changing 
tools during the construction of a small 
house, he can see that this makes an im- 
portant economy. The woodman, for 
another example, uses the axe far more than 
the saw, notwithstanding the danger which 
it involves. The Americans are as ex- 
travagant with materials as they are eco- 
nomical with labor, and for this reason the 
repairing of tools and implements plays a 
less imoortant role than with us. — Frank- 
furter Zeitung. 

conducted through the various processes to 
where the finished paper lay bundled for the 
market. The straw is conveyed on a long 
carrier from the straw pile to the cutter, 
which is run by a 25-horse power engine, 
and cut into small particles, then elevated to 
the upper story and dropped into two di- 
gesters, where it is cooked by the lime 

These digesters are large iron tubs 24 
feet long, 8 feet in diameter, and weigh 80 
tons; it requires a carload of lime every 
week. The hot liquor cooks the straw to a 
pulp, after which it passes through pipes to 
a chest on the lower floor and is then pumped 
through an eight-inch pipe to the washing en- 
gine on the upper floor, then back down be- 
low to the half finishing chest, whence it is 
again pumped up to the upper floor and 
passes through the coase grinder and finish- 
ing engine, thence to the vat near the rollers, 
where the liquid is separated from the stock, 
which is gathered by a fine wire roller and 
adheres to the felt rollers, where it begins to 
assume shape. It then passes over a series 
of rollers at the rate of 96 to 120 feet per 
minute. It is then carried over 13 large 
drying rollers that are heated by steam, 
thence to two stacks of calenders of chilled 
steel, where the paper is finished and trans- 
ferred to the reel stand and then passed to 
the cutter, where it is cut to any required 
size. It is then received by two boys, who 
carry it to the table where it is bundled, and 
the straw pile that you stood by six hours 
ago lies before you, finished goods all ready 
for the market. 

The paper is manufactured by the Tomp- 
kins process. The mill is supplied with the 
latest improved machinery for making brown 
straw and colored express paper. 

Some idea may be formed of the magni- 
tude of this plant when you realize that the 
ponderous machinery for its operation weighs 
1000 tons, and requires three engines of 140 
horse power to operate it, and three immense 
boilers to generate the steam, and still the 
power is insufficient. The company will 
place another engine of 100-horse power in 
the near future. The steam pump in the 
valley below the mill raises 500 gallons of 
water per minute. — Shears. 

How Straw Paper Is Made. 

A recent visit of a newspaper man to the 
straw-paper mill at Chillicothe, III., results 
in the following description of how the paper 
is made, and as the method is very similar 
to that of making strawboard, the article 
will be interesting. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. James Water- 
house, we started at the straw pile and were 

Mrs. M. H. Ober, 


816 Market St., S. F. 

11 O'Farrell St., S F- 
Branch, 1836 San Pablo Ave. 

All qualities Ypsilanti Union 
Suits for ladies and children. 
Headquarters for the Coast. 


Knee and ankle, open and closed 

seat, $1.25 up. AH qualities. 
Fine Black Hosiery for ladies 
and children. 
A full line of Bathing Suits, 
Cleopatra and Delsarte Girdles. 

R. F. Sensible Waists for 
Ladies and Children. All prices. 

Bathing Suits of all qualities 
and prices. 

Only authorized Agent for 

Sample pieces and Catalogue 
sent free. 


34 POST ST., S. F. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all thi 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
(or six rail months. We have sixteen teachers, and glvi 
Individual Instruction to all our pupils. Oar school hat 
Its fraduates In every part of the Stat*. 
iff Bind for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President 

O. S. HALEY. Secretary 


That one tablespoonfnl of 


will produce more actual reau Its than a whole hottle 
of any liniment or spavin cure mixture ever made. 
It is therefore the cheapest (as well as safest and 
bent) external applicant known for man or beast. 


The Judson 
Fruit Company, 

808 and 310 
San Francisco, Cal. 

= We are now better than ever prepared to 
receive consignments of all kinds of perishable 
produots, such as Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs, etc. Our 
facilities for cool, dry storage and packing for long- 
distance shipping cannot be excelled. It Is our con- 
stant aim to make our consignors and our customers 
stay with us. 



The Rural Press appeals to its readers to assist in the work 
of extending its circulation. If you have friends or neighbors who 
are not but who ought to be readers of the Rural, please give us 
their names and we will send them sample copies of the paper 
with subscription blanks. 

If any subscriber of the Rural will send us three new names, 
accompanied by cash, for one year in advance ($2.40 each), we 
will advance his own subscription one year on our books. Or if 
he will send us one new name with payment in advance for one 
year we will advance his subscription four months on our books. 

To any present subscriber or member of his family who will 
undertake to act as local agent for the Rural in the way of getting 
new names and collecting from old subscribers we will give liberal 
cash commissions. A young woman in one of the central counties 
of the State averages, by thus acting for us, a monthly cash income 
of $15.00 without neglecting her domestic duties. 

The paper is putting forth renewed efforts to answer the 
demand for a journal clean and pure in tone, independent and 
intelligent in its dealings with public questions, thorough and 
practical in its treatment of agricultural, horticultural and live-stock 
subjects and careful and accurate in its market reports. It has 
within the past year taken on a new editorial department — " From 
an Independent Standpoint " — which deals with public questions of 
political character without partisan bias. It is the aim of the 
writer of this department to tell the exact truth about public ques- 
tions and public men, without regard to party faith or partisan 
effect. It seeks to give the reader straightforward statements of 
fact and the best results of a sober, non-partisan judgment. 

The chief strength of the Rural is the friendship which has 
grown up between its readers and itself. Confident in that friend- 
ship, it appeals to them to speak a good word for it whenever they 

Address all communications to the Rural 
Prkss, 220 Market Street, San Francisco. 


DEWEY <5c OO.'S 

Scientific Press 

faint Agency. 


Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to oonsult this old 
siperienoed, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Wash- 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi. 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in onr office, we have 
jther advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies. The 
mformation accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
jxamination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of detennining the patentability of 
inventions f-ought before us, enables us ofte» to give advice which will save inventors the 
■xpense of pplying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
'reVon receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 220 Market St S. W, 

July 8, 1893. 


Contagiousness of Consumption. 

Dr. J. G. Hopkins of Thomasville, Ga., 
read a paper on this subject which is re- 
ported in part in the Medical Record. The 
speaker said he had joined the growing 
army which placed tuberculosis in the cate- 
gory of contagious diseases, and his ex- 
perience with this disease during 19 years 
of investigation in Thomasville — which place 
is a resort for consumptives — bore him out 
in his opinion, and made a willing subject 
of the great and erudite Koch. He does 
not doubt but that all men, women and 
children, at some time or times, receive into 
their air passages the tubercle bacilli, but 
fortunately the great majority possessed the 
power of repelling them and throwing them 
off— they did not find that soil, so to speak, 
which is adapted to their growth. Indians 
in a state of nativity seemed impervious to 
the germs of consumption, but were now 
dying by thousands on the reservations. 
The whites and the blacks in prisons all over 
the world labored under similar conditions. 
A report from the Illinois State Prison, at 
Joliet, says that there are 1400 convicts with- 
in the walls, and fully one-third of them have 
consumption in a light or bad form. Nearly 
all deaths of persons in the penitentiary 
have been caused by consumption. 

Dr. Hopkins emphasized the danger that 
lurks in sleeping-cars, in carpets, bedding, 
clothing and in the walls of apartments oc- 
cupied by consumptives, which have not 
been properly renovated and rendered harm- 
less by antiseptic measures. Consumptives 
should be forced to provide for the destruc- 
tion of sputa. Whenever situated so as not 
to expectorate directly into a germicide or 
the fire, they should use some means of con- 
veying the sputa to the germicide or the 
flames. If handkerchiefs or cloths are 
used, they should not be sent to the laundry, 
as human happiness and life are jeopardized 
through the probability of inoculation 
through abrasions upon the hands. These 
bacilli should never be allowed to dry up 
and impregna e the air, as is now done 
through ignorance of possible result. Nu- 
merous experiments by leading medical 
authorities have proved beyond doubt that 
consumption is an inoculable disease, and 
so rapidly is the throng of converts growing 
that the speaker would not be surprised if 
even in bis day resorts now soliciting the 
patronage of the consumptive will be quar- 
antining against him. 

Electricity and Cholera. 

In view of the danger of a fresh outbreak 
of the fatal epidemic during the year, it is 
to be expected, says Electricity, that disin- 
fectants not only will rise enormously in 
price, but that the demand will exceed the 
production, and it will be of interest to point 
out a simple method for the preparation of 
liquids containing chlorine, the active agent 
of the most efficient of disinfectants, chlorite 
of lime. By passing an electric current 
through an aqueous solution of soluble 
chloride, both the chloride and the water are 
decomposed. At the positive pole a very 
unstable chlorate is formed, which has very 
powerful oxidizing properties, while at the 
negative pole another oxide is formed, capa- 
ble of precipitating most organic substances, 

We thus obtain by electrolysis a liquid 
which has the following properties: (1) It 
completely destroys the organic substances 
formed by putrefaction, as well as the noxious 
gases generated, such as sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, ammonium sulphate, marsh gas, etc., 
and it also destroys all bacilli and other liv 
ing ferments; (2) it precipitates albuminous 
substances of all kinds, and other suspicious 
ingredients contained in water; in other 
words, it clarifies the water. This method 
has already been used for technical purposes, 
such as bleaching paper-pulp and starch, and 
might be used with advantage for the bleach 
ing of our linen, which receives such barbar- 
ous treatment on the part of the laundress, 
Why should this method not also be used 
for the disinfection of refuse, water-closets 
and contaminated water ? It would certainly 
be of the greatest value in case of another 
outbreak of cholera, and especially in sea- 
ports, provided it were properly developed 
and rendered applicable on a large scale. 
The source of chlorine in a seaport is inex 
haustible; it is simply sea-water. It does 
not signify in the least from whence the 
chlorine, the most powerful of all disinfect- 
ing agents, is derived; we have in sea- water 
an inexhaustible supply of the raw material, 
and in electrolysis an excellent method for 
the production of the active agent. 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of " A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enosburgh Falls, Vt. This book 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the " Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time. 

Three and One-Half Days to the World's 

We take pleasure In advising the readers of (be Pacific 
Rural Priss that the UNION PACIFIC Is the most 
direct and quickest line from San Frandsoo and all 
points In California to the WORLD'S FAIR. 

It is the ONLY LINE running Pulln an's latest im- 
proved vestibuled Drawlng-Room Sleepers and Dining 
Cars irom San Francisco to Chicago without change, and 
only one change of cars to New York or Boston. 

Select Tourist Excursions via the UNION PACIFC 
leave San Francisco every Thursday for Chicago, New 
York and Boston in charge of experienced managers, 
who give their personal attention to the comfort of 
ladi s and children traveling alone. 

Steamship Tickets to am from all points In Europe. 

For tickets to the World's Fair and all points east and 
for Sleeping-Oar accommodatl ns call on or address 
D. W. Hitchcock, General Agent Union Pacific System, 
No. 1 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 


■ ■ S» k mmpay you to tend 2So. for Encyolopedla, of 

IBOoCngravingt. The American Well Works. AuroraJIL 
»>«0, Chior^o, III.; Dallas Tex.; Sydney, N. &% 

M A P H ' Y *" WaUr - on 

III H U II I Dining, Ditching, Pumping, 
Wind and Steam.- Heating Boilere, Ac Wlk 

Our Agent 8. 

J. C. Hoas— San Francisco. 

R. G Bailey— San Francisco. 

F. D. Holman— California, 

Geo. Wilson— Sacramento, Cal. 

Samuel B. Cliff — Ores ton, Cal. 

A. C. Godfrey — Oregon. 

E. H. Schaeffle— El Dorado and Amador Oo'l. 

C. E. Robertson— Humboldt Co. 

D. A. Macdonald— Siskiyou and Del Norte. 

Hay Pressing. 

If you are interested in pressing hay write Truman, 
Hooteer & Co., San r ranclsco. They will save you money. 


rate of interest on approved security In Farming Lands. 
A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 California street, San 

Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley. 

For Boys and Young Men. 

Special university preparation, depending not on time 

but on progress in studies. 
T. S. BOWBNS. M. A .....Head Master. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DER NALLLKN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, 826; BuUion and Chlorlnatlon Assay, 
|26; Blowpipe ABsay, $10. 


Full course of assaying, 160 
' Send for circular 



Bookkeeping, Penmanship, Shorthand, Typewriting, 
English Branches, etc Graduates aided in getting po 
I Hons. Send for circulars. T. A. ROBINSON, Pros. 

Is the Largest Illustrate, and Leading Agrlcul 
tural and Horticultural Weekly of the West 
Established 1870. Trial Subscriptions, 50c for 
8 mos. or 92.40 a year (till farther notice). DEWEV 
PUBLISHING CO., 220 Market Street. San Francisco 

THE DAIRYMAN who is doing business for Profit must use 
the Imperial Russian Cream Separator. This machine is 
Perfection. The Best and the Cheapest of all. No Engine and No 
Engineer required. Simple and Safe. If you do Not use it you are 
Losing Money with every pound of milk. Capacity of different 
sizes from 500 to 2500 gallons per hour. Duplicate parts of 
Sharpless Separators kept on hand. Balancing Bowls and 
general repairs of Separators a Specialty. Send for Catalogue to 
A. J. Van Drake, Pacific Coast Agent, 203 Fremont St., S. F. 


NO POLE excepton 


One Plowman 
Instead of Two 






Seven Acres a Day !" "V;: 

Four horses abreast— one In the 
furrow, three on the land. 
Foot brake prevents pang running 
on team. Levers within easy 

No bottom or 
side friction. 
Weight of furrows, 
frame and plowman, 
carried on three greased spindles. 
Draft reduced to 

lowest possible limit 

Easier Jtrivincr, Straighter Fur* 
rows* and Lighter Draft 

than any Gang in America. 
Adjustable frame— can be narrowed or 
widened ut will, and converted into a 
single plow in a few moments* time. 
Made with Stubble, Sod and Stubble, and 
raine breaker bottoms, in Steel or Chilled 
etui. Right or left -10, \z or 11-inch cut. 
Special prices and time for trial given on 
first orders from points where we have no Agents. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bind, Ind., or Stanton, Thompson & Co., Sacramento. 

'Fun on the Farm"— sent free to all 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Ooata. 

Coipissiop fflerchapts. 


Commission Merchants, 



Green and Dried Finite, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Bean* and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
808 ft 810 Davis St., San Franoiioo. 

[P. O. Box 1938.1 
^Consignments Solicited, 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notloe. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN RAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 


4048c*06 DAVIS STS.F. 


601, SOS, COB. 607 & BOO Front St. 

And 800 Washington St, 








General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 
Members of the San Franolsco Produce Exchange, 

rPersonal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of interest. 

[18TABLIBH1D 1864. J 




89 Clay Street and 28 Oommerclai;street 
Bar Fiancisoo, Cal. 

C. H. EVANS & CO.. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

110 and 113 Hf ale Street, 8. F 

Sleam Pumps Steam Engines 

And All Kinds of MACHINERY. 


Treatise on the Horse and His Diseases. 

By B. J. Kendall, M. D. 

86 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal medicines used 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of med- 
diclnes. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en- 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teetn at each year. It is printed ol. fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 7Jx6 Inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five for |1, on receipt of which we will send 
by mall to any address DEWEY PUBLISHING CO.. 930 
WarlrAt Srre«t. Ran FrmnnUco 


^220 MARKET. ST.B.F., 
V_£LEWr0R 12 FA0NT.ST.S.F.— 



July 8, 1898. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory »t 60c per Une per month, 


F. H. BURKE, 026 Market St., 8. F. Registered 
Holsteins, winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast. 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle, Both sexes for sale. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co. Importer A Breeder 
of Reglsteied Shorthorn Cattle. Young Bulls for sale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Shorthorns. Young Stock for gale. 

PERCHERON HORSES.— Pure-bred Horses and 
Marej, all ages, and Guaranteed Breeders, for gale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake County, Cal. New 
Catalogue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

PETER SAXel & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

Lh V. WILLITS, Wateonvllle, Cal., Black Perch- 
erone. Registered Stallions for gals. 


O. BLOM, St. Helena. Brown Leghorns a specialty. 

Cal. Send for Illustrated & Descriptive Catalogue, free. 

JOHN McFARLINO, Calistoga, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


FOR SALE at low price— Three extra fine young 
thoroughbred Dlshfaced Berkshire Boars. T. Chitten- 
den, Chittenden, Cal. 

C. H. D WINELLE, Fu'ton, Sonoma Co., Cal. Shrop- 
shire ard Crossbred fchropchlre-Merino Rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Bams for gale. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal.— Breeder of 
Short-Horn Cattle, Poland-China and Berkshire Hogg. 

T. WAITS, Perkins, Cal, breeder of reglgtered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, Cal. Breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Sma'l YorkEhire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior Stock, Low Prices 

TYLER BEAUH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 


W. A. SHAFOR, Middletown.Ohlo, 

Largest American Importer of 
O. D. Sheep, 

Is prepared to quote prices on the beet stock of Oxford 
Down Sheep to be had In England. Parties wanting 
flrst-olass stock should write tor particulars and induoe 
their neighbors to Join them. Import will arrive in 
June. Write at once. 



EGGS $3.60 per setting; St for two settings; 96 for 
three settings. White Leghorn pen beaded by 
"Volante," score 96} Brown Leghorn pen headed by 
"Imperial," score 93. Send for circular. Satisfaction 
guaranteed to all. 

Care Santa Rosa National Bank SANTA ROSA. CAL 

■THE ■ 



131s Myrtle) Mtreet, Oakland. <al. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

ojsrirx" 25 "X":e-a_:rs olid 




Some reasons why yon should keep H. H. H. Lltlmenti 

1st— Because It is the best for Man or Beast, 

2d— Because It is the Cheapest. One bottle mixed with double Its quantity of oil Is then as strong as most 


3d— Because you don't have to wait for it. You can buy it anywhere, 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 





SIRED BY FIRST CLASS IMPORTED MALES. My Brood Sows, Imported from the Fast, are the admiration of 
everybody, being fine Individuals and, like the Boars, rich in such blood as Tecumseh, the most famous hog 
that ever lived, King Tecumseh. his greatest son, Tom Corwin 2d, whoae owner refuged f 1000 for him, Cora Schel- 
lenberger, whose produce sold for $8300 before she died, and other prize winners at Eagtern State Fairs. Inspec- 
tion invited and correspondence solicited. Parties giving timely notice will be met at station. Ranch one mile 
from station. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Nilea, Cal. 


Tbe Beat, Sinapleat and Cheapest Coupling for Tank Hoops. 

A sufficient lap of hoop renders It unnecessary to rivet the hoop. It will fit the circle of any tank, egardless of size 

Made in sixes to tit any width of iron 
Price*. •1.00 to 81 .50 per Pair. For sale to tbe trade. Liberal discount In quantities. 




Send for Csulotse. 


BBASON OX 1 1893. 



Send for Circulars 

H. M. NEWHALL & OO., Agents, 

309-811 Sansome Street . 

.San Francisco. Cal 


Price $60, Delivered Anywhere In the 

United States. 
These Scales have STEEL BEARINGS, Not Wood— 

From 33 to 60 per cent cheaper than any other 
Scales of like quality. All alios and kinds 
of Scales alwaya In stock. 

Truman, Hooker A Co., San Francisco. 

Send for Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 








This la the Standard Work on tbe Baleln Industry In California. It hae been 
approved by Prof. Hllg-ard, Prof. Wlckson, Mr. Ohae. A. Wetmoro and a multitude of 
Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by tbe DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. or its Agents at lbe uniform price of 
$3 00, postage prepaid. Orders should be addressed: 


220 Market St., San Francisco, 

DEWEY &.CO. mU&?? a a fy& r '} PATENT AGENTS. 


Importers A Breeders of Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 100 bead of Full Bloods and Crossbreds on 
Devons. Bulls and Helfeis for sale. Address communlca* 
tlonB regarding Cattle to MECHAM & FRIT8CH. Peta- 
luma, Cal 


Importers a Breeders of Shropshire Sheep. 

The flock was Imported or bred direct from Im- 
ported stock. The Shropshire excels all mutton breeds 
for a cross on the merino — giving; more wool and mut- 
ton than that from any other breed. Purs and Cross- 
bred Hams and Ewes for sale. Direct inquiries regard- 
ing Sbropshlreg to MECHAM A HINKLE, Petaluma, Cal. 


Breeder of American Merino Sheep With- 
out Horns. The only flock in tbe United States. 
When we bought oar sheep East 24 years ago, among 
them wag a ram without horng. He grew to be a fine 
large aheep, rheariog at 2 yea old, a 12-month's fleece, 
86 lbs. of long white wool. 

I have bred from him and his get ever since and have 
never made an out-cross and never used the same ram 
but one year on the game flock. My rams at two years 
old weigh from 16!) to ISO lbs., hive a strong constitu- 
tion, without wrinkles, and will shear on an average 
about 25 lbs., a 12-month's fleece, of long white wool. 
Rams and Ewes for sale. P. 0. Address 8tony Point, 
Sonoma Co.. Cal. B. R. Station, Petaluma. 


Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 



Baden Station, San Mateo County, Cal. 

Only three-fourths mile from the terminus of 
the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road. 

Dr. A. E. BUZ ARD, 


ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon In the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Paclflo Rural Press." The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
So. *89T. 

Nothing- Succeeds Like Success 

A limited number tanght to trap Coyotes and Silver- 
gray roxes. Send $25 and a guarantee that you 
will keep it a secret at least ten years, only one taught 
In same locality. Satisfaction guaranteed or money 

Kelseyvllle California. 


A. 33 -A. JtHL Cr 1 JNT 1 

Two 3-year-old Imported Shire Mares 
in foal. Also Imported English Coach 
Stallion. Address W. W. RUSBMORE. 
Importer and Breeder of Draft ana 
C ach Stalliong. P. 0. Box 80. Stable, 
Broadway and 82d St., Oakland, Cal. 

TheKansas City Veterinary College 

Incorporated by the State. 
TJVDR catalogue addreea J. H. WATTLES, 

Jr ii 

110 East Twelfth Street. 

D. V. I. 

July 8, 1893. 


Market Review, 

San Francisco, July 5, 1893. 

The Fourth of July holidays, extending from 
Saturday until to-day (Wednesday) have very ser 
iously interfered with the course of trade during the 
week, and our review of the markets is necessarily 
partial and very much limited. No transactions 
have occurred on the produce exchange since last 
Friday, and the wholesale and jobbing houses have 
been practically closed since Saturday. Trade this 
morning still retained its holiday character, and will 
doubtless retain it until the close of the week. Re- 
ceipts of produce from the interior were very light 
to-day, and prices, in some lines at least, were 
advanced. This is hardly a fair indication of the 
course of the market, however. 

The wheat market generally remains in about the 
same condition as has recently characterized its 
movement, or, rather lack of movement. In 
Chicago, this morning at the opening, July wheat 
was lower than last Friday. Liverpool markets also 
opened lower. 

The Liverpool Corn Trade News prints estimates 
of the world's crops for 1893, which bears out our 
former statement of a material shortage in the pro- 
duction of this year. The figures are: 

1893. 1892. 
Estimates. Actual Ouuurn. 

U. S. A 430,000,000 516,000,000 

Hungary 102,000,000 141,000,000 

Italy 100000,000 112,000,000 

India 240,000,000 217.000,000 

Total 872,000,000 986,000,000 

As an offset to this, the River Plate (Argentine 
Republic) has turned out a very much larger yield 
than last year (16,010,000 bushels), and there is a 
moderate excess in Australasia and Chili. France, 
Germany, and the United Kingdom will produce 
much less than usual, leaving Russia, Spain, and 
Turkey as unknown quantities. These deficits wil] 
perhaps balance the Southern Hemisphere surplus, 
leaving an actual shortage in the world's production 
of about 116,000,000 bushels. It should be taken 
into account, however, that there is a large surplus 
stock in the United States, carried over from 1892 
(perhaps 60,000,000 or 70,000,000 bushels) which 
must be disposed of. But, taking into consideration 
our shottage of this year, the United States will 
probably not have more than a normal quantity for 
export. Taking the situation as a whole, and 
assuming that financial conditions will before long 
show improvement, we think it can be confidently 
relied on that there will be an important recovery in 
the values of wheat before the coming cereal year is 
very far along; but with so many disturbing condi- 
tions, there seems to be no immediate prospect of 

Crops of the United States. 

Monday morning (July 3d) the New York World 
printed a detailed report ol the condition on July ibt 
of the crops in the Western and Northwestern States, 
the Pacific slope, Canada and Manitoba. The re- 
port was obtained by telegraph on Saturday from 
the World's correspondents in nearly 700 cities, 
towns and villages scattered over the gieat wheat 
and corn-growing districts. The reports cover fully 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and 
South Dakota. Of 535,949 000 bushels of wheat 
produced in 1892 (Government report), these States 
produced over 390 000,000 bushels. They produced 
practically all trie corn crop. 

The World has obtained good general reports 
from the Pacific slope, which last year produced 
about 60,000,000 bushels of wheat, and from Can- 
ada, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and British 

All these reports show, first, that the wheat crop 
will be much below last year's. Second, that the 
corn crop will be enormous, and, if weather condi- 
tions continue good, will probably be the largest 
ever raised. Third, that the acreage of oats, barley, 
rye and similar grains has increased, and crops will 
be large. Fourth, that the hay crop is everywhere 
about the average. Fifth, that the fruit crop is gen- 
erally poor, and in many cases a total failure. Sixth, 
that the general condition of the agricultural section 
is excellent, the outlook is promising, and farmers 
cheerful and hopeful. 

The partial failure of the wheat crop is due chiefly 
to unfavorable weather last winter. The heaviest 
damage is in Kansas, where in nearly 30 counties 
the crop is a total failure. The State's yield, it is 
alleged, is but 40 per cent of an average. This 
means a reduction ol over 40,000,000 bushels. Illi- 
nois and Missouri wheat also suffered heavily from 
the same cause. Spring wheat has been greatly 
damaged in North Dakota and some other stctions 
by drouth. Another element in the reduction ol 
the wheat crops is the decreased acreage due to 
farmers abandoning its culture on account of low 
prices and putting in barley, oats and other grains 
instead. I 

Little was done on the Produce Exchange to-day. 
Prices took a lower range, but quotations are almost 
wholly nominal. 

Barley showed some improvement to-day. More 
or less spot barley is wanted for immediate shipment, 
and prices have strengthened a little under the in- 
quiry. Just as soon as this export demand is satis- 
fied, the probabilities are that the market will lapse 
again into former quietude, for a time at least. 


The market displayed no little activity this morn- 
ing, following the holiday dullness. Peaches con- 

tinue to sell well, and apricots are in good demand 
Figs and berries are plentiful. Cherries have ad- 
vanced somewhat, being less abundant. 

The first carload of apricots to the East this sea, 
son has gone forward, being sent to Kansas City 
from Hanford. New bleached peaches are offered 
at 8c. Prunes are offered for delivery in August 
and September at 5^c. Apricots, August delivery, 
are offered at 10c per pound. 


Potatoes were very scarce this morning, and the 
market assumed a very firm tone. New Burbanks 
brought as much as $1.50 per cental. Some East 
em potatoes are coming in, but they do not seem to 
have seriously afficted the market. Green corn is 
becoming more abundant, and prices have declined. 
Squash and cucumbers were weaker, with a lower 
tendency. Green okra and egg plant are not in de- 
mand. Tomatoes are becoming more plentiful. 

Six Cents for Prunes. 

An Eastern correspondent of the Santa Clara 
Fruit Exchange, whose name is familiar to most or- 
chardists in California, squarely states the situation 
as follows: "In regard to new-crop fruit, the Cali- 
fornia trade in general have settled upon a price of 
six cents f. o. b. California, for the four sizes prunes, 
and, so far as we can understand, no lower price 
has been made by any one who has a right to sell — 
that is, any one who raises prunes or who has bought 
them for drying, and we believe that if the price 
were maintained at that figure the trade would take 
them in considerable quantity, but unfortunately 
some speculators have taken hold of the matter and 
have offered fruit in this market at cents f. o. b. 
for the four sizes. As far as we can learn, about 15 
cars have been placed at this price. The object ol 
the seller is quite apparent. While there is nothing 
in the present situation to justify selling at such a 
price, he expects that the large crop and general 
depression in business will enable him to bear the 
market so that he can scalp a profit out under this 
price. " 

European Crops. 

Beerbohms for June 16 contains a report of Euro- 
pean crop conditions, which is in substance as 

In United Kingdom wheat on good lands is in 
good condition, but on all else is unfavorable. In 
Scotland wheat is better than in England. 

France. — Reports Uneven. Drought is uninter- 
rupted, and complaints from farmers are far more 
acute. The wheat plant is thin and sheaves will be 

Austria-Hungary. — In Hungary there is seri- 
ous damage to crops in the more important districts, 
because of drouth. In Austria, reports are of better 

Germany. — Prospects not improved. 


There is no change in the local quotations for 
pork products during the week. Concerning the 
market generally the Cincinnati Price Current 

' While there has been quite a decline in prices 
of hogs, as compared with St veral weeks ago, there 
is still an attractive margin of profit in feeding oper- 


Three carloads of eastern poultry came in to-day 
from the East, but they have not depressed the 
market as much as mieht have been expected. Re- 
ceipts from California are now so light, that it seems 
necessary to draw on the East to meet local de- 
mands. Choice stock sells well, and occasionally 
at an advance over quotations. 

California Products In New York. 

Nxw York, July 2.— The situation In most Califor- 
nia spot goods continues depressed. There is disap- 
pointment all around. The Exposition to date has 
failed to bring theexpected demaud that might clear 
up or lighten surplus holdings. Then came the 
money troubles which checked many deals which 
might have otherwise gone through. Fresh fruits 
only seem assured of a summer activity and these 
will evidently have to bend, to the cheapened views 
of consumers prompted by the assurance of good 
Eastern crops. One of the most perplexing features 
of the dullness is the absolute lack of inclination for 
future dealing. None of our former operators seem 
yet ready to commit themselves to any line of treaty. 
In fact, this style of traffic has not been so inanimate 
fur a number of years. 

Canned Fruits— There is a renewed pressure to sell 
California Canned Fruits aud the overtures of holders 
are met with discouraging low bids; $1 50 being offer- 
ed for mixed full lines extras and SI 26 for standards. 

TJnpeeled Peaches— No demand. 

Prunes— Few remain in stock: tone for the future 
weak; 800 boxes of seventies and eighties sold at 8%c; 
French four sizes offered at 7c, landed clear; no buy- 
ers at 6%c. 

Raisins— No new features; prices unchanged. 

Cherries— The attractive quality of cherries helped 
the demand. The Earl Fruit Company's ranges were: 
Royal Anne Cherries, box 65 ,, (aS2 75; BUck Tartarian 
40c@$2 05; Biggareau, 75c@$2 30; others, 55c@82 20. 

Apricots— 80c@82 50; a few Triumph", 83 30. 

Peaches — Alexander Peaches, 80c@82 35; Garlands, 

81 30@$l 50; Clymen Plums, 95c@»2. 

E. L. Goodell's sales— Apricots, per box. 75e@$l 40; 
Cherries, 55c@81; Alexander Peaches, $1 35@82 65. 

Scobel & Day— Apricots, per box, 90c@$2; Alexan- 
der Peaches.81 10@8l 70; Oregon Cherries, 65c@81 20; 
Biggareau, 90o@$l 46; Royal Anne, 80c@$l 40; Re- 
publican. $1 40; Cherry Plums, 80c@8l S); Clymen 
Plums, $1 25@l 45. 

Porter Brothers' sales— Royal Anne Cherries, 75c@ 

82 05: Biggareau, 20e<a>$l 10; mixed. 40cia$2; Apricot*. 
40c@81 75; Alexander Peaches, 66c@S2 35. 

Wool— The market simoly drags along. Boston had 
a somewhat improved trade with certain mills which 
are yet running steadily, but the volume of the new 
clip's sale is much below what was looked for by 
this time. Supplies are forming at the sea board, 
but not heavily; more of it is on consignment and 
the advances thereon are made moderate. Country 
markets are neglected. Beyond a fair demand for 
coarse Wools, Philadelphia is quiet, prices easy and 
London reports a good market, but mentions the ab- 
sence of American competition, that was so noted 
last season. Sales at New York, 258,000 pounds of 
domestic and 149,000 of foreign. Sales at Boston were 
1,003.900 pounds of domestic, including 26.0C0 spring 
Califo niaat 17c<ai8c. Territory ranges from llr§18c; 
also one of 64,500 Australia. 

Hops— Trade light, the range of 19@22c for State 
and Coast barely supported; exports for the week, V 

Sales of California Fruit. 

Chicago, June 30.— The Earl Fruit Company sold 
California Fruit at auction to-day as follows: Two car- 

loads Bartlett Pears. 84 25; Tragedy Prunes. 84 26 
Royal Apricots, 81 26@l 80; Red May Peaches, 81 26® 

1 65; Alexander, $1 15@1 25: Cherries, Biggareau, 
81 65; Tartarian, 81 15@1 20; Royal Anne, 81 30@1 36, 

New York, May 30.— The Earl Fruit Company sold 
California Fruit to day as follows: Three carloads 
Royal Apricots, 81 35<ai 50; Peaches, 81 20@1 40: 
Cherries, Royal Anne, 81 60; Tartarian, 90c@81; Big- 
gareau, 8I@1 15. 

Nrw York, Jane 30. — Porter Brothers' Company 
sold at auction to-day eight carloads of California 
fruit. Clymen Plums, 82 86@3 12: Tragedy Prunes, 
84 25; Claude Plums, 81 55; Brill Plums, 82 65; Royal 
Apricots, 60c@$l 60; Alexander Peaches, 45c@$l 60; 
Cherry Plums, 81 10; Tartarian CherrieB, in bad order 
25c to 75c; Royal Anne, 55c to 81 65; black, 90c to 81. 

Chicago. June 30.— Porter Brothers Company sold 
to-day at auction six carloads of California fruit at 
the following prices: Royal Anne Cherries, SI 25@ 

2 20; black Bigereau Cherries, 81 45; black Oregon 
Cherries, 81 26@l 45; Tartarian Cherries. $1 20@1 45; 
Royal Apricots, 70c@81 30; Alexander Peaches, 80c@ 
81 50; Clymen Plums, 82 60; Brill Plums, 81 85;Konig 
Claude Plums, 82 05@2 50. 

Minneapolis, June 30.— Porter Brothers Comrany 
sold to-day at auction one carload of California fruit, 
as follows: Apricots, 76c@8i; Peaches, 75c@81 10; 
Cherry Plums, 81 20. 

Omaha, (Neb.), June 30.— Porter Brothers Company 
sold to-day two carloads of California fruit: Apricots, 
81@1 25; Peaches, 81@i 25; Cherries arrived very rice 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closing prices paid for wheat options 
per ctl. for the past week: 

June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 
Thursday.... 5s07}d 5s07fd 5s08Jd 6s(i9Jd 6slOJd 5sllfd 

Friday 6s07Jd 6s07 t d 6s084d 6sO!IJd 5slOJd 5slljd 




The following are the prices for California cargoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for the past week: 
O. O. P. 8. .T. D. Market for P. S. 

Thursday... 29»3d 30f>6d 29«3d Inactive 

Friday 29s0d 30s3d 29s0d Easier 




To-day s cablegram Is as follows: 

Liverpool, July 5.— Wheat— Quiet but steady. Califor- 
nia soot lots, 5s ltd; off coast, 29*; just shipped, 30s; nearly 
due, 28s 9d; cargoes off coa-t,, quiet but steady; on passage 
weaker; Mark Lane wheat, very quiet; wheat in Paris, 

Eastern Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices per bushel of wheat 
for the past week at 

New York. 

Day. June. Aug. Dec 

Thursday 70 72J 8C{ 

Friday 71} 8C| 




The following is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
Nnw YoBa, July 5.— July, 70|; September, 75}; Decem- 
ber, 80(. 


Day. June. Sept. Dec. 

Thursday 62} 661 73, 

Friday 61J 69} 74 




The following Is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
Chicago, July 5 — July, 64}: September, 66J; December, 

Local Markets. 

Miy. Dec. 

,t 1 19J 81 30} 

.t 1 18j 1 29} 

.t$l 194 1 30J 

.1 1 191 1 v,< 


Miy. Dec 

Thursday, highest t 1 194 $1 3H ; 

Friday, highest.. 

lowest. . . 
Saturday, highest 

lowest .... 

Monday, highest .... 

lowest .... 

Tuesday, highest .... 

11 lowest .... 


The following are to-day's recorded sales on Call: 
Wheit— Regular Session - December, 2300 tons. 81.30; 800, 
81 30}; HOC, 81.3 }. Seller 1893, new -200 tons, 31 .182 Per 
etl Afternoon Session — December, 300 tons, 81.30}; 2'0, 
S1.30J; 300, 81 30; 2 0, 81. 29}. Seller 1893, new-20U tons, 
81.18}; 100. S119 per ctl. 


New. Des. 

Thursday, highest 8 79} 89 

" lowest 79 88 

Friday, highest 8IJ V ! 

lowest 80, 89j 

Saturday, higheat .'. 

lowest " 

Monday, highest 


Tuesday, highest 

11 lowest 

The following are to-day's recorded sales on Call: 
Barley— Regular Session- December. ICO tons, 91fc; 100, 
91}c; lOu, 91 jc; 300, 91}c; 100, 91>c per ctl. Seller 189), new- 
100 tons, 82c per ctl. Aft-rnoon Session - Seller 1893, new— 
100 tons, 82.Jc; 100, 8'!}c; 200, 83c; 400, 83}c; 100, 83jc per ctl. 
December— 300 tons, 92c per ctl. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected, in good packages, fetch an advance on the 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 

Strawberries, chest 

Longwurth. 5 00 @ 8 00 

Sharpless 3 50 @ 5 00 

Goo9*>b rries, lb 2 @ 3 
Raspberries - 

chest 3 00 @ 4 50 

Blackberries.. . . 3 00 @ 5 00 
Cherries, box- 
Black 40 ® 65 

Royal Ann 60 @ 65 

White 30 <g 50 

Limes, Mex .... 4 00 W 4 50 

Do Cal 75 @ 1 00 

Lemons, box.... 1 60 ® 3 00 
Do Santa Bar. . 4 00 ® 5 00 
Do Sicily choice 4 50 @ 5 50 
Oranges, pr bx- 
Navels.River'de 2 50 <fb 3 00 
Beedl'g.River'de 1 25 @ 1 50 

Do, Fresno 1 25 ® 1 50 

Oreeu Apples, bx 25 @ 60 
Red Apples, bx..l 00 ® 1 25 
Currants, cheat. 4 00 @ 5 60 
Apucots, box — 

Royal 35 

Plums 25 

Pears, bskt 15 

Peaches, box. . . 40 
Peaches, bskt.. 50 

1 00 

July 5, 1393. 
Figs, Black, box 25 @ 1 CO 
Extra choice fruit for special 
purposes sells at an advance 
on outside quotations 

Okra, dry, D). ... 
Parsnips, ctl.... 
Peppers, dry, lb 
Pea", common, 
per sack. . . . 
Peas, sweet, sk. 
rurnipts, ctl. . . . 
Oabbage. 100 fbs 
Garlic. # Tb 

Tomatoes, box. 
String Beans. . . 
Rhubarb, bx. . . . 
Asparagus, box. 
n ucumbers, doz 
Artichokes, doz 
Eggplant, lb . . . 
summer squash, 


Greencorn, dr.. 

- ® 

1 25 

85 @ 

1 25 

15 ® 

50 ® 

7 00 

5 @ 

50 @ 

75 <a 1 60 

- @ 

1 00 

80 ® 

1 15 

50 <a 


50 ® 


25 @ 1 25 

2 ® 


30 ® 


50 ® 

1 25 

25 id 


50 (» 


20 <§ 


25 @ 


10 <a 


Live Stock. 


Stall fed. 6i@- 

Grass fed, extra 6J3— 

First quality 54 @ 6 

Second quality 5 (6J 5} 

Third quality 4 ® 44 

Bulla and thin Oows...2 @ 

Range, heavy 4 (S 

Do light 6 <a 

Dairy.,,., , 6 <S 


Wethers 6 ®— 

Ewes 6 &— 


Light, * lb. oents 6,(3— 

Medium 7 @— 

Heavy 7 «- 

Soft 6 @- 

feeders Mi- 
stook Hogs. 5}0— 

Dressed 9j@ 9} 

General Produce. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades stll less than the lower 

July 5, 1893. 
Standard Calc Grain, 

Spot 6 

June & July delivery I . 
Potatoes, gunnies.. 14 

Wool, 34 fb 304 @ . 

Wool, 4 lb 324 (3 — 


1892, fair 14 @ — 

Good 16 @ — 

Choice 17 @ — 

Extra.ctty mills 4 10 (8 — 
Do country m'ls.4 10 & 

Superfine 2 90 @ 3 00 

NUTS— Jobbing. 
Walnuts, hard 
shell. Cal. tb. . 
Do soft shell .. . 
Do paper-shell . . 
Almonds, sf t shl 

Paper shell 15 @ 

Hardshell 7 @ s 

Brazil 10 @ — 

Pecans, small.. 8@ 10 

Do large 10 @ 12 

Peanuts 3J@ 64 

Filberts 10 & 12 

Hickory 7 <a 8 

Chestnuts 8 @ 10 


Red 55 @ 65 

Silver 90 @ 1 10 

New, ctl. 
Early Rose... 75 (<* 1 10 

Peerless 1 00 @ 1 10 

Burbank 1 00 W 1 60 

Garnet Chile. 1 00 & 1 10 

Hens, doz 6 00 @ 7 00 

RoosterB, old... 5 50 @ 6 00 

Do young 9 00 fdlO 00 

Broilers, small. 2 SO in 3 00 

Do large 3 50 & 4 50 

Fryers 5 00 @ 6 00 

Young Ducks. . . 4 00 & 5 00 

Old Ducks 3 60 @ 5 00 

Geese, tiair 1 25 @ 1 50 

Turkeys, gobl'r. 14 @ 16 
Turkeys, bens.. 14 @ 16 
All kinds of poultry, If poor 
or small, sell at less thai 
quoted; If large and In good 
condition, they sell for more 
than quoted. 

15 @ 

16 @ 

19 @ 

20 @ 

20 Ceo 

21 & 
19 @ 

9 ® 
5 @ 

17 <a> 



Bayo, ctl 2 75 fa 2 80 

Butter 2 75 O 3 00 

Pea 2 60 @ 2 70 

Red 2 75 @ 3 00 

Pink 2 80 @ 2 90 

Small White... 2 60 @ 2 70 
Large White... 2 60 @ 2 70 

Lima 2 90 @ 3 00 

Cal., poor to 

fair, lb 

Do g'd to choice 
Do Giltedged... 
Do Creamery... 
Do do Giltedge. 
Cal. Pickled ... 

Cal. Keg 

OaI. choice 

cream i 

Do fair to good. 
Do Giltedged.. 

Do Skim 

Young America 


Eastern — 18 

Outside prices for selected 
large eggs and Inside prices 
for mixed sizes— small eggs 
are hard to sell. 


Bran, ton 16 50@ 17 00 

FeedmeaL 23 60@ 24 50 

Gr'd Barley.... 19 00C<t 19 50 

Middlings 20 60@ 22 00 

Oil Cake Meal. . @ 35 00 


Compressed 7 00® 11 00 

Wheat, per ton. 9 00@ — 

Do choice @ 12 00 

Wheat and oatB 8 00@ 11 50 

Wild Oats 8 00<@> — 

Cultivated do.. 7 00® 10 00 

Barley 7 00@ 9 00 

Alfalfa. 8 00@ 11 00 

Clover 8 00@ 9 00 


Barley, feed, ctl — (g 

Do good — @ 

Do choice 82J@ 

Do brewing 90 @ 1 02J 

Do Chevalier. . . 90 @ 

Do do Giltedge. 1 15 @ 

Buckwheat 1 75 @ 2 00 

Corn, white....! 10 ® 1 15 
Yellow, large... 97i@ 1 02J 

Do small 1 02K<* 1 05 

Oats, milling... 1 50 @ 1 60 
Feed, ohoice. . . .1 40 (B 1 50 

Do good 1 3'i@ 

Do fair 1 30 @ 

Do common.... 1 25 @ 

Surprise 1 65 (0 

Black feed 1 15 @ 1 25 

Gray 1 25 @ 1 30 

Rye 1 074@ 1 10 

Wheat, milling 

Ol'tedged 1 20 @ 1 25 

Sbipping.cholcel 17i@ 1 20 

Off Grades 1 05 (§ 1 12J 

Sonora 1 10 & 1 20 


Manhattan Egg 
Food (Red Ball 
Brand) in 100- 
lb. Cabinets. . . 

- @11 60 



heavy, per lb. 




Cal sm'k"d beef. 

Hams, Cal 

Do Eastern 


Alfalfa 9 ® 

Clover, Red.... 15 @ 

White 30 (a) 

Flaxseed 2}<ji 

- <» 

10 @ 

— @ 

California, year's fleece 9@10c . _ 

Do, 6 to 8 months 9al2c;Hemp 4' 

Do, Foothill 10»13c Uo brown. ..!!!! 5 

Do Northern 12®14cl HONEY 

Do, extra Humboldt iWhite comb, 

and Mendocina 14fteiF c 2-lb frame — @ 

Nevada, choice, light. .12ftp14r Do do 1-lb frame 12 @ 

Do, heavy 10r»l? c White extracted 540 

Oregon, East'n, choice.l2015c Amber do. 6 ® 

Do, Eastern, poor 9fttl0c|D»rk do 5 @ 

Do. Valley 14<816c Beeswax, lb.... 22 @ 





Davis & Son's Horse Oollars are 
not filled with Self-Pulverizing 

The U. S. Inspector of Harness Supplies and Horse 
Collars seleoted Davis & Son's make — both harness and 
collars. And bo will all persons who want a solid, 
broad-faced, smooth collar which does not pinch the 
neck nor roll about unsteadily for three months before 
it settles down to a fitting shape or set squarelv baok on 
the shoulder. If you want a collar not stuffed with 
wads buy our collar*, as all other makes on this coast 
are wad collars. All wad stuffed eollars flatten down in 
a short time so that a sweat collar Is needed to protect 
the horse from the wads or rop*s of straw. Davis & 
Son's Collars are all put under a poweiful shaper or press 
before finished which sol dines them into a perfect 
shape, which allows the collar to set with its whi le face 
aeainit the shoulder. When a wad-stuffed collar la 
brought under this force It shows the d wad-stuffed 
c liar to be merely a Puff Ball. Send or brine in to our 
factory In this c ty any collar and see this done, and see 
what a Pan Cake you have been eelline to the people for 
collars. Our Boston Team lone straw collars have no 
wads. Tne Rod of our Great Machine Is supplied with 
small teeth on its lower surface like a fine saw. It picks 
up and carries with It 1 s it flies through the ttraw a long 
straw in each tooth, all of which are deposited In the 
collar, one behind the other, with more precision and 
regularity than human skill could ever accomplish, thus 
avoiding all lumps and wads, not even two straws cross- 
ing each other. 


No Oollars on this Ooast or else- 
where have as good Hame 
Room as the Davis & Son's 

410 Market St., San Francisco. 



SI 9 market St., San Francisco, 

PUIS. LE-S OAS WORKS. New process, 
safe and inexpensive, from 8100 upward. Mgbt cheaper 
than coal oil. Send for catalogue and prices. 

nil I nnnkl I I Ifyouwantto know about California 
I ■ A I rl I K IM I A and the Pacific States, send for the 
Uni-ll V/lllllft PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 
the best Illustrated and Leading Farming and Horticultural 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial, 6£cf or 3 mos. Two sample 
oopiesriOo. Established 1870. DEWEY PTJBLI8 HINGOO. 
WO Market St, 8. V. 



July 8, 1893. 

From Worthy Master Davis. 

The hay crop is substantially all harvested 
and though of fair quality is not of over- 
abundant yield. 

The wheat market is awfully dull. Just 
think of selling good wheat for $1.17 per 
cental ! How can the farmer and his family 
prosper on such reward for honest toil ? 

If you can't pay for what you buy, now is 
not the time to buy. Keep out of debt, and 
pay no interest. But look well to the claims 
of the tax collector. Taxes must be paid, 
business or no business. 

Nevada — the so-called sagebrush State — 
has won the first prize at the World's Fair, 
for the best and most attractive butter. 
Everybody knows that Nevada beef is sweet, 
juicy and healthy. Then, to these stores of 
wealth add her wonderful silver mines and 
our sister State of Nevada comes well to the 
front as a wealth-producing State. Per- 
haps silver may be demonitized, but golden 
butter and juicy steaks will always com- 
mand the gold of the rich, and the silver of 
the poor, so that Nevada may yet be con- 
sidered fully "in it," so far as material pros- 
perity is concerned. 

Farmers who have had new potatoes for 
sale, up to this time have found ready sale 
and paying prices for them. It pays to be 
the first to market, whether you be buyer or 

In the death of Senator Leland Stanford 
the opportunity is offered Gov. H. H. Mark- 
ham to show his friendship to the farmers of 
the State. Now is the Governor's opportu- 
nity to select from the hundreds of farmers 
in California, one who could, and would, 
faithfully represent the taxpayers of the 
Golden State in the higher council chamber 
of the nation. Will the largest body of 
heavy taxpayers in this State get this con- 
sideration? What would California be were 
agriculture, with its kindred callings to 
cease? In behalf of the many thousands 
who are engaged in agriculture, we ask that 
Governor Markham consider the farmers 
and their interests before naming a successor 
to the late Senator Leland Stanford. 

Some time ago Pomona Grange of So- 
noma county appointed a committee of three 
and appropriated a certain sum of money 
for the purpose of reviving some of the dor- 
mant granges in its jurisdiction. Up to 
date the committee have not found time 
from personal business to do any work for 
the order. It is to be hoped the committee 
will at an early date make a vigorous and 
united effort to resuscitate some dormant 
granges in Sonoma county. Bodega, For- 
estville, Healdsburg, Cloverdale and Sonoma 
each offer a fruitful field for the efforts of the 

The harvest of grains and fruits is upon 
us, and there can be little grange work ex- 
pected during the next two months. How- 
ever, it would be most welcome news to hear 
that several of the newly appointed deputies 
were about to organize or reorganize a few 
granges. Nothing short of premeditated, 
intelligent work will accomplish the result, 
and that will certainly bring the desired re- 
sult. Deputies, won't you please inform the 
master what you are going to do, how you 
are going about it, and when and where the 
new grange will be instituted ? 

Congress is to meet in extraordinary ses- 
sion at the national capital on the 7th day of 
August. Let us hope the wise men of the 
nation will find ways and means to help the 
industrial interests of this great, honest and 
progressive people. We need some help 
and some encouragement from the powers 
that be. The hour of theory has passed — 
the facts confront us. If Congressional ac- 
tion will help the situation, millions will re- 
joice that Congress has been convened. Let 
the farmers watch. What helps the farmer 
helps the nation. We shall see. 

Don't let any one think the " cyclone of 
hard times" is fully past. Though the 
banks may have fully fortified themselves 
against all possible " runs," there is a prob- 
ability that hundreds of thousands of failures 
are soon to follow. There are too many 
people who want to do, and do, two dollars 
of business on one dollar of their own capi- 
tal. These are the fellows who are going to 
hear the sheriff's summons; these are the 
" business men " who will be the first to find 
they cannot pay dollar for dollar; these are 
the ones who are soonest to go to the wall. 
Look out! Go slow and keep near the mid- 
dle of the highway. 

Prepare your work for the coming session 
of the State Grange ! Be ready to submit it 
the first day of the session, and have it placed 
before the proper committee at once. Get 
it reported back as speedily as is consistent 
with that due consideration which all im- 

portant business demands, and then ask the 
Grange to give its approval and endorse- 
ment. Don't wait till the session is half 
finished before you are ready to present 
your report, resolution or amendment. 
Be, as you want the train to be when you 
are waiting, "on time!" 

One or more constitutional amendments 
will soon be submitted, as required by law, 
to the several subordinate granges of the 
State. These amendments should be made 
a subject of special consideration by each 
grange, so that the master and his wife, or 
the other legal representatives of the Subor- 
dinate, may know what to do when the sub- 
ject comes up for final action in the State 
Grange. Always remembers that it is well 
to make haste slowly in making changes in 
the fundamental law or the order. Changes 
ought to be made when the greatest good to 
the greatest number will be subserved by 
such action. 

An "Average" 


of Yuba City 

To the Editor :— Yuba City Grange 
had a most interesting and instructive meet- 
ing on July 1st. There was a good attend- 
ance, nearly every seat being occupied not- 
withstanding the unusual heat which was 
sweeping over the valley for two or three 
days. The summer so far has been most 
agreeable, being scarcely more than warm 
enough for comfort and the ripening of crops, 
yet the delay will insure to quality in both 
cereals and fruits. 

The grange transacted considerable rou- 
tine business besides giving instructions to 
newly admitted members. 

The question of "Free Parcel Delivery" 
by the Postal Department was only briefly 
discussed and held over to the next meeting. 

The Gleaner, our recently instituted Grange 
journal, was read, and, like its former issues 
proved very interesting. There were articles 
on various topics in which the agriculturists 
are chiefly interested, such as good roads, 
fertilization, household and political economy 
and such like. The paper sparkled with wit, 
wisdom and humor throughout, and the local 
hits were as well enjoyed by the hit, as by 
the hitters. This however is a feature that 
cannot be too carefully handled in order to 
produce unalloyed pleasure. The effort was 
a pronounced success, and the entire paper 
would be a valuable feature in any literary 
journal. Another is promised for the August 
meeting with A. H. Suggett and Maud 
Green a; editors. 

The subject of a piano for use of the 
Grange was brought up and on motion a 
committee was appointed to solicit subscrip- 
tions for the purpose, and B. F. Walton was 
authorized to make the purchase when in his 
judgment the subscription had advanced to 
a safe position. Several members at once 
offered five dollars each toward the enter- 
prise, and I venture the prediction that by 
the next meeting we will be regaled by sweet 
piano music under the manipulation of Miss 
Eda Walton, our efficient organist. 

We need a hall, but the financial stress 
now, and the gloomy future are not propi- 
tious for indulging in luxuries. The matter 
was to have been discussed in May and 
again later, but it was always convenient to 
be deferred. At the recent session it was 
again brought up and on motion a commit- 
tee of seven was appointed to present plans 
and specifications for such a hall as each 
member of the committee saw proper to offer 
with an approximate cost of the structure. 
This I venture to say will stir the measure 
as it has not been before, and from the per- 
sonelle of the committee it is safe to say 
several plans will be submitted. 

The labors of the day rounded up by the 
distribution of three gallons of ice cream to 
the merry grangers, who, though sorry for 
the absentees, yet relished the same with 
unfeigned gusto. 

Now, Mr. Editor, the above is written in 
reply to the oft-repeated question, " What 
do you do in the Grange"? 

It is not all that can be said, but it will be 
seen that, as a rural people, we can always 
find topics that may prove interesting. It is 
a school in which we can all learn some- 
thing to our advantage. When I hear this 
one or that one find fault with the grange 
because we don't accomplish more, I always 
regret that they are not members of the or- 
der, to the mutual advantage of all the tillers 
of the soil. 

Let it not be forgotten that this is the 
most successful agricultural organization in 
existence; that it has not corrected all the 
evils of the universe, goes without saying; 
that it is seeking to educate and elevate the 
rural masses, stands admitted. 

We have, therefore, no apology to offer 
for the existence of the order. It. at least, 
teaches us to look for something higher and 
nobler than mere drudgery, makes the un 

avoidable lighter through co-operation, and* 
fits us to appreciate something better when 
it appears. George Ohleyer. 

Yuba City, Cal., July 3, 1893. 

Field Day at Grass Valley. 

To the Editor :— According to the 
agreement entered into by the undersigned 
with Grass Valley Grange, No. 256, to 
write the Rural Press of our doings once 
a month, I herewith submit the following : 
The past month has been a busy one with 
us. We have initiated four members — three 
sisters and one brother — held a picnic on 
June 3d (Children's Day) in accordance 
with the instructions from headquarters; had 
a good time, considering that short notice 
was given in advertising. On June 17th we 
had our Flora's Day; celebrated it by hold- 
ing an all-day's meeting in our hall. Bro. 
Frisbie, of Yuba City, district deputy, was 
with us, coming up on evening of the 16th. 
In the forenoon we decorated our hall and at 
10:30 o'clock took our candidates through 
the third and fourth degrees, with some 
assistance from the visiting brother; then 
spread our tables, opened our doors to the 
multitude and gave our friends all a good 
dinner. Nearly 100 partook with us. Bro. 
Frisbie gave us a nice grange speech, 
which was listened to with much pleasure 
by a room full. The officers of Indian 
Springs Alliance were present and were 
called upon by our W. M. to make some 
remarks. The president, A. S. Winn, the 
lecturer, D. D. Thresher, and D. J. Lynch 
each made a short speech. At about 4 
o'clock our visitor was taken to the famous 
Idaho quartz mine, situated about one mile 
from Grass Valley. Our hall was then put 
in order for the evening, when the following 
program was carried out : Instrumental 
music, " Last Rose of Summer," on piano 
and two violins, for the opening; next, 
" Martha," an operatic selection by Green's 
Band of 16 pieces; a declamation, "Co'um- 
bia;" song, " The Farmer He Must Feed 
Them All;" song, "The Plowman;" song, 
"Stay on the Farm." Our masterpiece, 
though, was our living picture of " Flora 
and her maids," which consisted first of 
a large picture frame made of six-inch 
boards twined with ivy and flowers, a sheaf 
of wheat standing up prominently in the 
center of top; a background and foreground 
was arranged of flowers and evergreens, 
while in this frame were posed five little 
girls, the largest one impersonating Flora, 
namely, Miss Ethel Alderman. One little 
one was just in the act of placing a wreath 
on her head, being perched up back ol her, 
while the others were putting flowers on 
her shoulder or kneeling beside her arrang- 
ing them on her dress. Every one pro- 
nounced it " lovely," and we had the curtain 
drawn on this at intervals during the even- 
ing! giving the little ones time to rest 
between. Our organist, Mrs. S. J. Alder- 
man, must be given the credit of this 
" inspiration." Strawberries and cream, 
with cake, ice cream and cake were served 
during the evening at the small price of 
25 cents a saucer to all who wished to buy, 
the object being to raise money for the 
Grange Temple fund. We were to some 
expense in advertising in our three local 
papers, so came out just about even all 
around. Now we are planning a dinner for 
the Fourth of July in our hall, by which 
means we hope to make some money. We 
think we advertised ourselves pretty well 
by our Flora's Day, so we ought to have 
good patronage on that day when we offer a 
meal for sale. All is not settled yet, as we 
have some opposition to the idea. Was 

pleased to see our other Grass Valley letter 
printed word for word and we read it in the 
grange. Hope we are not trying your 
patience too much this time; if we are we 
beg your pardon and will close for fear we 
will get to talking again. 

Mrs. R. S. Twitchell, 
Lecturer of Grass Valley Grange. 
Grass Valley, June 27, 1893. 

From North Butte. 

To the Editor:— North Butte Grange 
met in regular session Saturday, the 6th. 
The attendance was not large, as the harvest 
has arrived and each farmer is busy gather- 
ing in the fruits of his labor. 

One of our members proposed, for a dis- 
cussion at our next meeting, the subject, 
how to make farming profitable. A com- 
mittee will debate this subject, and we are 
hoping to get some new and practical points; 
not but that we are now successful farmers, 
but that we are willing to learn new things 
and new ways. In my next letter I want to 
be able to give a full account of the discus- 

In last week's Press Bro. Ohleyer had 
quite an interesting letter concerning his re- 
cent trip to northern Sutter, and in it he 
spoke of his visit to March Grange. The 
social event for which they were then pre- 
paring is now an event of the past, but one 
to be remembered, for it was a grand suc- 

The weather, although a little warm, is all 
that could be wished for. Crops in this vi- 
cinity are fair. Here I may state that the 
worthy master of our order has one of the 
finest wheat fields in Butte county, showing 
that he is a thorough and most successful 
farmer. E. M. B. 

July 3, 1893. 


At its last meeting, Eden Grange of Hay- 
wards adopted resolutions of respect to the 
memory of Bro. Orrin Dennis, recently de- 



For Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots, Etc. 

The fruit is (Imply placed into the two cup* as the 
machine r-vohe» an 1 the i it'tog Is done a u torn itlc ■ tl v. 
made, very simple and durable. Will lave Its c< at every 
day used. Saot cheap y by express. Order at least a 
sample. Price complete only IS. Address 


3 and 5 Front St.. San Francisco. 

231 So. Broad wav, L^s Angeies, Cal. 

14 1 Jfront St., Portland, Or. 


The Best Windmill for Deep or Shallow Wells 



Warranted to run with less 
oili g than any other 
«i dmi l 




Deep Well Pumps, All Brass Cylinder Pumps 


Improved Davis, San Joaquin and Hercules 
Wind mi It, Pumps. Etc. 
Patent Noa-Shrinktble Redwood Tanks. 

Write for Prices. 



July b, 1893. 



Co-operation in Sonoma Connty. 

The movement at Santa Rosa for co-op- 
eration in fruit marketing, referred to in last 
week's Rural, has taken definite form in an 
organization to be known as the Sonoma 
County Fruit Growers' Association. This 
organization was effected at a meeting held 
in Santa Rosa on Saturday last. For an ac- 
count of that meeting we are indebted to 
Mr. E. D. Sweetser, editor of the Sonoma 
Farmer, who has kindly sent the Rural his 
advance proofs, as follows: 

The permanent organization of the So- 
noma County Fruit Growers' Association 
was effected Saturday, July ist, after the 
adjournment of the horticultural society. 
The meeting was called to order by Jona- 
than Roberts, chairman of the temporary or- 
ganization. E. D. Sweetser, secretary pro 
tern, read the minutes of the previous meet- 
ing, and in behalf of the committee on by- 
laws, composed by Messrs. Gilman, Hart, 
Cook, Davis and himself, read letters re- 
ceived from A. Holman, editor of the Ru 
ral Press; B. F. Walton, of the Yuba 
City association; Edward F. Adams, vice- 
president of the Santa Clara Fruit Exchange, 
San Jose; R. W. Hersey, manager of West 
Side Fruit- Growers' Association, of Santa 
Clara, all showing the advantages to be de- 
rived from co-operation. The writers 
clearly pointed out the grave importance of 
the details, and invitations were kindly ex- 
tended for a personal inspection of their 
methods. Statistics from the Campbell 
Fruit- Growers' Union were also read. The 
facts derived from these sources all showed 
greatly improved net prices for the fruit- 
grower by co-operation. The by laws were 
drafted after those of the Sutter Fruit Asso- 
ciation, of Yuba City, with president, vice- 
president, secretary, treasurer, and a manag- 
ing board of five members, including presi- 
dent and secretary. The members are to 
co-operate in handling their fruit, three 
days' notice in writing to be given to the 
secretary before withdrawing from the asso- 
ciation; majority vote to change the by-laws; 
membership fee of $i, etc. 

The committee estimates an advance in 
price of their fruit through co-operating to- 
gether, sufficient to pay all expenses and 
give handsome returns to members. The 
by-laws were discussed to some length, Mr. 
Davis objecting that they were too broad, 
and they were left in the hands of the com- 
mittee. A move was made for the forma- 

tion of a permanent organization by E. D. 
Sweetser, and ably seconded by Messrs. 
Jonathan Roberts, L. J. Gilman, E. E. 
Miller, E. Hart, C. H. Cook, L. F. Chinn, 
T. J. True, L. E. Ricksecker, and others. 
H. Gregory was called to the chair, and Jona- 
than Roberts was unanimously elected presi- 
dent of the association. The rest of the 
cffkers were elected one after the other, 
without any opposition, as follows: L. J. 
Gilman, vice-president; E. D. Sweetser, sec- 
retary; W. D. Davis, treasurer; and Messrs. 
Jonathan Roberts, L. J. Gilman, E. D. 
Sweetser, E. Hart and E. E. Miller, board 
of managers. The by-laws were then ac- 
cepted, with the understanding that they 
should be subject to change at the sugges- 
tion of the managing board. It is the aim 
to have the association placed on broad 
lines, and the affairs will be handled by the 
board until a proper manager is found. A 
meeting of the board was set for Wednes- 
day, July 5th, at 12 M. sharp, at the office of 
the Sonoma County Farmer, The secretary 
will be in his offije daily between 12 and 1, 
where the fruit-growers may get information 
and learn of progress. A regular meeting 
of the association will be held in Horticul- 
tural hall at 2 p. M., Saturday, July 8th. 

California Crops. 

[Summary of Report of Observer James A. Bar wick 
for Week Ending July 1, 1893,] 

Siskiyou County (Butte Creek Valley) — 
Grain and grass six weeks late. Harvesting 
will not begin before August. Crops are 
looking well and a good yield is expected. 

Humboldt County — Observer Weather 
Bureau at Eureka says : " The weather is 
favorable for grain. Wheat and oats head- 
ing out well and of excellent quality. 
Berries, both cultivated and wild, are ripen- 
ing fast and will yield a large crop. Grass- 
hoppers are making their appearance in the 
hills, but as yet are doing no damage." 

Shasta County (Tamarack)— Feed good, 
stock fat and crops up to average. Gardens 
looking well. A fair but not a full crop of 
peaches will be gathered. Apples scarce, 
but small fruits in abundance. 

Glenn County (Willows)— Wheat turning 
out better than was expected; the heads are 
well filled and the grains plump. 

Colusa County (Maxwell)— Grain is ar- 
riving at the warehouse at the rate of 100 
tons per day. The yield of wheat is in ex- 
cess of estimates made before the com- 

mencement of harvest. The quality is 
above the average. Wheat is weighing 
fully 60 pounds to the bushel. 

Sutter County (Kirksville)— Crops on the 
plains light. Farmers on the river have 
suffered much, but will have half a crop. 
Prospect excellent for average crop of pota- 
toes, corn and beans. 

Butte County (Oroville)— Mr. McClellan 
lately visited Durham, Dayton, Nelson and 
Briggs and examined with some care the 
grain in those sections. He lays he was 
surprised to note the latter so much better 
than the farmers had expected. 

Yuba County (Wheatland) — Weather 
favorable for grain and fruit. Harvesting 
progressing and the yield will be all that 
could be expected. Hops doing well. 

Placer County (Penryn) — The last of the 
Alexander peaches have been picked in this 
vicinity and the weather still favorable for 
all fruits. 

Sacramento County (Folsom) — The Or- 
angevalecrop of apricots is good. Damage 
to this fruit in other portions of the State 
does not prevail here. 

Solano County (Rio Vista) — Haying com- 
menced and crop turning out heavier than 
usual. (Denverton) — Barley harvesting is 
well along, showing the berry to be 
shrunken badly, but turning out from 6 to 
10 sacks to the acre. 

Sonoma County (Geyserville) — The dry 
winds causing great loss to peach-growers 
on account of dropping off of the fruit. 
(Fulton) — Hay crop as good as ever known. 

Santa Clara County (Mountain View)— 
There will be more grain in this vicinity 
than last year and much of it will be first- 

San Joaquin County (Lodi) — The warm 
weather of the past week has been good for 
watermelons and corn, and has hastened the 
ripening of wheat. The harvest will begin 
in earnest after the 4th. 

Tulare County (Visalia) — The cool weather 
since the close of the rainy season has been 
worth many thousand dollars to the farmers 
of Tulare county. The absence of hot 
weather has permitted the wheat and barley 
heads to fill quite well. While the crops on 
unirrigated lands are light, they are much 
better than was expected a month ago. 

Ventura County (Hueneme)— Threshing 
commenced and yield good. Honey is of 
excellent quality, and ought to command a 
good price. 

Orange County (Orange) — English wal- 

nuts promise about an average crop. 
Peaches not a heavy crop, except in some 
favored localities; the earlier varieties are 
now ripening. 

To the World's Fair ! 

Wbeelt Excursions 1 
Are you going? If so, call on 
or write to the undersigned before for your tiip. The " SANTA FE ROUTE 
ia tbe only line under one m&naeemtmt 
from California to Chicago I Palace and Tourist 
Sleepers through to Chicago every day 
without change 1 Excursions every Tuesday. 
W. A. BISSELL, G. P. a., 650 Market 
Street, Chronicle Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 

Complimentary Samples. 

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All Men Equal before 

the law and "the Page " 

A millionaire writes— ''Perfect In every particular." 
An exteoBive bree er — " We shall build no other." 
A laboring man— "It keeps out my neighbor's hens." 
A lady—" Circular d ■> ■ ot do it Juetice." A ranchman— 
" Tha cheapest, reliable hog fence." A. K. R. Presi- 
dent — " The best fence we have ever used." 


§reakfas+ foods 



Of 1893 will be held at SACRAMENTO, 

SEPTEMBER 4th to 16th :::::::: TWO WEEKS. 

$20,000--CASH PREMIUMS--$20,000 




Should make preparation to exhibit at THE ANNUAL PAIR as the opportunity is specially given to 


INVITE INVESTMENT of capital by showing the products of your section. 

INQUIRIES AS TO LOCALITIES are being constantly made. We reply by send- 
ing reporis of exhibits, which speak for themselves. 

OBJECT LESSONS are valuable, and when written upon and their description 
heralded, they become a standing advertisement. 

SHOW WHAT YOUR COUNTY can produce, and capital will flow in the direction 

LANDS HAVE BEEN IMPROVED by the hundreds of acres in tree and vine 
planting through capital attracted by exhibits made at the State Fair. 

attracted by exhibits made at the State Fairs. 

THE STATE FAIR is the stimulating agent of progression. 

THE STATE FAIR is the medium that brings the two electrical currents— labor 
and capital — together each year. 

THE STATE FAIR aids all classes. It is the recreation ground of the farmer, the 
school A informal ion for the breeder, the point of observation for the mechanic, and the 
period of investgation for capital. 

FAILURE TO EXHIBIT is an acknowledgment of weakness. 

KEEP YOUR PRODUCTIONS before the people, and the people will always keep 
your locality in view. 

THE USUAL EXTRA ATTRACTIONS for entertainment of visitors at the State 
Fair of 1893 will be furnished in keeping with the occasion, that exhibitors may benefit 

Information furnished upon application to the Secretary, at Sacramento. 

JOHN BOGGS, President. 
EDWIN P. SMITH, Secretary. 



July 8, 1898. 












-X- -X- 



* * 



-X- -X- 







50% 'jsS&^EDDL 

No. 60. Price $80. 

No. 20). Price $196. 

SURRIES, $155 




SURRIES, $155 




No. 2by r Price $30. 








N0S. 101, 102 & 115. 





WITH LAMPS. $100. 



$15 to $35 

WAGONS, $100. 


ALIilSON, NEFF cft> GO., 






Vol. XLVI. No. 3. 


Office, 230 Market St. 

The California Prune Tree. 

A glance into the interior of a fruit tree about these 
days will generally give the beholder much satisfaction. 
It is just the time when the many-hued, juice-filled globes 
appear in greatest confusion and give the richest promise. 
To our distant readers who cannot for themselves push 
aside the leaves and feast their eyes upon the actual, we 

names, and the result is that it has no characteristic or 
defensible name which is in common use. The term Cali- 
fornia French prune is a contradiction ; the term petite 
was evidently given to it by some early Franco-Califor- 
nian, comparing the fruit with the gros prune, which is 
not a prune at all. It seems likely that at some future 
time the fruit will simply be known as the " California 
prune," and this will really be no wrong, for though we 

other fruit in the whole list succeeds on so many soils and 
in so many regions. It even thrives in places where 
thought of growing any of the plum family had been 
abandoned. It is very prolific and has made the credible 
record of nearly 1200 pounds of fruit in a year. But this 
is, of course, the rare exception; one quarter of that amount 
is a good yield for a tree of good bearing age. 
We are indebted for this engraving, and the one upon a 


offer the view of the fruit-bearing interior of a California 
prune tree which appears upon this page. It is a six-year- 
old prune tree bearing quite as heavy a crop as such a 
tree should carry. The picture gives the beholder such 
an idea of richness as form can convey, but one must add 
color to get adequate conception of the beauty and rich- 
ness of a prune tree at fruit ripening. 

The variety is the California French prune or Petite 
prune — two names which, if we mistake not, cannot be 
found in any reputable book outside of California. The 
fruit in its early years has had a severe local struggle with 

are indebted to the French for the rariety, we grow and 
cure such a different article that it little resembles the 
French, and for common uses in this country seems more 
acceptable. There is also a reason why this variety should 
bear the name California prune, and that is its large pre- 
ponderance over all other plum varieties in this State. 
We grow others, but they are but exceptions to the rule 
which is the prune d'Agen. We presume it will ere long 
abandon all titles but California. 

One verv remarkable thing a>>out this variety, is its ex- 
ceedingly wide range of adaptations. We ( doubt if any 

subsequent page of this issue, to the State Board of Hort- 
iculture, by whose authority they were reproduced di» 
rectly from photographs, and, therefore, present actual 
scenes and things. 

The statement is printed, and we assume it to be 
correct, though we have seen no official announcement to 
that effect, that Nevada has taken the grand prize for 
butter at the World's Columbian Exposition. 

A sale of apricots is reported in Tulare county at 
$37.50 per ton, the buyer picking the fruit. 



July 15, 1898. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., San Franoiteo., Col. 

Annual Subscription Rate Three Dollars a yew. While this notlte 
■ ppeara, all subscribers paying 93 In advance will receive 15 months' (one year 
and 13 weeks) credit. For $3 In advance, 10 mouths. For $1 In advance, five 
months. Trial subscriptions for twelve weeks, paid In advance, each 50 cents. 

/ Week. 1 Month. 3 Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) $ .25 $ .50 $ 1.20 

Half inch (1 square 1.00 J. 50 6.60 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing in extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

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Registered at B. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

ANY subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rural Press, with 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 


J. F. HALLOBAN General Manager 

San Francisco, July 15, 1893. 


ILLUSTRATIONS — A California Prune Tree in Us Sixth Summer, 41. 

Prune Drying-Grounds of Ten Thousand Trays, 44. 
EDITORIALS. — The California Prune Tree, 41. The Week; Fruit Drying 

in California; Fruit Merchants' Club in Chicago; Miscellaneous, 42. 

From an Independent Standpoiut; Miscellaneous, 43. 
MISCELLANEOUS. — Plan for an Out-of-Door Cooler; Honey in Ventura 

County, 43. Gleanings, 56. California Crops, 63. 

HORTICULTURE. — State Horticultural Society, 50. Dried Fruit and 
Green, 51. 

THE FIELD —Pioneer Wheat Growing in the Upper San Joaquin, 51. 
THE APIARY. — How to Produce Comb and Extracted Honey, 51. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Worthy Master Davis; Yoaemite 

and Surroundings. 64. 


[NEW THIS I88U«.l 


Gas or Gasoline Engines— Union Gas Engine Co 64 

Fruit-Growers' Machinery— G. G. Wickson & Co 62 

Fruit-Graders and Wire Work — D. D. Wats 64 

Peach-Pitting Machines— American Cling-Stone Pitting Co 61 

Agricultural Implements— T. A. Lauder, Sacramento 56 

Fruit Trucks— San Jose Agricultural Works, San Jose 63 

Fruit-Graders— W. C. Hamilton, San Jose 63 

Water Tanks— W. E. Hampton 65 

Prune-Dipping Machines— L. Cunningham, Saratoga 66 

Gas Engines— Adam Schilling & 8ons 68 

Fruit-Pitting Machines— Baker & Hamilton 64 

Prune-Dippers— W. C. Anderson, San Jose .55 

Fruit Papers— S. P. Taylor Paper Co 63 

Washing Machines— E. W. Melvin, San Jose 59 

Hats— Herman the Hatter 66 

Pruning Saws— Pacific Saw M'fg. Co 55 

Postponed Sale Notice— Grangers' Business Association 61 

Prune Machines— J. B.Burrell, San Jose 63 

Real Estate— John F. Byxbee 63 

Bulls For Sale — H. B. King, Hollister 68 

Berkshire Hogs— J. E. Alsford, Woodside 60 

See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

We are fairly in the midst of California's season of sun- 
shine. This week the Rural affords many points for those 
who desire to estimate the industrial value of sunshine. 
We do not mean sunshine filtered through centuries of 
plant life and condensed in the coal mine, or in any other 
of its indirect advantages and benefits. We refer to the 
blazing sun pouring its heat upon the vast acreage of fruit, 
not on trees but on trays. We often receive inquiries from 
distant parts as to what is the best evaporator used in Cali- 
fornia, and we have always wished we could say — the sun, 
the glowing glorious orb of day, which will have no limit 
to its drying capacity until every square inch of open 
ground is covered with a ripe fruit. But we cannot con- 
scientiously give this answer to most distant enquirers be- 
cause their sun heat, through beetned atmosphere, or ob- 
structed by clouds, is not adequate to the open air curing 
of fruit. To the Californian, however, there is little need 
for evaporators, and how he can use the sun to the best 
advantage in the preparation of peerless products, is the 
weight of our song in this issue of the Rural. 

The grain-growers of Califobnia will be gratified 
to learn that the State Prison Directors have decided to sell 
jute bags on credit, providing the Attorney-General shall 
agree that such action is legal. The terms of sale shall be 
ten per cent cash, the remainder in a promissory note for 
ninety days, endorsed by two responsible property-holders. 
Newspaper statements are just now being published that 
the supply of grain bags is very short, but it will doubtless 
be found that there is ample on hand to meet all require- 
ments. The trouble has heretofore not been scarcity of 
sacks, but scarcity of cash. The resolution of the Prison 
Directors is as follows: 

Whereas, Owing to the stringency of the money market 
many of the farmers of this State are unable to procure bags for 
their grain crops, cash payments being required for the same, 
thus causing great loss; and 

Whereas, It is the desire of the State Board of Prison Di- 
rectors to afford the farmers in the present condition of affairs 
such relief as may be in their power to give; and 

Whereas, There seems to be a doubt as to the authority of 
the board to sell bags except for cash, it is hereby 

Resolved. That this board requests the Attorney-General of 
the State to furnish an opinion whether, under the law govern- 
ing the sale of bags made at San Quentin Prison, this board is 
>ermitted to sell such bags to farmers on time, and, if so, the 

Warden of San Quentin Prison is hereby directed to do so, re- 
quiring in settlement of the balance of the bills, after deducting 
the 10 per cent required by law in cash, promissory notes, Day- 
able in ninety days, without interest, to the order of the War- 
den of San Quentin. The notes to be indorsed in each instance 
by two responsible property-owners, whose responsibility must 
be satisfactory to a majority of the members of this board. 

Fruit Drying in California. 

Our leading space this week is given to the dried fruit 
industry. It is great in itself and great in its beneficent 
service as the surety of success in other lines of fruit pro- 
duction. We do not include the whole of the dried fruit 
industry in our present review, for we purposely exclude 
the vast and growing raisin and dried grape departments. 
They constitute a specialty which must be taken up at an- 
other time. Nor do we include the lesser lines of dried 
tree- fruits, for we planned to cover only those fruits which 
have been largely planted with the drying tray in view 
and not fruits the drying of which is merely incidental 
and for the purpose of saving waste. Thus the apple and 
pear are not included by our contributors. We chose 
those fruits which are produced in largest amounts and 
upon the proper handling of which the measure of success 
of many of our readers directly depends. Such fruits are 
the apricot, the peach and the prune. Even of the hand- 
ling of these few fruits our treatment this week is not 
complete, though unquestionably the best ever presented 
in a single issue of a California publication. It must be 
reserved for future issues of the Rural, and to the gen- 
eral discussion, which we trust this week's publication will 
provoke, to cover points which the present full showing 
does not reach. 

We bave spoken of the dried fruit interest as great in 
itself. The following are the shipments of dried fruits 
and raisins by railway from California during the years 
specified : 

Dried fruits 64,695.181 

Raisins 41,120,3oO 

44,954 850 


These figures were compiled with great care for the 
State Board of Trade by Gen. N. P. Chipman, and may be 
regarded as trustworthy. They are, of course, not the 
gross product of the State in these lines, for they do not 
include home consumption nor the amounts going out by 
sea, but these are comparatively small at present. The 
figures which represent but the surplus which leaves the 
State by rail do, however, give some idea of the vastness 
of this branch of our industry. It should be remembered 
that this product has advanced from almost nothing to its 
present dimensions during the last decade, for the total 
production of dried fruit in 1883 was estimated at a little 
more than 2,000,000 pounds, or less than a twenty-fifih of 
the present export surplus. It clearly appears then how 
important a factor of our prosperity is the dried fruit 
product at present, and by recalling the fact that the 
greater area of these fruits is set with young trees which 
have not reached full production, the future greatness of 
the business cannot be decried. 

With such an interest present and prospective, it is of 
the utmost importance that all work of production and 
preparation should be done well and cheaply. But is it the 
consideration which chiefly induces us to take up the sub- 
ject at this time? If the reader will carefully study the 
articles by our contributors in this issue, he will be im. 
pressed with the great attention to detail which character- 
izes the methods of the best producers. Drying fruit as a 
commercial enterprise in California, is nothing like the 
fruit drying of the old times. It is time that fruit drying 
in all progressive regions of the United States has under- 
gone great transformations and reached an extent, an 
exactness of operation and a uniform excellence of pro- 
duct, which was not dreamed of a score of years ago, but 
California has learned very little from the experience of 
other regions. Our conditions and materials are so dif- 
ferent, that our producers have been forced to devise 
their own contrivances, and elaborate their own processes. 
That this has been successfully done is seen in the mastery 
of the markets which our fruits have secured. As this 
has been the manner and degree of our success, it is ex- 
ceedingly important that as much as possible of the great 
coming increase should approach the highest standard of 
excellence, or else it will be impossible to put an increased 
product upon the markets of the country without lowering 
the price not only of the poor fruit, but, to a certain ex- 
tent, of the good also. S tudy, experience and the knowl- 
edge of the practices of our best producers, are necessary 
to keep the product of new orchards to a high standard of 

Next to the importance of a good product, is the ability 
to reach such condition cheaply. The articles of several 
of our writers this week will be seen to bear directly upon 
cheap handling of the fruit, and the introduction of system 
and economy of effort in all preparations for drying as 
well as in the process itself. Let the new producer ponder 
these things. He may improve notably upon all existing 

methods, but to do even this, knowledge of present high 
achievement is necessary. Much knowledge of this char- 
acter will be found in our columns this week. May it be 
generally serviceable toward the end in view: the exten- 
sion of our dried fruit product upon lines which guarantee 
safety and success. 

Fruit Merchants' Club in Chicago. 

Two years ago, when the announcement was made that 
there had been some arrangement among the Chicago fruit 
receivers or auctioneers by which only members'of a mer- 
chants' club should be allowed to enter the auction-rooms 
during the sales of California fruit or to bid upon the 
same, we apprehended trouble. We anticipated the con- 
flict which might arise between the inside dealers and 
those on the outside who desired a fair chance to get the 
fruit at auction prices. We held that making the auction- 
rooms accessible only to members of a certain merchants' 
organization was radically opposed to the California grow- 
ers' interests which evidently are that no barriers what- 
ever should be set about the free sale of the fruit. In or- 
der to dispose of the vast fruit product of California it is 
essential that its distribution should be as open and free 
as possible. 

Not much has been heard of late of the Chicago mer- 
chants' combination, but now there seems to be a collision 
between the " ins " and the " outs," and some Chicago fruit 
auctioneers will not consent to receive bids from the club 
members alone but insist upon holding an open auction to 
which all responsible bidders are welcome. It is too soon 
yet to judge fully of the issue, for there may be local con- 
siderations which at this distance we cannot perceive, but 
upon the face of it it does not appear that the position of 
those Chicago merchants who combine to regulate and 
govern auctions of California fruits is justified in any way. 
The idea seems at enmity with the plans and needs of the 
fruit producers. Mr. Washington Porter of Chicago is re- 
ported by telegraph to have given the following statement 
in an interview : 

" There is an organization in Chicago," said he in explana- 
tion, " known as the Fruit-Buyers' Association. It is com- 
posed of fully 90 per cent of all the legitimate fruit dealers in 
the city. The organization was formed some years ago and 
its objects are both social and business. The association, owns 
a clubhouse of its own, in which fruitmen from all parts of the 
country are entertained wheu they visit Chicago. This is its 
social feature. 

" Its objects, in a business way, are those of the Board of 
Trade or Stock Exchange. When fruits are shipped to Chicago 
from California they are sent to some one of the big receiving 
houses. In order that the highest price may be obtained for 
the loads, they are placed on sale by these receivers in auction 

" Here all the members of the association, as well as any 
fruitmen from the ontside cities, are given a chance to bid 
on and buv the fruit daily. For a time the anctiou was open 
to the public, and it was patronized by fruitmen of all sorts, 
from the legitimate dealer who owned a store, for which he 
paid a good rental, to the Greek, Italian or Hebrew who drove 
a spavined horse about the city and hawked his wares from 
door to door. The first named endeavored to keep the frnit 
market steady and maintain a price which would permit of a 
profit not only to the grower in California but to himself as 
well. The second, the Greek, Hebrew or Italian peddler, had 
but one interest at heart, namely, to get bis fruit for as near 
nothing as possible and to retail it on a margin so close that 
the legitimate dealer could not compete and remain in 

" When the Fruit-Buyers' Association refused to permit un- 
scrupulous street hawkers to break down prices and interfere 
with their legitimate trade, they were compelled to withdraw 
their support from all auction houses which failed to comply 
with their rule. The association is willing to patronize any 
auction house which looks to its interests, but it is not reason- 
able to suppose that its members will deal with a concern 
which helps to operate against its business interests." 

This statement is of course from a member of the 
merchants' association, and represents that side of the 
controversy. The other side is not silent, but declares that 
the association is simply a ring to enclose the fruit and 
prevent outside dealers and auctioneers to have any 
chance at it. 

Our present impression is thattbe merchants' association 
is endeavoring to continue a regime with California fruit 
which is fatal to the growth and profitability of the fruit 
growers industry. Our readers will well remember Mr. 
Porter's record on this matter. He has always claimed 
that the eastern people should only be given what Califor- 
nia fruit they could pay round prices for. He has always 
worked for what seemed to be a sort of a gilt-edged trade. 
He has always operated upon the plan of cornering and 
restricting instead of distributing and spreading abroad. 
We fear his present preaching is but a part of the same old 

Of course California fruit-growers are not going to be 
imposed upon by the schemes of men of no financial re- 
sponsibility. They have hadjtoo much experience with 
that sort of traders, but there will isclearly that California 
fruit must go into every profitable avenue of consumption, 
and that all the people who will take it at a fair, not neces- 
sarily a high price, shall have it. The interest is too large 
to be long baulked by any dealer or set of dealers if there 
should ever be men with such dispositions. Of this we 
shall learn more later. 

July 15, 1893. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

In the duty of naming a successor to Senator Stanford, 
Governor Markham has the opportunity to do the State 
a great service; and, on the other hand, the chance of do- 
ing the State a great damage. The times are critical with 
California and she needs for the vacant place at Washing- 
ton the best ability, the best character and the best energy 
that can be found. The requirements of the position are 
large, and a large man is wanted to answer them; and, it 
may be added, the State will not be satisfied with any 
other]kind of representation. What is wanted — to repeat 
what we said last winter, before the election of a Senator 
by the Legislature — is a man whose public and private 
character are alike without reproach; who is in the health- 
ful maturity of physical and mental powers; whose knowl- 
edge of the State is a result of personal observation and 
acquaintance with all parts of it; who is qualified by the 
breadth and solidity of his general knowledge to deal with 
questions of national policy; who has no relations and no 
record of past relations identifying him with the interests 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company; a man to whom 
the public may look for intelligent and frank expressions 
of judgment upon public questions as they arise — in short, 
a loyal Californian of clean character and connections, 
respectable career, personal energy and business habits. 
No man who fails to fill the measure of these specifica- 
tions is qualified to represent California, or will be accept- 
able to the people. 

Men of the right sort are not uncommon ; they are to 
be found in every county and in every local business 
group ; but they are not to be found in what has appointed 
itself a political class. But if the Governor will look 
beyond this class — if he will go among the people — he will 
find not one man but many able to represent the State with 
ability and dignity. The Governor should seek, not spec- 
tacular and magnetic qualities, not wealth or social grace, 
but strong common sense, personal force and business ca- 
pacity. It is not lofty eloquence nor social ostentation that 
wins success in Washington so much as business-like 
effort intelligently and persistenty applied. 

The names prominently mentioned in connection with 
the senatorial appointment are those of Irwin C. Stump, 
Morris M. E^tee, General Johnson, A. P. Williams, M. H. 
DeYoung, Major Bonebrake, Wm. H. Mills, Samuel 
Shortridge and Isaac Trumbo. Mr. Stump was chairman 
of the Republican State Committee during the campaign 
in which Gov. Markham was elected. He is the manager 
of the Hearst estate, and the right-hand man of Haggin 
& Tevis in their extensive business. Mr. Estee is a 
well-known lawyer and politician. It will be re- 
membered that he was chairman of the National Con- 
vention which nominated Harrison for the Presidency. 
Mr. Williams is a wholesale liquor dealer of San Fran- 
cisco. He filled out by appointment the unexpired term 
of Senator John F. Miller some years ago. M. DeYoung 
is the well-known capitalist and proprietor of the San 
Francisco Chronicle. Gen. Johnson lives in Los Angeles, 
and is the law partner and intimate personal friend of 
Gov. Markham. Mr. Mills is the head of the land depart- 
ment of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, There 
is no reason to believe that Mr. Mills is a candidate in the 
sense of bsing a seeker for the place. The proposition of his 
name is made by the Fruit Grower of this city. Major 
Bonebrake is a prominent politician of Los Angeles. Mr. 
Shortridge and Col. Trumbo are active politicians of San 
Francisco. There is a general presumption, based on tra- 
ditions of " political geography," that the appointment 
will be given to the middle or northern part of the State, 
since southern California has already a Senator in Mr. 
White ; but this is a presumption merely. The Governor 
would be entirely justified in appointing a man from any 
part of the State, since it is the man rather than the place 
of his residence that is important. 

In our judgment it would be a mistake to appoint any 
man connected with large capitalistic or corporate inter- 
ests. We do not mean to imply that such a man as the 
Fruit Grower's candidate, Mr. Mills, for example, has not 
the requisite integrity to subordinate private to public in- 
terests. But a man trained in the promotion and protec- 
tion of corporate interests, be he lawyer, agent, writer or 
other, becomes in time warped, so to speak, in favor of 
such interests. From long association he comes to 
believe honestly in the capitalistic theories of things. 
He is not to be blamed perhaps since it is human 
nature, the same sort of human nature that makes a mer- 
chant promote public policies favorable to trade, and the 
farmer support measures favorable to the interests of agri- 
culture. The very integrity of a man who through the oper- 
ation of this principle, has acquired the capitalistic and 
corporate view of things, would make him in a position like 
that of U. S. Senator, dangerous to the public welfare. We 
trust — and we hope not to be understood as implying crit- 
icism of or discredit to anybody — that Gov. Markham 

will appoint to succeed Senator Stanford, no man whose 
relationships past or present are such as identify him with 
the interests of the corporations. 

The world's yearly average production of silver from 
1875 and up to the last report was $116,060,000. The 
world's yearly average production of gold during the same 
period was $108,000,000. The approximation of these 
figures, showing as they do that the two metals are being 
produced in amounts practically equivalent, is a very 
striking fact. It supports in a positive way the claim 
made by those of us who are bi-metallists, that, in spite of 
the turmoil and clamor about the relative values of gold 
and silver, there is substantial equality in the proportions of 
their production. The chief reason why silver is just now 
less valuable than gold is because it has been degraded from 
its true rank as a medium of exchange. Gther circumstances 
have had something to do with it, but this is the main fact. 
Nature seems to have created these two metals and regu- 
lated the quantities and ratios of their production for the 
money function. 

Silver has been deposed from its money character through 
the greed of capital. The creditor part of the world's 
business organization has decreed the single gold standard 
because that standard — as a sole measure of value — gives 
to capital a prodigious advantage in exchanges. For 
example, as the value of the standard increases, 
(and it is not and cannot be denied that 
gold is steadily appreciating in value) a dollar or 
a thousand dollars will buy an increasing proportion of 
commodities — and that means more for the capitalist and 
less for the producer, more for the creditor and less for 
the debtor. Back of the single gold standard is the capi- 
talist nation, England. The world owes her a thousand 
millions of money, and since the " borrower is ever servant 
unto the lender," England rules the world in matters of 
commerce and finance. 

To restore silver to its true position — to give it again 
the money character which the wisdom of forty centuries 
gave it — it is necess&ryjto persuade or compel England to 
change her policy. There is no bi-metallist of any stand- 
ing who does not admit that there is only one way in 
which bi-metallism — that is, the free coinage of gold and 
silver at a given ratio — 3an be successfully established, 
and that is by an international agreement fixing the ratio 
of exchange between the two metals to which at least the 
two principal commercial countries of the world — America 
and Britain — 3hall be parties. If we attempt to do it alone, 
as those who call themselves " champions of silver " pro- 
pose, we shall fail; we shall put our country on a cheap 
money basis; we shall confuse exchanges and bankrupt 
those least able to stand up under the demands of a finan- 
cial crisis. The real champion of silver is the true 
friend who wants to see it restored to where it formerly 
stood — side by side and relatively the equal of gold — and 
who will not consent to its use as "cheap money," shifting in 
value from day to day in accord with the fluctuations of the 
bullion market. The real champion of silver is the bi-metal- 
list who proposes its use concurrently with gold, and who has 
knowledge and sense enough to know that its fight must 
be waged in the world of commerce. The American Con- 
gress must make the fight, but it must make it abroad and 
not at home. 

The duties of the United States Minister to Austria are 
not very serious, but such as they are, they have been 
promptly performed during the past four years by Col. 
Frederick Grant. Because Col. Grant was an efficient 
Minister and because he is his father's son, Mr. Cleveland 
wanted him to continue on at Vienna and delicately inti- 
mated that fact to him, whereupon the young man replied 
that "while he felt due appreciation of the honor done 
him by the request, he could not remain in Vienna as the 
representative of an adverse administration." Apparently 
it is Col. Grant's idea that he has, during his term as Min- 
ister, been representing not the United States of America 
but the Republican party. The notion that he could not 
serve his country in such ways as may be necessary at 
Vienna, because the President happens to be a Democrat, 
is monstrously absurd. Suppose McClellan had beaten 
Lincoln in 1864, would Col. Grant's father have been 
justified in throwing up his commission and going home, 
because there was an adverse administration? We do not 
mean to imply that it was Colonel Grant's duty 
to remain at Vienna against his will, but we 
do say that if he had no better reason for leaving 
than because there is an "adverse administration," 
he is a very shallow man and the very degenerate 
son of his valiant sire. It needs to be comprehended in 
these United States and must be comprehended if the 
greatness of our youth is to expand into greatness of age, 
that this country is bigger than any party is or can be and 
that the responsibilities and duties of the citizen outweigh 
a thousand times any possible obligations of the partisan. 

The death of Associate Justice Blatchford, of New 

York, which occurred a few days back, makes a vacancy 
on the bench of the U. S. Supreme Court, which Mr. 
Cleveland will have to fill. Among the names 
suggested, are those Hon. E. J. Phelps of Ver- 
mont, Hon. E. H. Lacombe of New York, Hon. 
J. C. Carter of New York, Hon. Frederick R. Cou- 
dert of New York, Hon. Carlos French of Connecticut, 
Secretary Gresham, Secretary Carlisle, and last but not 
least, Hon. Benj. Harrison of Indiana. This last sug- 
gestion is a most happy one ; and if Mr. Cleveland should 
in fact appoint ex-President Harrison, he would do a very 
excellent and admirable thing. The place would perfectly 
suit Mr. Harrison, and the giving and the acceptance of 
it would be an event of vast moment in our political his- 
tory. Mr. Cleveland has the opportunity to put aside 
an old tradition and to make a precedent, and to do the 
country infinite service in the act. 

Plan for an Oat-of-Door Cooler. 

To the Editor: — I have found the following plan a 
success for an out-of-door cooler, for anyone that can secure 
cheaply a couple of hundred brick. 

Build a small brick house of them, say two by three feet, 
two feet high, right on the ground. To form the roof lay 
some slats across resting on the walls, and roof with a layer 
of the brick. Use no mortar of any kind between the 
bricks but leave these spaces open. The more spaces the 
better. Leave a hole on one side large enough to use as a 
door to be closed with a piece of board. The house should 
be built in a shady place, mine is under the edge of the 
porch, and where the wind can strike it. Arrange for the 
drip from the pump to run to the roof and percolate all 
over the walls or throw a bucket of water over it four or 
five times a day. It depends for its successful operation on 
being kept wet in a circulation of air. The bricks absorb 
a great deal of water. R. M. Seely. 

Madera, June 30, 1893. 

Honey in Ventnra County. 

To the Editor : — The extracting season is over and 
the process of canning and cleaning up is going on in all 
the apiaries. The quality of the honey is exceptionally 
good this year, and, though some have done well, others 
report not more than half a crop. I believe Ventura 
county has done better than the other southern counties, 
as we continually hear from private sources complaints of 
a short crop. As far as can be learned the beemen are 
holding their honey for six cents here. C. ' 

Ventura Co., July 5, 1893. 

It does not pay to sell drying fruit green. The ex- 
perience of the past teaches that the best returns have been 
yielded to those who cure their own fruit or through a 
co-operative, community, or other drier. There is no ar- 
gument better than the money argument, and the best 
cash returns are as a rule with those growers who are in 
no great hurry to get the money for their green fruit. We 
are convinced that it is the part of wisdom this year, as it 
has been in others, for growers to cure as much fruit as 
possible, thus placing it in form where it is not necessary 
to dispose of it at a given time, regardless of the condition 
of the market. The experience of the majority of our 
California growers confirms our statement. 

The Editor of the Florida Farm and Fruit Grower 
writes to the Rural Press with reference to a statement 
of the Minneapolis Produce Bulletin, reproduced in these 
columns, that Mr. E, L Goodsell, the New York fruit 
merchant, had made invidious comparison between Cali- 
fornia and Florida oranges before a meeting of orange 
growers in the latter State. The account of the Produce 
Bulletin is declared to be incorrect and distorted. Mr. 
Goodsell, it is said, on the contrary praised the California 

The following warm commendation of the Rural 
Press is from that excellent weekly, the Ohino Champion: 

"The Pacific Rural Presi has completed its 45th volume. It 
still stands at the head of all rural publications in the West, 
always leading in the agricultural and horticultural news ot 
the day and discussing with the greatest ability questions of 
importance to the rural population. Above all things, the 
Rural Press ii perfectly independent, fearless and impartial in 
its discussions of public affairs 'From an Independent Stand- 
point.' This is something that should be appreciated in these 
days of mercenary journalism." 

A paper was read at a meeting of raisin-growers, at 
Fresno, Saturday, purporting to be an agreement between 
the growers, packers, and the association, in effect as fol- 
lows: The growers are to pay the packers 40 cents per 
box for layers and $7.50 per ton for loose raisins, 5 per 
cent commission and per cent brokerage and 25 cents 
per ton to the association to be collected by the packer, 
the packer to be liable to the association at the rate of $1.50 
a car for all raisins packed. 

The California State Fair for 1893 will open at Sacra- 
mento, September 4th, closing the 16th. Twenty thousand 
dollars in cash premiums are offered for California produc- 
tions. Oalifornians engaged in any line of industry, should 
send at once for premium lists, and prepare to make their 

July 15, 1893. 






Towner Describes His Process At Length. 
Don't Sulphur Too Much. 

To the Editor: — Was there ever a season wherein 
wind and rain so conspired together to beat flower and fruit 
from the trees ? Hence half crops everywhere, though the 
season of blossoming promised never so well. There is 
something almost pathetic in the way the enthusiastic fruit- 
grower will keep daily watch over his trees, knowing him- 
self at the mercy of the elements. He has done the best 
he can, and now chance must have its "finger in the pie" to 
make or mar; yet it is lucky for him if he has done his best, 
if he knows what best is, as to system of pruning — above 
all, keeping the trees thoroughly cleaned out of all dead 
wood and spurs. It is all the difference of no crop and 
half a crop such a year as this; and we all know that "half 
a loaf is better than none." But if the crop be snrall he 
should exert all the more care in perfecting every detail of 
management, making expense of drying as small as possi- 
ble and no fruit left to go to waste. Here is where the 
small fruit-grower, who dries in his own orchard, has a per- 
ceptible advantage. 

I have estimated year after year that as I can at least 
make 2j£ cents per pound net profit per annum from my 
apricots and am offered only one cent a pound (I am esti- 
mating on the green 'cot), it pays me to dry. I and my 
family can make good wages, and I can afford to hire all 
the help I need. 

I consider, also, that apricots dried on the spot are much 
superior to those picked and carted to a factory or dry- 
house elsewhere. The reason is obvious. The fruit is put 
to drying when fresher. But, more tlian this, it can be 
dried when riper. This means a great deal. Nothing that 
can be done to fruit, as far as making it look nice is con- 
cerned, can make that which is picked under-ripe and then 
dried, equal that which is picked dead-ripe and then dried. 
To the very moment of full ripeness, nature is elaborating 
a richness, a sweetness, a delicacy of flavor, that nothing 
else can imitate. But it takes the experienced, initiated 
taste to detect such differences, so let it be understood that 
all my talk on drying apricots is for those who dry in the 

Fruit from the Trees — When picking-time comes I have 
the ground in my orchard under the trees as smooth and 
free from clods as I conveniently can. Then, as the fruit 
ripens, I have my pickers gently jar the trees and Immedi- 
ately pick up the fallen fruit carefully, which is as quickly 
as possible taken to the cutters. And right here I will say 
that I do not believe in any cutting or pitting machine for 
the apricot, that ever has or ever will be invented. In or- 
der to use a machine you must have your fruit too hard — a 
double waste in weight and quantity. No fruit need to go 
to waste by the process of picking I have mentioned, 
unless it be the very little green which may jar off, and not 
near so much as would be rubbed off were the pickers to 
climb about in the trees. (And this green fruit my wife 
makes into jelly.) 

Ready for the Cutters. — Towards evening, however, 
there must be fruit left over night for the cutters to begin 
on in the early morning. This fruit I have picked by hand, 
as it will keep better. We have generally paid cutters — 
they "lay" and cut both, of course — 15 cents per 75-pound 
box. This is more than some pay ; but I have better help 
at this price. 

The Tray. — The ideal tray, to my mind, on which to dry 
apricots is 2x3 feet and made of snakes, smooth side up, 
with inch stuff for sides and half-inch for ends, and cross- 
piece underneath. This is an important point to me, trivial 
as it sounds, for I look ahead to save wear and tear. Some 
make inch stuff for ends and half-inch for sides. But this 
way the sides are apt to spring when weighted and piled 
high, and hence many will pry off in one season's use. 
Not so the other way, according to mv experience, for, you 
see, with inch sides, springing is not only prevented but the 
end piece, which must be lapped on, can have two nails in 
it; and in the stay or cross-piece underneath, a larger nail 
can be used. A mechanical eye can see by this that the 
parts of the tray are tied together as it were, and must nec- 
essarily be stiffer in handling and mote durable. I gener- 
allow 50 trays per ton of green fruit, calculating it takes 
from four to five days to dry the fruit. Stretchers for carry- 
ing the loaded trays must be strongly made, of size to hold 
two piles of trays, and any style otherwise to suit your 
fancy. The number of stretchers is according to size of or- 
chard or crop and methods of handling and sulphuring. 
As to amount of fruit to be laid on each tray, one must 
know enough of the matter, by doing it himself, to be able 
to watch the cutters carefully and that he lays the fruit 
well, skin side down and pretty well crowded on the trays. 
And the fruit must be cut evenly in two — a clean cut — 
leaving no shred of attachment, or the halves will not dry 
in good shape. Very soft fruit must be deftly shaped a 
little when laid down. 

How to Sulphur. — And now to sulphuring and the 
sulphur-box: 1 shall not say a word on the much- 
discussed question of sulphuring or not sulphuring, only 
this : While one has to sulphur to compete with the 
market as it is now, I can never bring my conscience, or 
rather, I may say I know too much chemistry, to use the 
amount of sulphur some do or to leave my fruit so long in 
the sulphur bath. By experimenting I have to my satis- 
faction found the golden mean on this point. I use a light, 
stoutly-made portable sulphur-box — one that I can set 
down over my trays wherever I pile them. I make a frame 
and cover it with a certain tough but pliable paper I pur- 
chase at the paint stores. This, for myself, I make large 
enough to hold two piles of my 2x3 trays, 15 in a pile, i. e., 
30 trays, and leave room at one end for the pan I burn 

my sulphur in, i. e., 6 feet long, 3 feet high, 3$ feet wide, 
inside measure. 

As to quantity of sulphur for a box of such a size, I use 
one coffee-cupful best California sulphur, leaving the fruit 
in the gas one hour; and as to quantity of sulphur and 
rules therefor, let me remark in passing that one must use 
enough to fill the given space with the sulphurous acid gas — 
that is, guage your quantity of sulphur by the cubic con- 
tents of your box, not by the number of trays. My method 
of burning my sulphur is very simple. I take a newspaper, 
crumple it very compactly so as to make pockets all over 
it, lay it in my pan (an oil can split in two) sprinkle my 
sulphur in these pockets, crowding it down, set the pan by 
my piles of trays, and, before I let the box slide over them, 
set this paper afire. It is simple but efficient. I generally 
allow five pounds of sulphur for a ton of green fruit. Each 
time I sulphur I have my trays piled right by the place 
where they are to be spread on the drying-ground. When 
their hour is up, off comes the box to go over the next pile, 
and then the sulphured trays are spread out to the sun. 

The Sulphur-box. — One word as to the sulphur box : It 
is a curious fact that one can get the box too tight. 
There must be a little ventilation in the upper part, so that 
the gas can raplace the air, or else the bleaching of the 
upper trays will be incomplete; also have your pan of 
sulphur on that end of the box which is toward the wind. 
Be sure and have the paper in the pan so compact that it 
will not flash in the burning, and see that it is well going 
before letting the box down over the trays. 

In the Sun. — Do not expose the cut fruit to the sun till 
after the sulphur bath. I do not cover my fruit at night 
while it is drying, neither do I think it necessary to look 
my fruit over to select out that which is dry. If some dries 
before the rest I let my trays stand till all the fruit is dry; 
then I leave them out over night to gather moisture to 
soften them. Early the next morning 1 examine the fruit. 
If moistened just right — that is, pliable, but not sticky — 
stack the trays immediately, covering the top tray with an 
overturned empty tray. If the fruit be too moist, let it lie 
in the sun till it is just right; then stack, and have them 
put into the sweat-boxes the same day. 

Boxing. — Here comes the " scraper," with his 2x4 piece 
of steel (cabinet-maker's wood-scraper) and scrapes the 
'cots into the boxes. There they stand for 24 hours or 
more— to sweat even — that is, lose all chippiness, get the 
uniform waxiness which, with its translucence, makes the 
dried apricot such an attractive fruit to look at and very 
palatable also uncooked. 

But remember, all on the tray must have been thoroughly 
dried before this moistening and sweating process or the 
curing is not well done and the fruit will ball in the pack- 
ing, mold and spoil. In the sweat-boxes, and till sacked, 
the fruit must he kept tightly covered from the moths. 
With average drying weather the apricot will sun-dry in 
four days. Excessively hot weather scalds the fruit. 
Breezy, moderate weather is best. Pray that no neighbor 
keeps bees while you are drying your apricots. If they 
do, insist on your rights, for it is against the law. 

Sacking. — For sacking, use a stationary box, fashioned 
to act as a funnel and raised about 36 inches from the 
floor. There are hooks about it on which to hang the 
bags. Dump the fruit through the wooden funnel in not too 
big quantities at a time, for the bags must be jumped 
and bounced and crowded with your hands now and then 
to make it pack solid. Well shaken, they will average 85 
pounds to the bag, regulation size. 

I use soft-laid twine, No. 6, and a big darning needle for 
sewing up the sacks. This twine sells generally at 35 cents 
per pound, and one-half pound is ample to sew 100 sacks. 
Sacks cost from 8£ to 10 cents apiece. When I have them 
made at home they cost 7} cents per sack. 

The Best Apricot. — Of all apricots to dry I think the 
Early Moorpatk is the most satisfactory. It dries a little 
quicker than any other apricot I have handled. It is the 
most prolific of all apricots, but being a red apricot it does 
not make so showy a dried fruit as the Large Early and is 
not so large as the latter. 

Before I close I must again remark the advantage of 
drying fruit close to the orchard. You can thus dry it 
dead ripe. It is the ripe fruit that makes the dried fruit 
sweet and rich and waxy; but the ripe, juicy fruit, if cut 
and exposed to the sun to dry, unsulphured, would turn 
black. This is the chief reason why I believe in a little 
sulphur judiciously applied. 

My orchard dries five pounds of green fruit to one of 
dry. Six to one is the general average, I am told. I think 
the difference is in the way I manage my trees and ground. 
I never irrigate my apricots. Some seasons, when I think 
too much rain has fallen for the good of the trees, I pur- 
posely allow the soil to dry out to a certain extent. 

Once, when I had to sell my apricots green, being unable 
to handle them that year, they were shipped to a Riverside 
dry-house. Those who loaded the cars invariably ex- 
claimed over my boxes that they were heavier for the 
quantity than any other fruit they handled. But the fruit 
individually was not lacking in size. Most was extra large. 
I have always found it paid me to look out for all these 
little details in raising fruit. Arthur I. Towner. 

Santa Ana, July 1, 1893. 

industry, and the fruit-grower should make even a greater 
record in fruit-curing. I speak of the apricot especially. 
If there is any fruit which can be so cured as to be pleasing 
both to the eye and taste, it is the apricot. In brief I will 
give some of the important methods for curing the apricot 
in the Sacramento valley. 

Do Not Pick Too Green. — First, I believe in letting the 
fruit get thoroughly ripe. When brought to the dry yard, 
the fruit should be graded for size, making at least two 
grades, before cutting. Then cut the apricots entirely open, 
placing the halves on trays so they touch each other. By 
all means do not stand them on edge in order to save space. 

Then place the trays in the sulphur house, subjecting the 
fruit to a sulphur bath for at least 40 minutes. Sixty min- 
utes is better. After this treatment, lay the fruit out in the 
sun, letting it dry until it has the appearance and texture of 
soft leather. At this point great judgment must be used as 
to the dryness and moisture of the fruit. The proper 
method cannot be adequately described by pen or pencil. 
Everything depends on the operator, who must always take 
fruit up from trays during the middle of the day, as the 
moth miller is never around in the heat of the day making 
deposit of her eggs. Wormy fruit is thus avoided to a 
great extent. In the valley, when we take fruit from the 
trays we pile it in bulk on the floor in what we call the 
sweat room, made tight and dark. 

In the Sweat Room — In a few days the fruit will begin 
a sweat or process of equalizing. While in this condition, 
shovel them over at least once, and, if found very moist, 
shovel them again in a day or two. Thus we have, in a 
few days, a cured fruit, equal to any evaporated article ever 
produced, of fine flavor, color and texture. 

Value of This Method. — By the above method of curing, 
I claim we retain more of the fruit syrup, which adds much 
to the quality and value of our fruit, as well as to its weight. 
Hence we are sure of a reward for our labor. Fruit of fine 
appearance, with good qualities, will find a market, not 
only in America, but throughout the world, at remunerative 

When we in this State resolve to cure our fruits, instead 
of drying them into bones, taking life and flavor away, 
the demand for California cured fruit will continue to grow 
in favor, and, in the near future, California cured apricots 
will be placed on the shelves of our merchants as a staple 
article of food. " We must improve" is, or should be, the 
motto of all California fruit-growers. R. C. Kells. 
Yuba City, July 3, 1893. 


Much Depends on the Judgment of the Opera 
tor— Retaining Fruit Syrup. 

To the Editor: — As the time for apricot-drying is at 
hand, I do not think it will be out of place for me to give 
my views on the subject and to urge that California fruit 
growers give more careful attention to the important indus 
try of fruit-drying, more appropriately termed "curing.' 
California is noted for its great records in many lines of 


Mr. Hobart Favors the Large Early Apricot. 
Use of Sulphur. 

To the Editor: — I will comply with your request, keep 
my promise, and give you my way or method of drying 
apricots. I am not find of detail, still I know I have within 
me an element, call it what you will, which comes in a ' 
measure from early training, that will not allow of any 
ignoring on my part of the many littles that go to make up 
the whole; and I will say that it is the marshalling of the 
details in regular order and system that generally ensures 
success in any business. This will apply to fruit-drying. 
My experience in apricot-drying has been with fruit of my 
own raising, never having seen any apricots until they 
were grown on my own place. They were of the Early 
Golden variety, good bearers, tendency to overbear, fruit 
not large, when thoroughly ripe and dried surpassed in 
sweetness any of the kinds I now grow. The Large Early 
I have more of now than any other kind, and for delicacy 
of flavor, either canned or dried, I think they are ahead of 
all others. This assertion is, I know, open to discussion; 
let that come some other time. Having the apricots, and 
from appearances just now the fact is apparent that 
arrangements shouid be made to handle them (dry them) 
quite soon. 

Trays — It is supposed trays have already been provided, 
those in use last year washed and made clean. For drying 
in an evaporator a different tray is used from that required 
for sun work. As most of the drying is done in the open 
air I will only describe the kind of tray I use outside. The 
size is three by three, made of six sawed shakes held to- 
gether with heavy picket laths of the right length; they 
cost me 16 cents each. They would of course come at less 
price where lumber is cheaper. Shakes cost, laid down on 
my place, $17 per thousand. Cost of labor not over two 
cents a tray. 

Sulphur Boxes. — Having provided the trays, sulphur 
boxes are needed. They are of course made of a size to 
receive the trays, and of matched lumber, leaving space 
ennogh between tray and frame of box to admit of free cir- 
culation of sulphur fumes. I do not make them to hold 
more than 20 trays. 

Drying Ground. — The drying ground, cleared and made 
clean as possible, and as I never lay my trays on the 
ground I provide material on which to lay the tray, gener- 
ally fence boards 1x4 or 1x6. I lay a track, made of 2x3, 
from my cutting house to the drying ground. I have a car 
arranged with racks to receive the trays of fruit when sul- 
phured and then run out to drying ground and spread out. 

The Work of Drying. — Now being prepared for work, 
and apricots ready, I call in my crew. I have heretofore 
employed Chinamen to pick my fruit. Shall try white help 
this year and make a note at end of season. A majority of 
my pitters have been young girls, residents of the valley. 
I find them more docile and less inclined to kick over the 
traces than the young man; still I seldom have trouble 
with the male gender, for it is well understood that business 
is the order of the day, that the owner of the place is about 
and will not tolerate any foolishness. 

Having apricots and crew, we will commence operations. 
I would say, I have never paid by the box other than 
when cutting after hours. I hire by the day and board my 
help; paying by the day gives me, I think, more control 
over my crew than by the box. I may be mistaken. My 
location is a point in the case which I cannot explain here. 

I provide a short-handled knife made for the business. 


July 15, 1893. 

I have a few of the so-called pitting machines. They are 
far from perfect and generally discarded after a short trial. 
I am in hopes a good pitter will be forthcoming before 
long. I question, however, if anything in the machine 
line will be made to successfully handle a fully-ripe 

With apricot and knife in hand, what next ? A recep- 
tacle (or the cut fruit, which is a large milk-pan — no wood. 
These pans are washed once a day, and oftener if necessary. 
If the tinning comes off, a coat of shellac varnish is given 
them. I require the fruit to be cut entirely around — no 
pulling apart and leaving rough edges. I provide boxes 
for the pits; when full, carried and dumped on ground set 
apart for them. We have at noon a general sweep-up, at 
night a general clean-up; once or twice a week a washing 
down of decks. 

The cutter having filled his pan, sets it on a table, and 
that ends his part of the job. He or she takes an empty 
pan and continues to cut as before. Now come the 
spreaders — generally experts in this line of the business. 
They also cut, changing off with each other for rest, as con- 
stant spreading becomes very tiresome. My table, on 
which most of the spreading is done, runs on a track and 
can be moved back and forth on the line of the track. A 
good spreader will place on a tray five, if not ten per 
cent, more fruit and in better shape than one not up to the 
business. Eye, hand and motion are in accord, and no 
time or surface is lost Spreaders place the trays in the 
sulphur-boxes and the sulphuring is done by a few experts 
among the spreaders. I say experts, made so by long ex- 
perience, who have a sort of intuition as to how much 
sulphur to place under a given number of trays and how 
long required to effect its object. I shall this season place 
on each sulphur-box a clock dial and movable hands, and 
when a box is closed and sulphur ignited, the hands will be 
set to the time. This will do away with all guessing as to 
length of time box has been closed. My sulphur-boxes 
are made with chimneys to open and close, so that inhala 
tion of sulphur fumes is avoided. 

I will not comment on the effect sulphur has on the dried 
fruit. The buyers say bleach. We do it. I have yet to 
detect any trace of sulphur on any of my dried fruit. 

At the proper time the trays are removed from the 
sulphur-box, placed on car and run out to drying ground. 
Generally, on the afternoon of third day, the dried fruit can 
be bunched — that is, three or four trays placed on one tray. 
This is often done when trays are needed. On the fourth 
day the fruit is dry enough to put into bins and occasionally 
turned over to give it uniformity. When in right condition, 
put in good muslin sacks, put away under cover, and there 
it remains until ready to be overhauled, changed from 
original to new sack, sewed up and sent to buyer. 

All fruit should be graded; it facilitates the drving as 
well as the selling of the fruit. Joseph Hobart. 

Nordhoff, Cal. 


The Whole Story of Apricot -Drying Prom Be- 
ginning to End. 

To the Editor: — My experience is limited to my small 
fruit ranch of 50 acres, and ten years a horticulturist. I 
grow fruit because I love to. I love to watch trees grow. 
How they respond to good care and good treatment ! 
From the time the first tiny bud bursts in spring until the 
crop is harvested, what an unfoldment ! Who can tell what 
is wrapped up in those tiny buds, leaves, flowers, wondrous 
fruits ? Tons, carloads, train-loads, to be sent to our hungry 
neighbors in more ungenerous climes, or maybe no fruit, 
and the grower must do all the year's work over again and 
hope for next year's crop. I feel sorry for that man who fol- 
lows a business and cannot throw heart and soul into it. 

The Apricot Tree. — I head my trees low, start them to 
branch knee high; as soon as they grow ten inches I nip 
them and get two growths the first season, and so on every 
year until they come into bearing, and then I prune but 
once a year. Of all trees excepting the orange it is my 
favorite, and is next to the orange in beauty if properly 
pruned. I have tested many varieties. The Royal is the 
most regular bearer here. The lovely Moorpark is untrust- 

Thinning. — We invariably go over our orchard whether 
the crop is light or heavy and thin our fruit, thinning by 
hand, the only proper way. I know people who throw 
stones up, and others who use pitchforks and thrash the 
trees. I have been told, "Oh ! I never thin; the big ones 
will crowd the little ones off." 

Picking. —I have a carpenter make my step-ladders; just 
underneath each step I run a quarter-inch iron rod, a washer 
on one end and a nut and washer on the other. When a 
step wears out, I saw it in two, unscrew my nut and slip in 
a new step and screw up my nut again. This is better 
than to have both ends riveted. Of course I keep my lad- 
ders painted. I use chip baskets holding about 30 pounds 
for picking baskets — they are 11 inches high and 15 inches 
diameter — and use duck to cover the outside of the bottom 
of the basket, running it up about three inches and sewing 
it to the basket with tie yarn. I use my old overalls for 
this purpose. When the picking is done, they are scrubbed, 
dried in the sun and put away in a room. I take a 2^' -inch 
harness snap and break out the tongue, and bolt it, running 
the belt through the eye, to the top of the top step of the 
ladder. The hook protrudes over the edge of the middle 
an inch, opposite the steps. I tie a small ring to the cen- 
ter of the basket-handle, and the picker slips the ring into 
the hook, and the weight is in the center of the ladder, and 
the picker has both hands to use. I never hire a China- 
man. I get the most intelligent people I can, not the 
cheapest. In picking, we go over our trees three or four 
times; the last time, and only the last, there being only a 
few scattering ones on the trees, we lay down sheets and 
shake. We use two sheets 10x20 feet to each tree. We 
like this much better than a single sheet split to the center. 

The men carry sticks, and odd ones that will not shake they 
push off. 

Cutting. — I have women and girls cut and lay the fruit. 
Some hold the knife perfectly still and roll the fruit on 
the blade; others move both knife and fruit. The best 
knife for cutting I have yet seen is the small pocket pruning 
knife. The blade is somewhat concave or circular and fits 
to the fruit. Many devices have been made to cut fruit by 
machinery, but as vet I have seen nothing so neat as cutting 
by hand. The difficulties are, the fruit must be sorted be- 
fore being cut, and handled again in spreading. In time 
we may have some good cutting machines, but soft fruit 
will have to be cut by hand. 

The Trays. — We prefer cutting the fruit and laying at 
once, perfectly flat, cut side up. Some crowd and lay on 
edge; this is bad, for it does not hold its round, pretty 
shape, and, if quite ripe, the juice runs out and the fruit 
does not dry as quickly. My invariable advice has been, 
buy plenty of trays; then if you can sell to the canners or 
shippers to good advantaee do so, if not, you can dry and 
not be at their mercy. We use 3000 2x3-foot trays, sugar 
pine, end pieces 1 1 / 2 inches, side 1 inch, and bottom 
shakes (four pieces) each 6 inches wide and X-'nch thick; 
they should be so, but when you get them they will be 
^-inch wide. I ordered a lot of shakes from Sacramento; 
they cost me $80, and the railroad company charged $40 
freight. It won't be so when the Government owns the 
railroads. If one is doing a large business, 3x6-foot or 
8-foot trays will be most suitable, but we dry only the fruit 
grown on the ranch and prefer 2X3-foot trays, because one 
man serves the cutters with fruit and trays, and can pick 
up two 2x3s easily, while 3x65 require two men to lift each 
tray. My trays are put together with wire nails. It is 
false economy to buy a lot of redwood shakes and tack 
your trays together slightly. I have seen a lot of trays in 
use, several thousand continually requiring one man on re- 

The Drying Ground. — As soon as the fruit is cut we 
place it on cars, and when we have 50 trays we run them 
into our sulphur-box. The fruit should go into the sulphur 
as soon as possible after it is cut, and into the sun as soon 
as sulphured. This, combined with having your fruit ripe, 
is the secret of beautiful, bright fruit. We let our fruit get 
ripe but not mushy, and sulphur for two hours; this keeps 
our fruit a good bright color. We use the best sublimed 
sulphur, finding the cheap sulphur unsatisfactory, as it 
leaves a large residuum that looks like crushed rock. We 
know of parties who sulphur for four hours, and leave the 
last batch in the boxes all night; they said that they did it 
because the buyers wanted light fruit. We consider this 
too much of a good thing. Three or six pills may be a 
very good thing in a place, but a box in the same place 
might be an evil. 

Sulphuring. — I cut the side out of a five-gallon coal-oil 
can, sink it in the earth in my sulphur-box, and for a cover 
I use a board larger than the can, putting grain sacks 
over it, and a strap on the top for a handle. As soon as 
we open the sulphur-box, after using, we cover our can and 
then draw out our carload of fruit with an iron poker 
hooked underneath, and let the air drive off the fumes. 
We advise the use of cars by all means. Permanent slides 
in a box are exceedingly bad, because you need your fruit 
out as soon as sulphured, and to be ready to shove another 
car in. Inhaling strong fumes of sulphur is exceedingly 
trying on one's lungs. We chalk a clock-face on our box, 
with a pine stick for hour hand, and set the time when the 
fruit goes in. 

We dry our fruit on the ground in a stubble field from 
which barley-hay has been cut, laying the trays flat. A 
better way is to have platforms knee-high, slanting a little 
south, upon which to place the trays; but this entails con- 
siderable expense. I made a test of fruit on a galvanized- 
iron-wire tray a foot from the ground, and fruit on a solid 
board tray on the ground. The fruit on the wire tray dried 
in one day's time less than the board tray. I have dis- 
carded a few wire trays, the sulphur oxidizing the iron or 
zinc, causing the fruit to be marked. 

When Cured. — We leave our fruit in the sun until dried 
— not bone dry, like some of the buyers from back East 
want it, so that they can turn their hose on it in their sort- 
ing lofts, but dry enough so that the fruit is leathery and 
pliable. If you dry it as dry as bricks in a kiln you drive 
something out of it that you can never get back. 

When the fruit is ready to take up (we do this after din- 
ner), we dump a number of trays on one, using a short, 
broad wooden paddle to scrape any that may stick, and 
when the tray is full we cover with an empty tray and stack 
the emptys up in shapely piles so that when the men come 
to haul the trays in, two men can catch up a great pile at 
a lift and thus save time. 

Our prevailing wind is from the southwest, so we begin 
laying trays on the extreme southern end of our dry-ground 
and fill north, thus keeping the dust, if any, north of the 
trays. As soon as our dried fruit is gathered in trays, we 
haul it to our rooms where we keep our dried fruit and 
dump it on a pile. The floors of these rooms have been 
scrubbed, using concentrated lye, and wire netting tacked 
over the ventilators. These rooms are never opened at 
night; if they were, the fruit moth would fly in and deposit 

Marketing. — I never sell my fruit early; I wait until 
apricots are ripe and generally until they are dried. Once 
I would have done better to have sold early, but only once. 
I sell for cash; several operations with commission houses 
(with one exception) were altogether in the commission 
man's favor. 

I make my fruit-boxes out of five gallon coal-oil boxes, 
nailing up top and taking off the side for my top, nailing 
securely with 8d. cut nails, cut hand holes in ends, and nail 
an inch-square strip on each top end, so, should there be 
any fruit higher than the level of the box, it will not get 
crushed. Some fruitmen have large cracks in the lower 
corners of their boxes, and sometimes fruit will push 
through and smash and muss up your wagon. I like boxes 
without cracks. 
Our pits we use for fuel in our cook stove, mixing with 

wood. Care must be taken in using them, as the oil in th 
seed makes an intense fire, and you may burn out your 
stove. Use a few at a time. We also use them in our 
arch in heating concentrated lye when dipping prunes. 
Some we sell to nurserymen. Last year we sold them at 
$8 and $10 per ton. I leave my fruit in piles until sold, 
then bag it and ship. I sell without sorting. 

I should have stated that it costs twice as much to pick from 
ladders as it does from the ground, and twice as much to 
pick for a cannery as to pick for a drier. 

It takes one day longer to dry fruit in new trays than in 
old worn trays— the new white wood reflects the heat; the 
old dark ones absorb it. 

Asphaltum paper is not good for trays. A friend sent me 
two or three to try; the fruit bellied them down in the 
center, and, when the boys got them to the dry ground, 
part of the fruit had gone through. 

Some of my sulphur boxes are made of pine boards 
tongued and grooved. Last summer I made one of P & B 
building paper sold by the Paraffine Paint Co. The inside 
framework was of 1x4 lumber, over which the paper was 
laid and tacked with laths covering the seams on the out- 
sides. This was made long and just high enough to lift 
trays easily, was raised and lowered by a windlass, and 
was quite satisfactory. 

I planted some apricot trees last winter 30 feet apart in 
the only true way to plant trees, i. e., equilateral triangles. 
Th is is farther than I used to plant. If I change my views 
again, it will be to place them still farther apart. 

E. A. Bonine. 

Lamanda Park, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 


Grade Fruit Before Spreading, or Assort on the 
Tray— Shade As a Factor. 

To the Editor: — As growers are, one by one, giving 
up the old idea of turning the refuse that could not be dis- 
posed of otherwise into dried fruit, and planting with that 
market in view, they are slowly beginning to realize the im- 
portance of puttiog their product in the shape most attract- 
ive to the consumer as well as choosing such varieties as 
will not only yield best percentage, but most desirable 
quality of the cured product. 

A large share have not yet realized that as soon as fruit 
is just dry enough to keep safely, it has more weight and 
more of every other valuable quality than when the curing 
goes on until it is like sun-bleached hay. It seems as 
though the majority of dealers in California products had 
been pursuing a policy of present gain and death to the 
trade. The dried fruit business is no exception when they 
demand that the fruit shall be bone dry to rattle like mar- 
bles and delivered to them in sacks so that they can grade, 
repack, moisten and realize a profit sometimes large, but a 
profit that ought not to be between producer and consumer. 
Now, to dry uniformly and just enough, it is either neces- 
sary to grade fruit before spreading or assort when on the 

With several of the grades a carload of peaches, plums, 
apricots or nectarines can be run through in a few hours 
at a nominal expense. When a peach three inches in di- 
ameter lies side by side with one half that size, we all 
know that the one will rattle when the other is half dry. 
You either dry the small one to death waiting for the other 
to cure or have mouldy fruit by taking up the whole tray in 
time to save the small fruit from injury. 

Again, in prunes, they find it necessary to grade before 
dipping as the smaller the fruit the longer it must remain 
in the dip to cut the skins, so that they will dry. Again, 
in selling fruit, it is a rule of general application that in 
case three sizes are made instead of one, the first is likely 
to bring a fancy price ; the second quite as much as the 
whole would if mixed ; and, whatever you get (or the third, 
is clear gain over what you would have received had the 
whole been mixed. When business is new there are al- 
ways buyers who will not discriminate in quality ; but this 
rule will hold in any good market where goods are rated on 
a fair basis. Again, pitting machinery is steadily coming 
into general use and destined to be greatly improved in the 
near future. All such machinery will work much better 
upon fruit of uniform size, and the common thumb-and- 
finger machine works better on that kind, too. Grading is 
likely to pay at least once in cost of pitting, several times 
in loss by shrinkage, and agMn in quality of product. 

Finish Curing in the Shade — It has been noticed that 
those who pride themselves on the flexible and uniformly 
cured fruit, in which the jelly is nicely retained, are par- 
ticular to stack the trays toward the close of the drying 
process ; also to finish by stirring in the curing room when 
passing through the sweat. 

We very seldom have nights so dry but that fruit is just 
a little better when kept covered, especially when newly 
cured, and it is essential to successful curing that condi- 
tions should be such that it will dry rapidly when first 
spread. Hence it is a practice with the best fruit dryers to 
avoid spreading fruit late in the day. They prefer to keep 
It in the sulphur box over night and spread the first thing 
in the morning. Frank S. Chapin. 


One Grower Tells How to Provide Economical 

To the Editor : — As I am much interested In reading 
all that anyone else writes regarding drying fruit, I thought 
it only fair »o add my mite to your Dried Fruit Edition. 

Trays. — Last year I bought shakes from a box factory 
and made travs 2x3 feet, which I like very much. The 
sides are #xi>£ inches by 3 feet long ; the ends ^xi inch 
by 22 inches ; the bottoms of boards Y% inches thick, 9 
inches wide, 2 feet long. So four make a tray. Cleats are 
used under the ends of the bottom boards inches by 

3 feet. Nails are used long enough to go through the 

July 15, 189S. 



cleats and bottom boards and reach well into the sides. 
The lumber is of pine, and all the inside surfaces are 
dressed- I had the end pieces lower than the sides so that 
when piled there would be an inch space for free circula- 
tion of air and sulphur, and for convenience of getting hold 
of them. I find this size better than larger where there are 
women and girls to do any of the handling. 

Curing Boxes. — Not having a good house for curing the 
dried fruit, 1 made some boxes about io inches deep, 3 feet 
wide and 6 feet long. I put them at convenient points on 
drying ground, and just as soon as fruit is dry enough to 
handle without mussing badly, I dump it into these boxes. 
I let It cure a day or two and then put more on top of it, 
stirring it up with a shovel in the meantime if necessary. 
These boxes affect a saving of trays, and the fruit cures 
more evenly than if left on trays too long. I find each year 
that I can put my fruit into bulk a little less dry than I 
thought prudent the year before, and so am gaining weight. 

Getting Fruit to Drying Ground. — I took the wheels, 
axles and the front iron loot or support of an ordinary 
hand-cart and attached them to a frame, made of scantling, 
6 feet long, 2 feet wide. On this cart we can take with two 
persons about 600 pounds of fruit on the trays into the sul- 
phur box, and from thence to the ground. The first year 
I had no track ; the next year 1 made a track of fence 
boards. We find it a big improvement over carrying out 
fruit by hand. If the ground is free from stones and made 
smooth, a track is hardly necessary ; but my drying ground 
is a stony knoll, and the little pebbles will jolt the cart 
enough to turn the cut fruit topsy-turvy. 

Fruit Should be Ripe Before Cutting.— It makes best 
fruit and weighs heaviest. I sulphur quite heavily, but I 
find that my fruit grown well up on the mountain side is 
more highly colored than that grown in the valley, and I 
can't bleach it out so white ; but have had several persons 
state it was of excellent flavor. Last year I tested 3240 
pounds of green apricots. They made 623 pounds of dry 
fruit which sold for $73.20 net. Counting cost of cutting 
at 20 cents per hundrad pounds of green fruit and the other 
work of drying at one-half cent per pound for the dry fruit, 
makes a total cost of $9 60 ; deducting from selling price, 
leaves $63 6o, or a trifle over $39 per ton. I had been 
offered $27 per ton by a dryer in Napa. 

These figures are not as exact as I hope to have the pres- 
ent season, and amounts are small, but they are close 
enough for me to figure on in future years with larger crops, 
and are very strong in favor of doing my own drying, as 
the distance from town makes hauling green fruit ex- 
pensive, and I keep money in my own and neighbors' chil- 
dren's hands. 

I have not attempted to write fully, but to speak of a few 
points where I have done a little differently from others 
whose work I have seen. 

I am well aware that on large farms there are in use 
fruit trucks or cars to run on well laid tracks ; also that in 
many places larger trays are used where there is plenty of 
help to handle them, but on a small farm, where the farmer 
and his family do most of the work, the small trays are an 
advantage, for oftentimes it is convenient to have the little 
fellows to haul in the empty trays. W. F. Moyer. 

Napa, July 3, 1893. 


Mr. McKevitt Tells What Are the Three 
Requisites in This Branch. 

To the Editor: — The foundation of the fruit business 
is drying, and to make a success of this important branch, 
three things are requisite: 

1. Good fruit. 

2. Good drying facilities. 

3. Close attention to details. 

It is just as important to thin fruit for drying as it is for 
sale to canners or for shipping, and pays just as well in 
proportion. It is an axiom among all intelligent growers 
that it is much less a strain upon the tree to produce a 
crop of fine fruit than of small ones, the great effort and 
drain upon the tree being In the maturing of the seed or 
pit, rather than in the pulpy covering of the pit, which is 
the valuable part to us. It is much easier to handle a crop 
of fine fruit than poor fruit. It can be done with less help, 
less expense and less mental wear and tear. When such a 
product is ready for sale, either green or dried, the increased 
price it will always command, to say nothing of the readi- 
ness with which sales can be effected, are facts so well 
known as to prove conclusively that It pays to thin. 

When to Gather. — Fruit should be gathered for drying 
when it is fully ripe. It is not necessary that it 
should be soft, but It is better to be soft than too green. It 
may be picked by hand or may be shaken from the tree, 
but as cheapness of handling is every day becoming more 
the true factor of profit in our business, the latter method is 
recommended. To do this successfully the grower must 
wait until his trees are plentifully sprinkled over with ripe 
fruit. Then, if the method of the writer is followed, four 
men will take two strong pieces of canvas, each 10 feet 
wide by 20 feet long, and spread them under the tree to be 
operated upon, the edges of the canvas lapping, so that a 
square of 20 feet is carpeted. These men by means of long 
poles with a fork or hook at the end, now fasten to the branches 
of the tree, and by vigorous pulling and shaking, cause 
all the ripe fruit to fall, that which is too green remaining 
on the tree. When the shaking is completed, each man 
seizes the end of his respective piece of canvas, the 
fruit is rolled to the center, and from there into the picking 
boxes which have previously been placed close at hand. 

How to Cut. — The fruit having been put into the boxes, is 
hauled to the cutting shed, going as soon as possible to the 
cutters. It may be objected that shaking bruises and dam- 
ages the fruit, but experience teaches that if it is cut and sul- 
phured soon after, it is impossible to detect any difference. 
The great point is to shake the fruit only as fast as the 
cutters can handle it. The fruit is cut just as it comes, 

without sorting as to size; but should any very green 
peaches be found they are put aside to be cut later. Each 
specimen should be cut clear around, and not broken, or 
the pit "squeezed" out, as is the custom with many work- 
men. The cut should be made lengthwise following edge 
of the pit, so as to show greatest size of the fruit. As fast 
as cut the pieces should be laid flat on the trays, cut sur- 
face up, with the edges of the fruit barely touching. It is 
bad practice to cut a lot of fruit and spread it afterward, 
as this makes second handling necessary and gives it a 
"mussy" appearance. Prices for cutting range here from 
20 to 25 cents per 100 pounds for apricots, 15 to 20 cents 
for freestone peaches, and 25 cents for clingstone peaches. 
Cutters eet their own trays, and place them, when filled, 
in the sulphur box or on the car. 

Sulphuring. — When the box is full, a charge of sulphur 
(about one pound to 50 cubic feet of air space) is ignited 
under the fruit; the door is closed and the time recorded on 
a wooden dial like a clock face, by means of a movable 
finger or pointer. One hour is allowed for bleaching, time 
sufficient to produce a bright article, and not long enough 
to injure in any way the flavor of the product. Fruit 
should be subjected to the sulphur fumes at the earliest 
possible moment after being cut, and the sulphur box 
should be sufficiently tight to prevent the escape of the gas. 

Drying in the Sun. — In the Vacaville district it requires, 
in June, July and August, from three days to a week to dry 
in the sun. When the fruit is sufficiently dry (so dry that 
a handful may be gathered up from the tray, and having 
been pressed together, separate when allowed to fall), trays 
should immediately be stacked, and the fruit taken off as 
soon as possible. When one has but little fruit, stacking 
is not necessary; but with large lots, especially if short of 
help, stacking lengthens the drying process, prevents over- 
drying and gives opportunity to do more pressing work. 

Assorting for Size. — Fruit should be assorted for bright- 
ness on the trays, the dark pieces being put by themselves. 
Assorting for size may be done later and faster by means 
of wire screens made for the purpose. 

In the Fruit House. — After the fruit has been taken from 
the trays, it should be hauled to the fruit house, or, in its 
absence, to some convenient place, and dumped into a 
heap upon the floor. It then should be covered up with a 
good, closely-knit canvas. The canvas is a great protec- 
tion from moths and prevents discoloration, besides keep- 
ing off the dust. If the fruit has been put into the heap 
rather "soft" or "green," it will be necessary to turn it 
by shoveling, once or twice, as its condition seems to re- 
quire. Leaving it here for ten days or two weeks, it will 
have gone through a "sweat," which should put it all into a 
fine, pliable condition, and fit it for sacking or boxing, as 
may be desired. F. B. McKevitt. 

Vacaville, Cal., July 1, 1893. 


Mr. Righter Tells About Prune Practice in De- 
tail—Time to Gather. 

To the Editor: — I accept your invitation to give the 
primary class in fruit drying a few hints as to the practices 
in prune drying which I have found most satisfactory. 

Trays, Size. — Profit by the experience of others and make 
no tray less than 3x8 feet. It costs as much to handle a 
3x6-foot tray as a 3x8-foot tray, while about one-third more 
fruit can be handled by using the larger tray; thus, using a 
3x6 foot tray results in a great and unnecessary loss. 

Material Used. — So near as I can learn, the preference 
is decidedly and wisely in favor of Oregon pine for sides, 
ends and lath and 6-inch sawed redwood shakes. The 
objections to white fir, termed "white wood" bv some, are 
that "it warps badly" and "is short-lived." Split redwood 
shakes also have the fault of warping more than sawed 
redwood. With the exception of the lath, firstclass red- 
wood makes a very good tray — perhaps as good as any. 
The tray frame should be 1x3 inches. The redwood shakes 
should be seasoned before using for the tray, or the fruit 
may be stained where it comes in contact with them. 

How Trays Are Made. — Make a rough table 5x9 feet, 
and as high as convenience in nailing may require. On 
this construct a tray-holding frame in this manner: Fasten 
firmly to the table's top two side-pieces, 2x3 inches and 7 
feet 10 inches long. The inner sides of these pieces should 
be parallel with the side edges of the table and respectively 
11 ji inches from those edges, their ends being respectively 
7 inches from the ends of the table. The distance between 
these pieces is 36X inches. Place two 3-foot end-pieces, 
2x3 inches, the inner sides of each being respectively 5% 
inches from and parallel with the ends of the table, and 
the ends of the end-pieces on a line with the inner sides of 
the side-pieces and 1% inches from the ends of those 
pieces. This completes the outer portion of the tray-hold 
ing frame, the dimensions of which are 36X inches by 8 
feet X inch, being % of an inch larger on both the sides 
and ends than a 3x8- foot tray. Put the tray-frame into 
this incomplete tray-holding frame and nail It together 
with eight 2%"-inch wire nails. The inner portion of this 
tray-holding frame may be made of 2x2-inch material. 
Place the two side-pieces, 7 feet 10 inches long, within % 
of an inch of the inner sides of the tray-frame, and the end- 
pieces the same distance from the ends. Make the end- 
pieces each 15 Inches long, leaving 4 inches unoccupied in 
the middle of the tray-holding frame. 

Fill this four-inch space through the center of the tray- 
holding frame with a piece of timber 2% inches thick, 4 
inches wide and 7 feet 9^ inches long, covering its entire 
upper surface with a strip of sheet iron one-eighth of an 
inch thick. The tray-holding frame is then complete. 
The space to be occupied by the tray-frame is 1 X inches 
wide. It is well to have it that width, as some of the sides 
and ends of trays are more than an inch thick, besides, if 
the space were less the work of putting them in and taking 
them out could not be done so quickly. 

Make a mark in the center of the outside ends of the 

tray-holding frame; this will show just where to place the 
central lath and thus prevent loss of time that would other- 
wise occur. The unoccupied space along the sides and 
ends of the table is Intended for holding nails. Partition 
this space into four apartments, each the full length of 
tray-holding frame, to be occupied by nails of as many 
lengths. The ends will each need one space for nails, 
which should be as near the ends of the central lath as 
possible, as it is to contain the nails used in the ends of 
that lath. Use %-inch clout nails in the central 
lath, except the ends of it; use wire nails there and all 
other places. I think 2^-inch nails for the tray frame; two 
sizes, 1% and 2 inches, for shakes and side lath, are 
large enough. Six nails are required for each six-inch 
shake — two at each end and two in the middle. 

After the tray frame has been nailed together with 2^- 
inch nails, put on the 16 shakes required to cover the bot- 
tom. Fasten these in their places by putting one lyi'mch 
nail at each end of every shake, an inch or so from the 
same edge. These nails are large enough, since they are 
prevented from coming out by the lath being placed over 

Use 2-lnch nails, or a little longer, in putting on the 
side lath. Drive these nails through the side lath, so as to 
pass through the shakes about the same distance from the 
edge as did the ij-inch nails and directly opposite them. 
Next nail the central lath with ij-inch nails at each end, 
taking these nails from a receptacle made as near as possi- 
ble to the place the nails are to be used. 

All the other nails used in the central lath should be 
seven-eighths inch clout nails, driven at a slight or very 
acute angle. If so driven they will clinch themselves on 
striking the strip of sheet iron. That is the object of the 
sheet iron. If not so driven the point may stop when it 
strikes this iron strip and fail to clinch, thus causing a 
waste of time and nails besides rendering the sheet iron 
strip worse than useless. 

When to Gather Fruit. — Fruit should not be gathered 
until it is ripe enough to fall of its own weight, or, at most, 
from the effect of a slight jar. If gathered in this condition, 
fruit being of first-class quality and properly handled sub- 
sequently, a first-class dried fruit will be the result. 

Grading. — Grade the fruit before drying it if the objects 
sought are the greatest quantity and best quality. It is a 
custom with some driers to grade the fruit into two or four 
grades before drying, and after drying regrade it into six or 
seven grades. Grade the fruit before drying It, into six or 
seven grades, the number the trade wants. If this work is 
properly done, no grading after the fruit is cured will, in 
my opinion, equal it. A second grading is, therefore, a 
wholly unnecessary loss. Then grading the fruit before 
drying it costs less than grading it after it is dried. 

Fruit of nearly the same size, condition and quality is 
placed together when put on the trays, and kept so until 
sold. Each grade can be cured as much as required, and 
no more. Then a portion of the prunes on the same tray 
will not be fit to " take up " before another portion has 
reached the half-way point. They will come up as they 
went down — all together— and none of them need be " bone 
dry." I think it is certainly true that overdried fruit has not 
only lost too much in weight, but also too much in quality. 
The best quality of fruit must not be "bone dry." Thus, 
retaining a due proportion of the weight is also adding to 
the quality, and hence to the price. Curing fruit too much 
is therefore a three-edged nonsense — cuts three ways— lops 
off quality, quantity and price. 

As previously stated, I am unable to see how co-opera- 
tive fruit-drying can be satisfactorily conducted without a 
grader. By its aid, each stockholder gets credit for the 
exact grades of fruit that he delivers. The grader is no 
" respecter of persons," and hence promptly and accurately 
decides whether or not " I raise the best fruit in the valley." 
During the whole of last season's work the decision of this 
just judge was not questioned by any of our stockholders. 
It is deaf to all entreaty, and blind to all save unerring 
justice. It treats the millionaire's as well as the poorest 
producer's fruit without fear or favor. We used the Jones 
grader last year and found no fault with it. 

Dipping. — There are several kinds of dipping machines. 
We use the Cunningham without any cause of complaint. 

The strength of the lye experience will soon enable you 
to determine. Begin with about one pound to thirty gal- 
lons of water, changing the quanity as often as the chang- 
ing conditions of the fruit may require. The ripeness and 
quality of the prunes, strength and temperature of the lye 
water, as well as the time the prunes are kept in it, are 
each and all important factors to be considered In dipping 
prunes. Better have an experienced man at the outstart, 
if convenient ; if not, you will soon get the business fully in 

Doing the work properly is not skinning the prunes. 
They are "properly cut," so nearly as I know, when the 
skin of the fruit shows many zigzag hair-like "cuts." These 
will be very prominent early in the season and will serve as 
a guide so long as one is needed. Later on, if anyone 
should presume to give you a " pointer," you would give 
him such a old-settler of a look as would cause his advice to 
" stop short never to go again " in your presence. 

Our dipping machine runs by steam, and can, in a mo- 
ment, be made to move fast, slow, or otherwise, as the fruit 
may require, by shifting a belt from a pulley of one size to 
one of another. The fruit is poured into a hopper, and rolls 
from thence, dropping through steamed-heated scalding-hot 
lye water, on a zinc draper which discharges it into the 
fresh rinsing water on another similar draper, and that de- 
livers the fruit on the trays. To lessen the labor of hand- 
dling the fruit, rollers are placed under the trays end along 
their sides. The weight of the fruit and tray is carried by 
the rollers under the trays, the side rollers only guide the 
trays and prevent their rubbing. The labor of handling 
the trays is thus reduced to the minimum. The fruit spreads 
itself, filling the tray while passing under the discharge. 
This is caused by the tray being at a sufficient angle while 
receiving the fruit to cause the fruit to roll from one side of 
the tray to the other. A continuous line of trays is passing 



July 15, 1893. 

under the discharge while the dipping machine is in oper- 

When Properly Cured.— When are prunes properly 
cured and hence fit to " be taken up ?" This question has 
never been answered in my presence. A certain custom- 
house official will run his hand over a bolt of cloth and say : 
" 'Tis worth so much." If asked how he knows it is worth 
the price named, his reply is, " I know by the feeling." 
You say to him : " These two pieces seem to me to be 
identical; now tell me how do you determine there is a 
difference?" " By feeling. I cannot tell you more defi- 
nitely." Sensation is all there is of it. The water should 
be out of the prunes to the extent that they no longer feel 
watery or mushy — soft, but on moving the flesh of the fruit 
it feels too stiff to indicate the presence of water except in 
a very limited degree. It is still pliable. This is my 
nearest approach to an answer to the foregoing question. 
If travs are in abundant supply, so that the fruit can be 
" stacked up " when half or two-thirds cured, and left so 
until fully cured, I think that is the best method. If trays 
are cheaper than land, have enough of them to cover your 
drying grounds several times. It will enable you to cure a 
large quantity of fruit on a small lot of land and yet do 
the work well. 

In " stacking the trays " to finish curing the fruit, let one 
tray project over one end of the pile and the next tray over 
the opposite end, thus permitting the air to freely circulate 
over the fruit. 

When the fruit has been properly cured, dump it into a 
pile in a close apartment, each grade by itself, and leave it 
there to go through the sweat. Better examine it occa- 
sionally whether you do or do not doubt its having been 
properly cured. Better cure it a little too much than not 
quite enough. F. M. RiGHTER. 

Campbell, Cal., June 27, 1893. 


Mr. Aiken Tells of His New Way of Handling 

To the Editor:— The Rural Press has been my com- 
panion in prune-growing for about 20 years, and I am 
pleased to make a contribution to the " Dried Fruit Edi- 
tion." Under the present management the Press has 
greatly improved, the editorials especially being able and 

Believing my location on the Santa Cruz mountains to be 
well adapted, in soil and climate, to the growth of the 
prune, I began setting them out early in my orchard work, 
and have year by year increased my acreage till I now 
have about ten thousand trees which promise a large crop 
of very fine fruit this year. 

Perforating Instead of Dipping. — Having written on 
prune culture before, I will conrme this article to my ex- 
perience last season with a machine that perforated the 
prunes with needles. The lye-cutting contrivances had be- 
come expensive, troublesome and unsatisfactory to my 
mind, and I was glad to avail myself of the ingenuity of a 
neighbor— a practical prune-grower — who made for me 
a needle machine that promised to do good work. The 
idea was to cut the skin of the prune by passing it over a 
bed of needles with the grader motion. The machine was 
placed on a floor about 12x12 with a roof and open sides 
built near my grader. As a rule, about five tons of prunes 
were gathered and graded each day by 4 P. M. and were 
passed over the needles and put out on drying ground in 
trays by 6 P. M., thus doing a good day's work and saving 
the heating and injury resulting from standing over night. 
Even in boxes in this way ripe fruit can be handled 

Gathering. — My practice in gathering prunes is to pick 
up the first tall of ripe prunes and then in about a week 
gently shake the trees upon canvas, getting only ripe fruit 
that would soon fall. Then in another week or so shake 
again on canvas, and, after that, when the remaining fruit 
is ripe, shake and pick from ground, as too many leaves 
will fall for use of cloth. Four such efforts in about a 
month's time will gather the prunes ripe for drying. 
Growers must bear in mind that green, immature prunes 
will not make a salable, merchantable article of food. The 
grader, of course, removed leaves, etc., so the prunes passed 
clean over needles which perforated them so thoroughly 
that they dropped from the needle board on to the tray 
almost dripping wet, the water bursting out, as it were, 
from every hole. After being out about a week on trays, 
they were brought in, cured and placed in bins to heat for 
at least two weeks, when they were ready to market. It is 
advisable to shovel them over on the floor in bins to more 
evenly cure. 

Time of Curing. — The length of time they must be kept 
out on trays to properly cure so as to keep well depends 
upon the climate. At my elevation, 1500 fee 1 -, and conse- 
quent dry atmosphere, one week is usually sufficient, while 
on the coast, where fogs and damp air prevail, driers are 
used. In closing, I will state briefly the points of ad- 
vantage that needle perforating has over lye-cutting: 

1. It breaks the skin more generally, and consequently 
prunes dry more evenly and in less time. 

2. The prune retains its sugar and fruity substance and 
presents a richer and more glossy appearance than the 
partially lye-cooked skins of other prunes. 

3. It yields a heavier prune, dried, for its size, my crop 
drying substantially two pounds to one. 

4. Buyers and consumers were so well satisfied with my 
last crop, which brought full prices, that they want all I 
will have this year. 

I have no interest in the sale or manufacture of the ma- 
chine, and only write about it because I believe it to be of 
interest and real value to those engaged in drying fruit. 

The Burrell prune machine with grader attachment is on 
exhibition in San Jose by the owners, Messrs. Burrell & 
Doidge, to whom application can be made for further in- 
formation. W. H. Aiken. 


Prunes Can Be Cured in Many Ways, But 
Proper Methods are Scarce. 

To the Editor: — In line with your invitation for an ex- 
pression of opinion or experience in fruit-drying, I should 
like to present a few facts and queries with regard to prune- 
drying for your readers' consideration. We all know that 
prunes may be treated in almost any way and even abused 
to a great extent, and still make a fairly good article of 
commerce, but I am of the opinion that their proper curing 
is as little understood by the generality of prune-growers 
and driers as any subject in fruit-drying. 

It is pretty generally conceded that prunes should be 
dipped in a solution of hot lye preparatory to drying. All 
driers have found this process to be of great advantage in 
most cases, while in others It Is evidently of little use. 
The natural inference would be that either there had been 
some difference in the manner of dipping or in the fruit it- 
self. There are a few points in connection with this phase 
of the subject which, if more generally understood, would, 
I think, throw some light upon it. 

In the first place, the skin of the prune is covered with 
a substance of an oily nature, which makes it almost im- 
pervious to the curing action of the sun, and which is un- 
doubtedly removed by the action of the lye. Now, what is 
this coating ? A fact in connection with this, which I pre- 
sume has not been generally noticed, is that the scum that 
rises to the top of the lye after prunes have been dipped, 
when skimmed off and allowed to settle, is found to be very 
oily and of a highly inflammable, if not explosive, nature. 
Now, is this gummy matter removed from the fruit or is it 
a property of the lye ? What effect would it have on the 
fruit if not skimmed off, but allowed to cover the prunes as 
they are passed through the dirty lye ? Would this cause 
the " puffs " or " frog bellies," as they are known in the 
pruneman's parlance ? 

Again, if prunes are allowed to remain too long in the 
hot lye in our efforts to check or crack the skins, there will 
be a certain portion of them that will show no inclination 
whatever to dry, but will, after lying for days in the sun, 
ferment and then dry after a fashion, but forming an article 
really unfit for food. This condition is especially notice- 
able in silver prunes, and is the source of considerable an- 
noyance and loss to the drier. When examined, such fruit 
is found to be dark under the skin. The question is, 
What causes this condition and how are we to avoid it ? 
Is it caused by dipping in lye that is too hot or too cool ? 

In any case, not more than two-thirds of the fruit is ever 
checked by the lye, those that are not drying equally well 
with those that are, and always better than those that are 
excessively dipped. Now, is it necessary to check t/te 
skins ? 

Another trouble that is sometimes met with in our prunes 
is their sugaring after b'ing packed for a certain length of 
time. Now, may not this be caused by excessive dipping? 
I could tell you in a very few words how I would proceed 
to dry prunes. Most any grower can, and perhaps will, 
tell you that he has raised and cured the best prunes in the 
country, but really I don't think we know much about it. 
Perhaps I am cranky, but cranks have their uses, and we 
may be able to grind out something that will be of use to 
us all. I should like to see this subject treated by Prof. 
Hilgard or some one else competent to tell the whys and 
wherefores of it. W. C. Anderson. 

San Jose, Cal. 

[These comments and inquiries are suggestive and sig- 
nificant. We trust they will prompt to investigation and 
observation. Indirectly, they show that there is plenty of 
chance for the fmit-drier to use brains as well as heat and 
alkali.— Editor ] 


Organization of the Growers at West Side, 
and Workings of a Dryer. 

It is certain that a greater proportion of the California 
fruit product for 1893 will be dried than in any previous 
season; and it may also be cons dered settled that co-oper- 
ative organizations will be a more important factor in hand- 
ling, curing and marketing fruit than ever before. Co-op- 
erative establishments have come to stay. They have 
secured a permanent foothold in California and are des- 
tined to become agents of great profit and usefulness to 
the fruit-growing industry. The example of the Sutter 
county organization has been of vast encouragement and 
value to producers throughout the State, and the recent 
marked success of the West Side, Campbell and other 
Santa Clara county associations is of most important as- 
sistance to others who desire to form similar organizations, 
but who have heretofore encountered among growers a 
spirit of opposition growing out of an unaccountable belief 
that they were not as smart and bright and capable as the 
average middleman, and that they must sell their products 
to him when, how, and at what price the buyer was pleased 
to offer. 

Much has been said and written about the achievements 
of the West Side and Campbell associations in Santa 
Clara county, but no exact description of the manner of 
organization and of their practical operation has yet appeared 
in public print. For the purpose of furnishing an account 
of the methods and every day workings of a model co oper- 
ative organization, a representative of the Rural Press 
last week made a trip to West Side, Santa Clara county. 
The location of the West Side drier is about three miles 
south of the town of Santa Clara, and four miles from San 
Jose, near the Saratoga road, in the heart of a fertile fruit- 
growing district. The association was organized in 1 891 . 
The plant consists of 20 acres of drying ground, upon 
which are also located the various buildings — a warehouse 
with a capacity of 20 carloads of fruit, packing-house and 
boarding-house, besides dipping building and cutting 

sheds; 25,000 trays; the usual appliances and machinery 
used in drying; tracks, trucks, tools, etc., all purchased and 
erected at a cost of $20,000. The patrons and stockholders 
of the association are made up of 80 of the most prominent 
and substantial growers of the Santa Clara valley, nearly 
all recruited from the list of growers immediately contigu- 
ous to the dryer. The association has had two profitable 
seasons, and has entrenched itself so completely in the con- 
fidence of the public that every fruit-raiser, with one or two 
exceptions, in the tributary territory is a patron of the 
establishment or has asked for stock. 

The relations of the management of the association to its 
patrons are very intimate and friendly : but they are, never- 
theless, based on sound business principles. Co-operation 
in its best sense is the cardinal principle of the organiza- 
tion. That is to say, the association is really a pool in 
which the marketing of all products is placed with one 
agent, and the profits or losses for the season are shared in 
common. A balance is struck at the end of the season, 
and the proceeds are distributed pro rata, according to the 
quantity and quality of fruit handled and marketed. 

In accordance with the by laws of the association, stock- 
holders are required to give notice before the season be- 
gins as to whether they will bring their green fruit to the 
drier or whether they desire their dried fruit (many dry 
themselves) to be handled by the association. The follow- 
ing agreement is required to be signed : 


of in the County of Santa Clara, 

Slate of California, do hereby agree with the WEST SIDE FRUIT 
GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 10 deliver to the said Association, at its 
place of business, my crop of drying fruit : 




Silver Prunes, . 




.estimated at 
.estimated at 
.estimated at 
.estimated at 
.estimated at 
.estimated at 

. tons 

at such time as the same shall be suitable for delivery and in good 
merchantable condition whether green or dry. And I further agree 
to accept in consideration for the delivery of said fruits, a sum not ex- 
ceeding seventy five per cent of their market value, as adjudged by 
said Asscciation, on each kind when delivered, and the balance when 
said fruits shall have been sold by said Association, and a final dis- 
tribution of the receipts therefor be mide. 

Witness my hand ihis day of. . 

A. D. 189 

knowledges its obligation in the above agreement on the day and year 
above written, by its Manager. 

It will be observed that in the foregoing agreement the 
association agrees to pay on delivery seventy-five per cent of 
the market value of the crop so delivered ; but it is a sig- 
nificant fact that few or none of the patrons of the estab- 
ment ask for all the advance. Some draw a little before 
the season ends, others prefer to wait until they can secure 
their entire proceeds in a lump sum. In other words, the 
association is a bank where their money is on deposit. 
They know ihey can get it when they want it. They have 
something of the feeling of a foreign depositor in a bank on 
which there was a heavy run. He hastened to the bank 
with his certificate of deposit (the amount was $2) and de- 
manded his money. The cashier promptly handed over 
two dollars. The depositor seemed astonished and ex- 
claimed : "You got 'em, eh? Then I no want 'em. If 
you no got 'em, I want 'em." And shoved back the $2 and 
walked off. 

The method of handling the green fruit after it has been 
received at the drier may be briefly described. When 
green prunes are taken they are first weighed on wagoD- 
scales, then dumped into a hopper and elevated to the 
second story; thence they pass through a grader, which 
separates the fruit into four grades. The prunes fall from 
the grader into bins of a capacity of one ton each; thence 
they pass into a dipper and thence to the automatic 
spreader. By means of trucks the fruit is conveyed to the 
field for sun-drying. After drying the prunes are run 
through a dried-fruit grader and separated into six sizes. 
And the proce-s is complete when the prepared fruit is 
placed in sacks ready for shipment. 

Apricots are taken in through a green-fruit Fleming 
grader, whence in 50-pound boxes they go to the cutters. 
Here they are cut and spread on trays; thence they are 
deposited in the sulphur bath, where they remain from 
one-half to three-quarters of an hour; thence the fruit is 
taken to the field for drying; after drying, the apricots are 
returned to the warehouse and placed in the sweat for two 
or three weeks; thence they are placed in sacks and are 
ready for shipment. 

Peaches are handled in the same way. 

Mr. R. W. Hersey, the manager of the association, has 
invented a process for grading, dipping and spreading 
prunes, by which he expects to save three handlings of the 
fruit. Its capacity will be 200 green tons per day. The 
plans are drawn but the appliance is not yet constructed. 

The West Side drier employs, in the height of the fruit 
season, about 150 persons, of whom three fourths are 
women, girls and boys, who are engaged in packing or 
cutting. They are paid by the piece. The price is not 
yet settled for the season, but it will be from 8 to 10 cents 
per 50-pound box for packing dried prunes. The average 
earned is over $1 per day, though expert packers earn 
$1.50. The work lasts a month. Every convenience is 
afforded for the women and girls and all others, and the 
fruit packing season has come to be regarded in that part of 
country as a time when recreation and work can be profit- 
ably combined. A grove has been leased by Mr. Hersey just 
across the road from the drier, and it will be used as tent 
grounds for those who come to work at packing and want 
to " camp out." The intelligence and character of those 
who engage in this sort of work is of the very highest. 
For instance, Mr. Hersey has just received an application 
for employment from a young woman who is a recent 
graduate of one of California's best-known colleges. She 

July 15, 1898. 


says she and her husband want to learn the fruit business, 
and they propose to go at it in a practical way. 

The West Side drier expects to begin active work on 
apricots July 17th. The last prunes will be received about 
September 20th. It is expected that about 3000 tons of 
green fruit will be handled by the association this year. 
The amount marketed, including fruit dried be the associ- 
ation and by growers themselves, will be about 100 car- 
loads of dried fruit, against 50 carloads two years ago and 
30 carloads last year. The proportion of different fruits 
handled will be about as follows in green tons : 


Prunes 2,000 

Peaches 4 00 

Apricots 300 

Pears, plum 5, etc 300 

Total 3.°°° 

An important function of the manager of the West Side 
Association — in fact, the most important and responsible — 
is the marketing of the output of the drier. To that end it 
is necessary for him to have complete and accurate infor- 
mation as to the condition of the home, eastern and foreign 
markets, the quantity and quality of the output of com- 
petitive districts, domestic and foreign, the history of past 
seasons, the amount of carried over stock in various centers 
of trade, the best methods of handling his own product, 
freight rates, the financial situation, and a variety of other 
information that has much to do with fixing the price and 
influencing the value of his own fruit. To be successful, he 
must have experience and good business sense. 

The West Side Association seems to have been very for- 
tunate in the selection of a manager, judging by the expe- 
rience of the past two seasons. Last year the net prices 
realized to the grower, all expenses paid, were as follows 
per green ton: 

Green Ton. 

Prunes $87 50 

Apricots, Moorparks 50 00 

Apricots, Royal 43 00 

Small Royal and all others 34 00 

Peaches 38 00 

The peaches, it should be stated, were culls, the choice 
fruit having gone to the canners. These prices, it will be 
seen, were above the average realized for the various fruits. 

In the operation of the West Side drier little or no work- 
ing capital has been necessary. It has been found that 
returns from fruit sold amply meet all demands in time to 
pay all running expenses, including requirements of such 
growers as want advances when green fruit has been deliv- 
ered at the drier. Of course, in the beginning it was neces- 
sary to provide certain funds by calling in a fraction of the 
subscription of the capital stock. For instance, subscribers 
to stock were compelled to pay in advance 20 per cent of 
the par value of the stock. But only a small part of the 
total capital stock was issued, so that the actual cash sub- 
scription was very small. 

The East Side Fruit-Growers' Union, in Evergreen dis- 
trict, proposes to organize on the basis of the West Side. 
It has formed a corporation with a capital stock of $100,000, 
divided into 4000 shares at $25 each. But it is designed to 
make the first issue only 500 shares, or one-eighth the total, 
and to require payment ot 20 per cent of the par value of 
each share at the start. So the total par value of the stock 
subscribed will be $12,500 and the cash payment on that 
amount $2500. It has been the experience of the West 
Side Association, and has been and will be of others, that 
little or no trouble is experienced in borrowing what re- 
maining money is necessary in purchasing land, buildings, 
drying appliances, etc. 

The basis of issuance of stock in the West Side Associa- 
tion is two shares of stocd for every five acres of bearing 
fruit or fractional part thereof. But the matter of issuance 
of stock on a modified basis is placed in the discretion of 
the board of directors. 

There are now organizsd in Santa Clara county, or are 
in process of organization, the following fruit associations: 

East Side Fruit Growers' Union Evergreen District 

Be r ryessa Fruit-Growers' Union Berryessa 

Willow Glenn Fruit-Growers' Union Willows 

Campbell's Fruit- Growers' Union Campbell 

Mountain View Fruit-Growers' Union Mountain View 

West Side Fruit Growers' Association West Side 

These will all market through the Santa Clara Fruit Ex- 
change at San Jose. 

So it will be seen that the co-operative movement has 
borne good fruit in Santa Clara county. 


Experience Teaches There is More Profit in 
Drying Than in Selling Green. 

The condition of the market for dried fruits is a matter 
of the greatest consequence to growers who contemplate 
preparing their product in this form ; and a review of the 
situation will be found timely and suggestive. The probabil- 
ities are that California will put forward this season a 
greater quantity of dried fruit than in any previous year in 
its history. The reasons are several : (1) The output of 
drying fruits is heavier than ever before. (2) The can- 
neries will dispose of smaller quantities than for a number 
years. (3) The demand for fresh fruits has not been suffi- 
cient to absorb the usual proportion of the product. Noth- 
ing is left to be done but to dry the fruit or place it green 
on a market already glutted, or allow it to rot in the or- 
chard. It is a fortunate circumstance that conditions in 
California are such as to place no limit upon the oppor- 
tunities for disposing of a heavy fruit yield by curing. 
Fruits which in other States must be marketed in season, 
and which, In the nature of things, can be sold for only a 
part of the year, can in California be translated into per- 
manent form for sale and use during any of twelve months 
of the year. The advantages to the grower who cures his 
green fruit, or who places it in a co-operative or other drier 
to be cured, have been so conspicuously illustrated time 
and time over that it is singular so great a proportion is 

still allowed to be taken out of first hands in its perishable 
form. Too many growers sell green. They want to get 
rid of all responsibility when the fruit is delivered to the 
drier. They sell for what they can get at the time. Fur- 
ther, they sell at the opening of the fruit year, when buyers 
and speculators and other bear influences are hardest at 
work depressing the market, that they may buy low to 
cover some contract already made for future delivery. 
They sell at a time when the volume and quality of the out- 
put of fruit elsewhere is not fully known, and when the 
market is uncertain and its tendency and tone yet to be de- 
veloped. They sell when the chronic cry of over-production 
is at its loudest, and when reports of large crops and 
glutted markets are most numerous and least reliable. 
They sell, in short, when exact knowledge as to real con- 
ditions is hard to obtain, and is, indeed, unobtainable. It 
is the general experience of the past that the price for dried 
fruits advances as the year progresses. This is not the 
uniform history of the dried fruit market, it is true, but it 
can be said with no danger of successful contradiction that 
the time of low prices for dried fruits has been more fre- 
quently just previous to and during the drying season ihan 
at any other time. The lesson has certainly been plain, 
and the moral ought to be obvious. 

Condition of the Market. — The market for dried fruits 
for 1893 has not yet opened up. It is usual at this time of 
year tor brokers to do more or less business in futures — 
selling fruit now, two or three months before it is possible 
to deli ver. But this year speculators and brokers have en- 
countered several obstacles that make business of this kind 
a matter of considerable difficulty. In the first place, buy- 
ers are timid, because of the uncertain financial conditions, 
and doubt as to the quantity of the output. In the second 
place, growers and holders of fruit are not anxious to sell 
at prevailing prices, being convinced that improvement will 
come later in the season. On this basis, it is hard to carry 
on trade. But a broker is bound to do business at any 
price. An Eastern man, say, goes to a buyer and wants 
to sell him a carload of prunes at 6 cents. The buyer 
does not want them. Then the broker asks if he will give 
5>£ cents. " No," responds the buyer. Then the despair- 
ing broker implores him to make some sort of a bid, and 
the buyer perhaps makes a tentative offer of 5 cents. The 
broker telegraphs to his California correspondent that the 
market is in very bad shape, but that he has been able to 
close a deal for a carload of prunes at 5 cents. And he 
wants the carload of prunes, or the contract closed for the 
carload. He gets his 1% cents commission, has taken no 
risk and carries on business at any price before prunes are 
on the market. He had none in the first place. Such in- 
fluences as these do much to demoralize and break the 
market, and have in the past been at least partly responsi- 
ble for low prices at the beginning of the season, when con- 
ditions really warranted transactions on a higher basis. If 
growers were to go into co-operative movements and hold 
their fruit from sale until it was ready for market, they 
would do much to prevent the year starting out on a spec- 
ulative basis. Futures would be discouraged and a harm- 
ful element removed. 

Prunes — A most important factor in determining the 
price ot dried prunes is the quantity and quality of the 
French crop, the leading and almost the sole competitor of 
California and Pacific Coast prunes. All reports agree 
that in quantity tne French crop will be heavy, and much 
of the dried product will seek a market in the United States. 
But its quality is likely to be inferior. Severe and continu- 
ous drouth has prevailed in France, and the fruit will 
probably be poorly developed. French prunes are now 
offered in New York at 6' / 4@,7c, freight and duty paid. 
The duty is 2c per pound, and the freight about %c. This 
would leave the grower from $%@\%c, from which he 
must pay his commission, drying and other charges. For 
the week ending June 30th we find in a New York fruit 
journal quotations with a little wider range than we have 
indicated: Prunes, foreign, sH@7 'Ac; California, 9>£@ 
•3^c. The freight from California to Eastern terminal 
points is $1.40 per 100, or 1.4c per pound. Deducting the 
freight and reasonable commission charges from these quo- 
tations, it would seem that at least 6 cents per pound is not 
too much for California growers to expect even at this 

Conditions for this year appear to be much the same as 
in 1 89 1. The French output was then large, and so was 
the Pacific Coast crop. Growers in the Santa Clara valley 
who sold early received 5 cents net per lb. As soon as a 
good share of the crop had passed out of first hands, the 
price advanced to 6@6j4 cents, and those who held over 
until toward the close of the season got 6 to 8 cents. 

One more factor that must be taken into consideration is 
the general fruit output both at home and in the East. All 
fruits are more or less competitors with one another. Dried 
apples, for instance, are strong rivals of prunes. New 
York and Ohio and the Middle West generally dry many 
apples. We have as yet received no reliable information 
as to the probable ou'.put of the important producing dis- 
tricts, but It is likely to be considerable. Reports from the 
East and Middle West are generally of large production in 
nearly all lines. 

The dried-prune output of California for 1893 will be over 
30,000,000 pounds — an excess of 5,000,000 to 8,000,000 over 
any previous crop. Oregon and Washington will also yield 
heavily, perhaps 6,000,000 dried pounds. There are no 
other important districts in the United States. As at least 
a partial offset to the larger production over 1891 (the crop 
of 1892 was below average and should be left out of con- 
sideration), we have the advantage of two years' increase 
in population, better advertising and a generally increasing 
knowledge that the California prune is better than the 

A third factor of some importance is the possibility that 
lower freight rates will prevail than in past seasons. 
Prunes can be shipped very cheaply by way of Panama, 
and many tons will no doubt seek an Eastern market 
through this outlet. The tendency will be to compel re- 
duction of railroad rates. As it is now, the duty and freight 
on the French prune are almost offset by our freight 

charges across the continent, and compel our product to 
enter the Eastern market on almost an equal footing with 
the foreign. 

The financial situation also has an important influence; 
but expectation that the monetary atmosphere will be 
cleared by fall is, we think, justified. With the market in 
formative shape, it seems unwise to sell at this time. 

Apricots. — The general glut of fruit, the financial strin- 
gency and the absence of the cannery factor tend to hold 
prices down to a level that conditions would not appear to 
justify otherwise. The shortage of the apricot yield is very 
material, and growers have naturally expected a heavy de- 
mand for this fruit. California is practically the only pro- 
ducer of apricots in the United States. The foreign prod- 
uct does not seek a market here. The asking price per 
dried pound at San Jose is 9 cents, but transactions are few. 

Peaches. — The situation in this line of fruit is exceedingly 
uncertain. Besides the general influences which now con- 
spire to depress all fruits, the market opens up with heavy 
stocks of canned peaches carried over. The competition 
in eastern districts is heavy, and the production will be 
large. The New Jersey and Delaware yield will, accord- 
ing to late advices, not be so enormous as expected some 
time since, but it will still exceed the large crop of 1891. 
It is true that peaches are not dried in the East or South 
as they are in California, but in Georgia and other southern 
districts, nevertheless, considerable quantities of the fruit 
are disposed of in this manner. Still, there is no doubt 
that the safest and most profitable way to dispose of a great 
quantity of the California product is by drying. There is 
little prospect that canners will demand large quantities, 
and the retail green fruit market is pretty heavily burdened. 
Dried peaches are held now at 8 cents, with no sales. 


A Complete Review of the Methods Practiced 
in the Sacramento Valley. 

[Reprinted by request from the special fruit-drying edition of th 
Rtjral Press, Aug. 27, 1892.] 

To the Editor: — Before fruit can be dried it must be 
gathered. In gathering fruit when the whole crop is to be 
dried, it is many times advisable to shake the fruit off the 
tree instead of picking it. On the average, it costs about 
one-half as much to shake the fruit off as to pick it. One 
advantage in shaking fruit lies in the fact that only that 
which is ripe will, as a rule, fall to the ground; and, above 
all things, in drying fruit of all kinds, be sure that it is 
thoroughly ripe. Green fruit will only dry into chips, hard 
and badly colored, while even overripe fruit will much of «it 
make a good dried article. If it will hold its shape when 
cut and not run on the tray, it is not too ripe. Of course 
it is not necessary, and no one should leave fruit on the 
tree until it will not handle nicely or the skin will break too 

If it is decided to shake the fruit from the tree, a canvas 
should be prepared, from 16 to 20 feet square, according to 
the size of the tree, and one seam in the middle sewed only 
half-wav, so as to allow to be spread on each side of the 
tree. The trees must not be shaken too hard, for fear of 
getting some that is not entirely ripe. I have known or- 
chardists to gather fruit in this manner for 75 cents a ton, 
while the average cost of picking is a little more than $2. 
The only objection to shaking the fruit off the tree, and 
that is slight, is that it necessitates more prompt handling 
by the cutters. It cannot stand stacked up in boxes for two 
or three days, as each bruise will then develop into a black 
spot which will show when the fruit is dried. 

Culling Fruit for the Drier. — There is a tendency 
among growers to try to gather and dry everything, no mat- 
ter how small or inferior it may be. If growers would only 
learn that fruit is excellent food for hogs, and would thus 
dispose of some of their inferior stuff, it would be much 
better. The writer has frequently bought fruit at prices 
which did not pay wages to the grower for cutting and 
handling it, to say nothing about anything for the fresh 
product, besides injuring the reputation of the producer, 
the section in which it was grown, and the State, as well as 
every dealer who touched. Cull out the little, hard, poor 
stuff and do not cut it. Stop the expense at once. It is 
worthless; do not spend any good money on it. It dries 
up into almost nothing, and the weight will never be missed 
if you leave it out. If you cut it and put it with your good 
fruit, the buyer will see it, and will always imagine, when 
he sees one piece, that there is ten times as much poor as 
there really is, and then the price goes off. This grading 
can best be done when the fruit is picked or shaken from 
the tree. Instruct your men what to take, and see that the 
other is thrown out. If it is not worth while to try to feed 
it to hogs, the best place for it is on the ground under the 

Cutting. — This is a very simple process and requires but 
little watching. The grower must watch that all the fruit is 
cut clean around, and each half separated before it is put 
on the tray. In this way the fruit will have a clean, neat 
appearance that will be lost if the fruit is cut part way and 
pulled apart the remainder. The cost of cutting varies 
with the size of the fruit. It varies from $5 for smaller 
fruits, such as apricots and plums, down to $3 for large 
peaches. In large orchards it may be best to grade 
fruit before cutting, but this is hardly practicable in small 
orchards and had best not be attempted. In spreading 
fruit on the tray, of course every one knows it should be 
placed with the cut side up and as close together as possi- 
ble without getting one piece on top of another. 

Trays. — The standard tray throughout the State is made 
2x3 feet in size. The best trays are made of thoroughly 
seasoned pine sawed one half inch thick and surfaced on 
one side. I think those made of three eight inch boards 
the best. The boards are nailed on a cleat, ixij inch, two 
feet long. Use wire nails long enough to clinch on the bot- 
tom of the cleat. Put three nails In the end of each board. 
Don't try to clinch the nails when you drive them by put- 
ting an iron under the cleat, but turn the tray over and 



July 15, 1898. 

clinch carefully. Remember that your trays will see lots 
of hard usage and will need to be as strong as possible. 
Don't buy trays that are not standard size. You may want 
to loan them to your neighbor and then they probably 
would not fit his bleacher. In making trays, if the lumber 
is quite well-seasoned, don't crowd the boards too close. 
There wants to be a crack between each board. This 
crack will soon develop of itself, unless the lumber is un- 
usually well seasoned. 

Sulphuring or Bleaching. — In regard to this question 
there has been much discussion. Some able writers on the 
subject condemn it. One of the best known and most re- 
spected scientists says it should not be done. However, 
with all due respect to these persons, we must say that the 
growers of California fruits are not in the business for 
pleasure. As business men they must conduct their af- 
fairs so as to be successful. II they offer goods in the mar- 
ket for sale they must have what the buyers want and are 
willing to pay for. The buyer says that the goods must be 
bright, and every year he seems to want them a little 
brighter than the year before. If they want our fruit light- 
colored and we can make it so by such a simple method as 
sulphuring, we have no reason to complain. If they want 
it black, why we can developed some easy, simple, harm- 
less method of making it black. This may not be " edu- 
cating people to know and enjoy the rich, Iruity flavor of 
natural fruit," but it is common sense and gocd business. 
We can afford to let scientists discuss the effect of the sul- 
phur fumes as being deleterious to health, but we cannot 
afford to sell dried peaches for five cents a pound that we 
might by bleaching get ten cents for. The best bleachers 
are now made so that they will hold a truckload of fruit, 
truck and all. They are made about four feet wide by six 
long and seven high. Each end is made to open out, 
usually hinged on the top and raised by a weight on a rope 
passing over a pulley. If the bleacher is thus made, the 
handling of trays in and out of the bleacher is avoided and 
there is some saving in labor. Any kind of a four-wheeled 
truck or car can be used, so that it is wide enough to hold 
a tray, i. e., three feet, and long enough for two piles, or 
four feet. From 30 to 40 trays can be put on a car. The 
car or truck is run into the bleacher, sulphured, then run to 
the drying ground and the trays scattered out. If much 
iruit is being handled, it will be necessary to have several 
cars. For small orchards it is less expensive and almost 
as good to use the old-fashioned bleacher, which is made 
so as to receive and hold the trays in place. These are 
three feet one-half inch wide, four feet eight inches long 
and six or seven feet high, measurement clear on the in- 
side. The frame is made on the outside and it is then cov- 
ered with flooring on the inside, so as to have a smooth, 
light surface on three sides and the top, one end being left 
for the door, which can be arranged in any way to suit. 
The bottom may as well be left open. Strips an inch square 
and four feet eight inches long are then nailed on the sides 
of the bleacher, making slides or cleats on which to put the 
trays. These should be three and one-half inches apart, 
so as to allow the lumes of the sulphur to circulate through- 
out the whole of the fruit. These cleats should not be run 
closer to the ground than about 18 inches, which will give 
room for about 30 trays in a bleacher six feet high. 

In putting the trays on the cleats, care should be taken 
that a space is left between the two trays that are on the 
same cleat, and also between the end of the bleacher and 
the tray. If the bleacher is made as above stated, four 
feet eight inches long, there will be nearly three inches 
space. The fumes of the sulphur are obtained by burning 
it in any convenient way in an old iron dish, which is sunk 
slightly in the ground inside but near one edge of the bot- 
tom of the bleacher. A very slight draft may be allowed. 

The length of time which fruit is to be sulphured is 
usually stated at 30 minutes. Many growers, however, 
leave the fruit in the fumes a longer time. There appears 
to be a difference in the different varieties of fruit, and per- 
haps a difference also in the soil or amount of moisture in 
the fruit, that bas something to do with the effect of the 
sulphur on the fruit. Peaches like Susquehanna or Muir, 
that are naturally bright yellow in color, do not need as 
much as others which are darker and thicker in their ap- 
pearance. All these minor points can best be learned by 
experience. It will pay every one to try a little longer time 
than 30 minutes, and if better results are obtained by one 
hour than less, why, use more time. As to the kind of sul- 
phur to be used, only the pure, sublimed article should 
be tolerated. Sublimed sulphur is at least supposed to 
contain nothing but sulphur, while ordinary ground sulphur 
contains much foreign matter — in fact, everything that 
comes with it as it is scraped up naturally where deposited, 
the process of manufacturing being nothing more than pul- 
verizing, and the clavs and other minerals may produce 
something in their fumes that would be injurious. We 
would caution growers strongly against the use of common 
kinds of cheap ground sulphur. The cost of a good article 
is so slight that no one need think of that. The amount to 
be used is about one and one-half pounds for a bleacher 
full of fruit. See that the bleacher is entirely filled with 
good strong fumes. 

Taking up Fruit. — No time can be stated for drying, 
as it depends entirely on the weather. It is dry enough to 
take from the tray when the juice cannot easily be squeezed 
out of it. Never allow fruit to get dry so that it will rattle. 
It must be leathery and tough. A mass of it in a sack 
should feel soft and pliable. It should always be taken up 
in the middle of the day — the hottest part. Eggs of Insects, 
if any have been laid during the preceding evening or 
morning, will then have been killed by the heat. 

When emptying the fruit from the trays, it is best to cull 
out all pieces that have not made good dried fruit. All 
that is too dark, or any small or green fruit, should then be 
thrown out. The fruit is all spread out before you and it is 
a very easy matter to take out a few poor pieces. 

As soon as the fruit is taken from the tray, it should be 
put at once in a close, tight room, merely dumping it on 
the floor. This room should have no ventilation, as by 
this means the rich, fruity flavor is much better retained. 
T t is better also if the room can be kept dark. It goes with- 

out saying that no insect life must be allowed in this room. 
This fruit on the floor should now be shoveled over once 
in two days, so as to allow fresh air to strike it, else some 
pieces that were rather green and soft may mold. As it 
is put in fresh, that part may be kept somewhat back from 
the rest, and, as it cures, it is piled deeper and deeper and 
requires less and less frequent shoveling. 

This after process of curing fruit is very important, and 
the grower's success depends very much on how he ma- 
nipulates his fruit after it comes from the tray. It is owing 
to the difference in this respect that makes so much differ- 
ence in estimates of the number of pounds of green fruit re- 
quired for a pound of dried fruit. One man who under- 
stands his business can take 5* pounds of Muir peaches 
and make a pound of extra choice dried, while another 
takes 8 pounds to make a pound of common dried fruit. If 
you will ponder on these figures you will find a vast differ- 
ence in the results in dollars. 

If fruit once gets too dry it is a rather risky thing to try 
wetting it. You may make it work successfully, but it is 
doubtful. The best way is to keep the natural juice in the 
fruit, all that you can, and have your fruit safe to keep. 

Packing. — There is little call at present for fruit packed 
in boxes, except for direct trade with the Rocky mountain 
States and some fancy trade East. The standard boxes 
are 25 and 50 pounds. In packing, line the box with 
white paper and face on a sheet of oiled paper. Face the 
box with nice, bright, average-sized pieces, packed in rows 
face or pit side down. This, the top of the box, will be 
filled first, and then the box filled and pressed down and 
the bottom nailed on. There are various kinds of screw 
and lever presses, any of which are good. 

The package in which the bulk of the crop of California 
fruit will go to the market is the white cotton sack. Use 
sacks that are heavy enough. There was much complaint 
last season in regard to light-weight sacks; many receivers 
say that they arrived torn and damaged. The difference in 
price is only one cent, and claims for loss will frequently 
amount to much more than that. 

Marketing. — In marketing dried fruit, as in all other 
products, each one must be his own judge of what is most 
advisable. We shall only observe that, judging by the past, 
in seasons of high prices the freesellers have been the lucky 
ones; that sales previous to or about the time when the 
goods were ready to deliver, made most money. In sea- 
sons of low prices, those who were able to and did hold 
until very late in the season, until almost the next year, got 
the best returns. Selling is something, however, that each 
one knows best about for himself, at least he thinks so. 
Yuba City, Cal. C. E. Williams. 


Several Ways to Economize and Expedite 
Work of Drying Yard. 

To the Editor : — In a recently published article 
Byron Jackson tells how his attention has been called to 
the idea that railway tracks and switches and the necessity 
of often carrying trays long distances by hand can be dis- 
pensed with. He proposes to make a sulphur-box out of a 
goose-necked truck with good springs by covering it with 
a suitable platform and a top of painted or enameled 
canvas. This he would haul to the part of the yard where 
the fruit was to be spread. 

Suggestions for Further Improvement. — As the goose- 
necked truck is somewhat expensive and many would be 
required on large farms if one was to be used for each 
sulphur-box, suppose we smoothe the ground in vicinity of 
cutting shed and drying yard so that no springs will be 
needed and then use the common three-wheeled raisin 
truck that is so convenient and cheap and used in every 
vineyard in the San Joaquin valley. By using an extra 
platform of the size needed for the sulphur-box and mak- 
ing the canvas top detachable, the trays can be loaded on 
the platform beforehand so as to dispense with the cost 
and trouble of slides. If it is desired to sulphur at one 
particular place, the canvas top could be fastened by a 
pulley to a derrick so as to be easily lowered or raised 
after the car of trays was in place. A hole in the bottom 
of the false platform would permit pipes trom a sulphur 
stove to serve several boxes at once if necessary. 

If it is best to sulphur in the yard where the fruit was to 
be spread, the extra platform could be equipped with a 
suitable kettle and pipe to burn the sulphur without 
danger of setting fire. The canvas top could be managed 
by the two men who were spreading trays. 

To Avoid the Necessity of Many Trucks. — One of 
Senator Langford's sons arranged a very simple device for 
this purpose. The device for unloading or loading a stack 
of trays is simply two scantlings with hinged supports set 
just far enough apart to clear the truck and catch the lower 
tray, or false platform, and high enough to raise the load 
an inch or two from the truck when standing erect. When 
ready to receive a load they are dropped back at an angle, 
the supports resting against a stop so as to bring the 
scantlings a little lower than the platform of the truck. 
As the load of trays reaches the farther end of the 
scantling, the corners strike bumpers and the momentum 
of the load carries the scantlings with their hinged sup- 
ports past the vertical point against a stop, and you draw 
out the truck and leave the load all ready to be reloaded 
on the truck by simply running it back again when you get 
ready and pulling the stack of trays hard enough to carry 
the support back over the center again. With a dozen set 
of these limber- jointed wooden horses a man with one 
horse and truck could handle the work of quite a large 
establishment. Two or three could be standing at the 
cutting shed to pile trays on and others could be easily 
moved from place to place as needed in the drying yard. 

Any one can see by a moment's figuring that the painted 
or enameled canvas sulphur-box would be cheaper, neater 
and lighter than wood, and also that it is a great saving to 
dispense with the expense of tracks and necessity of 
carrying a part of the trays a considerable distance by 
hand. Frank S. Chapin. I 


State Horticultural Society. 

Prof. E. W. Hilgard, director of the agricultural experi- 
ment stations of California, at the last meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society, gave a most interesting review of his 
visit to Europe. It was not a formal address, but simply 
an informal talk, and it brought out many things the mem- 
bers of the society were anxious to learn. The professor 
talked mostly about agriculture and horticulture in Europe, 
and particularly in Germany, and told about the organiza- 
tion and methods of agricultural societies, colleges and 
experiment stations. In part the professor said: 

" It was just forty years since I had had a good view of 
the old country. I left there at a time of revolution and 
readjustment of things commercial and political. I was 
struck by the great progress made in almost every branch 
of industry, particularly in manufactures. The evidence of 
the thrift and prosperity of Europe, and especially in 
France and Germany, was the absence of beggars, who 
used to obtrude themselves very conspicuously upon the 

" I first went to Bremen, then to Heidelberg, to Switzer- 
land, to Munich (where I stayed six weeks), and to Berlin 
(three months); thence to Dresden, to Paris, London, Liver- 
pool, to New York, Chicago, and home. That was my 

"The agricultural and horticultural societies of Europe 
are organized on much the same lines as in America. At 
the head of such organizations in Germany is the German 
Agricultural Society, which holds annual (sometimes semi- 
annual) meetings, in the various leading cities of the 
empire. Delegates are elected to the parent society from 
distant societies. These latter organizations are under the 
same regulations and are supported in a way similar to our 
district societies. They hold district fairs, but they have no 
racing. These district organizations are the direct sup- 
porters of most of the German experiment stations. These 
institutions are largely local In their purposes and work, in 
that they direct their investigations to matters in which the 
adjacent country is immediately interested. The interest 
of the public in the result of their experiments is very lively. 
In Germany the soil is exhausted, and it is of the utmost 
importance for farmers to know what to do, and to have 
intelligent, scientific direction as to what can' best be pro- 
duced. Despite the poverty of soil, and largely because of 
these experiment stations, they are able to raise good 
crops. There is generally a change of crop every three or 
four years, including one fallow. That shows what good 
cultivation, management and husbandry will do. General 
interest in agricultural affairs is kept up by migratory meet- 
ings, and lectures corresponding to our farmers' institutes. 

" Agricultural colleges labor under exactly the same dif- 
ficulties that we do here. Out of 130 students at one 
of the schools, an analysis of the attendance showed that 
there were, besides the straight agricultural studies, students 
of agricultural engineering, drainage, road making, and, 
most of all, of forestry. The latter pursuit attracts the greater 
number because of the certainty of government employ- 
ment. The renewal and preservation of forests in Ger- 
many is an important subject. 

"The tendency in Europe is to concentration of prop- 
erties, rather than subdivision, as in this country. In 
Northern Europe immigration has greatly decimated the 
population, and agriculture has become unprofitable to the 
small proprietors. Fertilizers cost too much, and other 
economical appliances can be used best only on a large 
scale. Going to the cities there is even more common than 
here. It is a very serious problem how to keep the boys 
on the farm. It is a frequent subject of discussion in agri- 
cultural meetings. At Berlin I heard a proposition advo- 
cated to prevent the free movement of labor from one part 
of the empire to another. 

"In my conversations with the directors of experiment 
stations, I found that we know a good deal more about 
agricultural work in Europe than they do about work in 
America. Still they had much to say about our organiza- 
tion, and commented on the fact that we have much 
elementary work to do, while theirs is strictly scientific. 
The reason is that we have much to learn here to adapt 
knowledge to new things and conditions. Such matters are 
already settled there. 

"I found that very little w 3 s known of America or Cali- 
fornia. The average German looks at California through 
the eyes of Bret Harte and Mark Twain. They think we 
are still in the pistol and lynching period. At one of my 
numerous lectures I brought this matter out, and I had to 
repeat it time after time. I found pretty much the same 
state of things in Paris. We don't let our light shine 
enough. People are unwilling to believe what is said. We 
should by some means give people abroad a chance to 
know what we are and what we have. Part of this feeling 
and ignorance is due to government influence. The news- 
papers there invariably class the United States as a part of 
America with Chile, Uruguay, etc. In England matters 
are different. The English know us and like us. 

" In London our fruit importations of last year made a 
good impression, though there is a general complaint that 
California fruit lacks flavor. The reason Is, of course, the 
early picking. I do not see why we cannot ship fruits to 
Paris as well as to London, and also to Berlin, where at 
Christmas I paid fifty cents apiece for pears and peaches. 
There ought also to be a good market in Europe for our 
dried fruits, though it will have to be developed. 

" In London I was struck with the carelessness gener- 
ally with which agriculture is regarded, People seem to 
think they have to boy their food elsewhere anyway, and 
it don't make much difference what happens to the En- 
glish farmer." 

In the course and at the conclusion of Prof. Hilgard's 
remarks, he was warmly applauded. It was divided, as 
one result of the address, to send samples of California 
dried fruits to Berlin, and other prominent points, that 

July 15, 1898. 


Germany might know exactly what is to be secured here. 
The State Board of Trade will bear the expense. 

Prof. Allen, of Santa Clara County, who has just re- 
turned from a long stay at the World's Fair, told the so- 
ciety a few things that aroused much enthusiasm. " I 
want to tell you " said the professor " that in mass and 
general appearance the California exhibit far exceeds that 
of any other State or country. Let newspapers criticise 
how they will, California has " got there " in splendid 
style. I heard it everywhere, on the streets, in the cars, 
sidewalks, and wherever I went. Our fruit exhibit is great. 
Florida makes no comparison with our citrus display. 
There are some small foreign displays that beat us in deli- 
cacy and finish. Of preparation, but not in quality. Our 
lemons are better than the Sicily. I understand California 
has already been given first premium on lemons, and the 
chief of the award committee is an Italian, too. Of fruits 
in fluid, New Jersey only can be compared to us. They 
certainly make a fine display in some lines. But the 
quantity is small. In dried fruits there is a vast difference 
in the manner in which our fruit is presented. Oregon and 
Washington have fine fruit displays, but they are not pre- 
sented so well as ours. They do not know so well as we 
how to handle them, both as to color and appearance. 
Santa Clara has, I think, the finest of the county exhibits." 

The subject of discussion, "Summer Irrigation of De- 
ciduous Orchards," was taken up and considered some- 
what briefly, being engaged in by Messrs. Hilgard, Rum- 
sey, Lelong, Brainard, Shinn and others. The result of 
the whole was very well summed up by Professor Hilgard, 
who said it was very bad to give a general rule for summer 
irrigation. Much depends on the local circumstances. 
Fruit matured on dry soil is firmer and sweeter than in 
irrigated. But if the fruit falls short of a good marketable 
appearance, then it is well to summer-irrigate, but cauti- 
ously, and with great regard to the temperature of the 
water. Great care especially must be used with artesian 
water. The professor had once been inclined to think 
irrigation not desirable in the foothills, but he had modified 
his opinion considerably. Moderate irrigation may be de- 
sirable. The fruit becomes larger and better in appear- 

Mr. J. C. Shinn spoke of the necessity of grading land 
before planting, where irrigation was used. Where land is 
uneven, it is impossible to irrigate so that one portion of 
the orchard will not get more water than another. In re- 
gard to the choice of summer or winter irrigation, he de- 
clared that in shallow soil the only possible time is in 
summer. Mr. Shinn recommend two periods — before the 
fruit is set, and after it hardens. 

The same subject will be discussed at the July meeting. 

Dried Fruit and Green. 

To the Editor : — Mr. Adams published a very valu- 
able table in the Rural Press of June 24th. I found 
some errors and wrote to Mr. Adams, who replied and con- 
fessed error and asked me to write the corrections as he 
had no time. As the errors in the first line involved $3 to 
$4 per ton, it is a matter of moment to have the table cor- 
rect. I send the corrected table. E. W. Maslin. 

San Francisco, July 1, 1893. 


green to 
make one 
pound dry. 

Cost of dryiDg per 

Equivalent net prices per cen- 
tal of dried, compared with 
prices per gTeen tun, on 
basis of shrinkage of 1891. 



$30 00 S35 00 $10 Of 

$45 00 $50 00 



2 84 




2 cts. 
J cts. 
1J cts. 



$ 9 87 $11 19 $12 50 
11 37 12 941 14 SO 
9 75 11 12 12 50 
9 00; 10 25 11 50 
4 56 5 19 5 83 

$15 81 $15 12 
1 06 17 62 
13 87 15 25 
12 75 14 00 
6 46 7 10 

(5he K IEkE) - 

Pioneer Wheat Growing in the Upper San Joaquin. 

Since wheat growing in the San Joaquin, south of Stan- 
islaus has attained such vast proportions that Tulare county 
is in some years the banner wheat county of the State, 
much interest pertains to the early enterprise which carried 
wheat growing into that great arid region which was once 
considered worthless, but is now a productive empire in it- 
self. The death of Capt. A. Y. Easterby recently in Napa 
valley has induced a writer for the Chronicle to review his 
connection with pioneer agriculture in Fresno county. The 
statements will interest all, and be of especial moment to 
the new home makers in the region indicated. 

Capt. Easterby always claimed to have been the first to 
grow wheat in the southern part of the valley, but this is 
disputed by a year by the Tennessee colony, which located 
on the San Joaquin river, where the town of Borden has 
since grown up, and by M. J. Church, who is known as the 
father of the irrigation system of California. Church 
worked for Easterby, and put out his first crop. It is cer- 
tain that Easterby acted entirely on his own motion, and 
without knowledge that any previous effort in that direction 
had been made. He has made a very good case for him- 
self at any rate. 

In the early sixties what is now Fresno county was a 
desolate and forbidding region. It was sparsely populated, 
only a few adventurous spirits having drifted there away 
from Millerton and old Fort Miller, on the Upper San 
Joaquin, where gold mining was the chief occupation. 
Along the foothills a few persons were raising cattle, but 
farming was unknown. It was along about 1862 or 1863 
that W. T. Chapman and Isaac Friedlander of this city 
purchased from the United States Land Office vast tracts 
of land in the San Joaquin valley. 

In 1868 the San Joaquin Valley Land Association, con- 

sisting mainly of German merchants of San Francisco, 
purchased from Chapman and Friedlander 80,000 acres in 
Fresno county, they retaining 20,000 acres. Capt. 
Easterby, who had been a seafaring man, the owner of 
many vessels and largely engaged in grain buying, was 
asked to join the association, and subscribed for about 5000 
acres, for which he paid $1.80 an acre. 

In conversation with the writer, Captain Easterby several 
years ago said that shortly after the purchase had been per- 
fected he met Messrs. Eggers and Basse, two members of 
the association, one day, when he was asked, " What shall 
we now do with the land?" 

" I replied, ' sell it, of course,'" added the captain. "We 
had paid only $1.80 an acre for the land, and our highest 
aspiration was then to sell it for $5. Since then I have 
seen $500 and even $1000 an acre paid for some of this 
very land." 

There were no buyers of land in that valley at that time. 
Land was a drug in the market. It was suggested by Mr. 
Eggers, now one of the great vineyardists of the county, 
that wheat be tried. " I had never been in the valley," said 
Easterby, "and had not the remotest idea of the country. I 
told them, however, that I had just given a Napa man 
named Church permission to drive down his sheep, which 
were starving in Napa county for want of pasture, and sug- 
gested that some seed be sent him, and that he would un- 
doubtedly put it in for us. To this they demurred, but said 
that if I would try the experiment myself I might seggre- 
gate part of my land, and the trustees, Messrs. Chapman, 
Roeding and Ganssen, would be instructed to convey to 
me the tract I might select." 

This induced Captain Easterby to take a trip to look at 
his purchase. It was no slight undertaking to go down 
into the center of the San Joaquin valley. The Southern 
Pacific road had not then been projected beyond Stockton. 
The coast division had its southern terminus at Gilroy. 

In going to his new possessions, then, Captain Easterby 
went to Gilroy by train, and thence went by Visalia stage 
over the Pacheco pass to Firebaughs on the San Joaquin. 
There Huffman was then conducting a ferry, and he was 
induced to drive the captain, on his mission of creating a 
new empire, up the south side of the San Joaquin river. 
After a two-days journey they found Church's sheep camp. 

Alfilaria grew knee deep and the sunflowers were ten feet 
high on this tract. He concluded that soil that was so 
rich would certainly grow wheat. In this, Church, who 
was a practical farmer, concurred. 

Easterby engaged Church then and a small experimental 
crop was put in. This was in March, 1869. The seed 
wheat was obtained from a man named McBride, who had 
raised it near Millerton. The wheat came up very nicely, 
but when the moisture had been absorbed it died out in the 
main, and flying bands of wild horses and cattle, then plen- 
tiful in the valley, finished up what had escaped the heat. 
Captain Easterby's place was known as the " Banner Farm," 
because he had patriotically hoisted on a staff erected over 
the barn on July 4, 1872, the first American ensign that had 
floated on those plains, and young people who had never 
seen the flag came from far and near to look at it. Later 
it was called the Easterby rancho. 

With the failure of his first crops he bethought him of ir- 
rigation, the practice of which he had observed on the 
Mediterranean and in India. He consulted and counseled 
with John Bensley, who originated the Bensley Water 
Works, now the Spring Valley, in this city. Benseley then 
had a scheme to take water out of Lake Tulare, and Easter- 
by always contended that Bensley was the real father of ir- 
rigation in this State. 

About this time Chapman, Friedlander, Ralston, Lux 
and J. Mora Moss were organizing their West Side canal. 
Breneton was their engineer. Chapman had the Borden 
canal constructed about the same time. Easterby bought 
the Sweem ditch, the mill having been attached for $1800, 
and employing Church as superintendent, had the water run 
down Fancher creek. This involved a further cost of 
$2343, trifling now, but large then, for an experiment. He 
subsequently bought the Centerville ditch. In the mean- 
time the services of Charles Lohse were secured. He 
came from Concord, Contra Costa county, and put in a 
wheat crop. In 1871 Captain Easterby erected a house 
and a barn on his ranch, also a blacksmith shop. " These 
buildings," he said several years ago, "were erected on 
these lands, and the only shanties on those plains between 
the two rivers from Centerville to Watson's ferry. The 
check system of irrigation was then unknown, the water 
being turned loose over the ground. Two thousand acres 
were planted in wheat, and Mr. Lohse's success encouraged 
and stimulated the whole region. 

" When the sprouting grain was just spreading a green 
carpet in the midst of the desert," said Captain Easterby 
to the writer, " Governor Stanford, Colonel Gray and Mr. 
Towne met me upon the ranch. It was a revelation to 
them — the first green spot they had seen since leaving 
Stockton on their railroad route, which they were then 
traversing after the survey and before the advent of Stro- 
bridge with his construction force. They called it an oasis 
in the desert. The place looked very pretty with the water 
running through it. ' Here,' exclaimed Mr. Stanford, 1 we 
must have the town located.' They had already purchased 
four sections of land at Sycamore Bend for a townsite, but 
the fine appearance of my place, with its water supply, 
caused them to change their minds. I explained to the 
Governor that doubtless he could purchase all the land he 
required for a townsite from the association, and referred 
him to the trustees, Roeding and Chapman, from whom he 
soon after procured the present townsite of Fresno. The 
city of Fresno is therefore inbebted to me for its present 

The railroad reached Fresno on April 19, 1872, and 
Captain Easterby made the first shipment, eighteen car- 
loads of lumber to fence in his place. The first wheat crop 
was a splendid one. Twenty thousand sacks were shipped 
to Friedlander in this city, the first wheat shipped over the 
new line. "The result was discouraging," said Mr. East- 
erby. The great expense of hauling everything over the 
plains before the advent of the road, and subsequent ex- 

cessive freight of $7.50 a ton — Stubbs wanted $ic — con- 
sumed all profits. In this instance Senator Stanford over- 
ruled Stubbs. Though not at first success, agriculture had 
been introduced and a new empire had been redeemed. 

(She JJViary. 

How to Produce Comb and Extraoted Honey. 

To the Editor: — Some time ago I gave an illustrated 
description ot the dove-tailed hive In the Rural Press. 
Many readers who are now using this hive will be glad to 
learn the best method for producing comb or extracted 

To Produce Comb Honey. — The first thing requisite is to 
have strong colonies of bees as early as possible in the be- 
ginning of the season. If your stocks are weak, double 
them or feed to stimulate early brood- rearing. As soon as 
the honey season has fairly begun, the bees will fill all the 
available space in the brood combs with honey, and, find- 
ing they have no more room below they will build little bits 
of white comb, along the upper edges of the brood frames. 
As soon as you perceive this whitening of the combs, place 
a perforated zinc honey-board on the hives and put on your 
sections. It is absolutely necessary to use these zinc honey 
boards early in the season as the queen will go up and fill 
the sections with brood (if she is not prevented). Some- 
times the bees are rather shy about entering the sections. 
To induce them to go up I generally put one or two partly 
filled sections among the empty ones, which I have either 
kept over from last season or taken from some other colony 
at work in the sections. When the bees have filled the 
super about half full, raise it up and place another super 
filled with empty sections under it, and, when the top super 
is full and all the sections are capped over, remove it from 
the hive and place a third super under the second. To get 
the bees out of the sections smoke down between them, 
raise the super on one end and with a light brush, brush off 
the bees in front of the hive. But the best and easiest way 
is to use a bee escape. This is a simple device known as 
Porter's bee escape and is one of the recent developments 
for automatically getting the bees out of the surplus apart- 
ment or upper story of the hive, previous to taking off the 
honey crop. All you have to do is to place the escape fit- 
ted into a suitable board, between the super and the brood 
chamber, and in a short time all the bees will be out. This 
is a small device made of tin and fitted with a very delicate 
arrangement of springs which permit the bees to go out, 
but prevent their return to the super. It is an indispensable 
article in a large apiary and worth its weight in gold al- 
though it is sold for a few cents. The cut below shows the 
interior arrangement of the springs. 

porter bee-escape. 

The sections being removed they should be scraped or 
any propolis removed from them and then packed in ship- 
ping cases holding 12, 24 or 48 pounds each, and they are 
ready for market. 

To Produce Extracted Honev. — Your colonies should be 
strong early in the season the same as for comb honey. 
As soon as the honey season opens and the bees begin to 
get crowded, place a second hive body containing a full set 
of eight combs or frames containing foundation in full 
sheets on top with a perforated zinc honey board under- 
neath. If honey is coming in fast and the combs are get- 
ting filled without delay, lift the top story and place a sec- 
ond one under it (in the same manner as recommended 
with the supers in producing comb honey) with another set 
of extracting frames. When the combs are pretty nearly 
sealed they are ready for extracting. 

Should you not have time to extract as soon as the 
combs are sealed, leave them on the hive and give the bees 
more empty combs underneath, if needed. The honey can 
remain on the hives for two or three months if necessary, 
and it will be all the better for it, as it will become ripe and 
better flavored. To get the bees off the comb, the Porter 
bee-escape is the best thing to use as described above. 

To uncap the combs, use a honey knife. One of the 
best for this purpose is the Bingham. When using any 
kind of a honey-knife, it is best to dip it in hot water occa- 
sionally, as it works much better. The cappings should be 
saved and drained on an uncapping can or sieve. 

When ready to extract, your extractor should be screwed 
down to a bench at a convenient height to handle, and high 
enough to allow some other receptacle for the honey to be 
placed underneath the honeygate. It is sometimes neces- 
sary to stand on a box or a bench, so that the crank can be 
more easily operated, and to facilitate the removal of the 
combs from the extractor. If your combs are not wired, 
you should by all means have a reversible extractor. With 
this machine, you can extract part of the honey from one 
side of the comb, and then reverse them without stopping 
the machine, throw out all the honey on that side and 
then return to the first side and finish them. This prevents 
the combs breaking down. 

In large apiaries, where much extracting is to be done, 
it is a good plan to have all your combs wired. It does not 
pay to waste time with non-reversing machines and un- 
wired combs, when much honey is to be thrown out. 

Nearly all the large honey producers now use the cans 
and cases for shipping extracted honey. These cans are 
made to hold 60 pounds each, and are placed two in a box, 
making a handy receptacle for 120 pounds of honey. They 
may be purchased in quantity at eighty-five cents for two 
cans and a case. Wm. Styan. 

San Mateo, Cal. 



July 18, 1893. 


[Written for the Rural Pbbbs by Mu». C. E. Bamford.] 

fe)* DO my work while you day- 
£ folks are sleeping. 
" What is your work ?" do you ask. 
Why, I'm a hunter. I wake up 
from my daily nap about dusk, 
and I then feel a keen appetite. 
After stretching my wings and 
getting my eyes well open I go off on a hunt. 

I can fly real softly so I can catch a night- 
flying beetle before it knows I am anywhere 
'round. Then when I hear a cricket sing- 
ing its evening hymn, I slyly fly toward the 
place, and before its solo is through I pick it 
right up and swallow it, song and all. But 
one or two small insects only whit my appe- 
tite for more food. 

When I think the farmer has put out his 
light and gone to bed, then I'm safe until 
morning. So I inspect his barns and corn 
cribs, and pick up many a fat mouse that 
would otherwise destroy his grain. To be 
sure the farmer don't know all that my folks 
do, or he would give us more credit instead 
of trying to kill us. 

We watch his grain stacks out in the field 
where the mice are ever so thick sometimes. 
We love grasshoppers for our midnight 
meal, and we can find them easily because 
they are so often on the hop. 

Some of my folks love frogs for food as 
well as the Frenchmen do. Will you keep 
a secre: ? I have a home somewhere in that 
tree yonder. My nest is in a hollow stump. 
A few feathers and soft, rotten wood make a 
fine nest for my four little ones to sleep in. 
My mate is taking care of our little owlets 
this minute. The stump-hole isn't big 
enough for all of us at once, so I sit on that 
tree close by, all the day long. 

I used to sit among the leaves, out of 
sight I thought, but one day a little bird 
found me and it gave such a note of alarm 
that a dozen or more birds quickly sur- 
rounded me, and I tell you they made me 
so miserable with their picking, chatting and 
screaming that I was glad enough to fly up 
to a dark hole and get out of their sight. If 
the sun had not bewildered me, and I could 
have used my eyes, I would have devoured 
some of those screaming birds on the spot. 

Did you ever see one of our storehouses? 
Sometimes the weather is so bad that we 
cannot go out much to search for food, so 
when the bluebirds, beetles and injects are 
pleuty we pack them away for future break- 
fasts and dinners, just as the housewife, 
when fruit is abundant, puts some of it away 
for the time when it is scarce. 

My folks can be found all over the United 
States; that is, my cousins, aunts and other 
relatives live all over the country. We are 
quite singers in our way, but some of you 
call us "screechers" instead of singers. 
Then we make a wailing note in the night 
which you might hear for a long ways. 
Some of us shout when we feel like it, or 
"hoot" as you might call it. 

I love to take a bath in that pond yonder. 
You may not believe it, but we are very 
fond of water, and when my little birds get 
bigger we will go out bathing just at dusk, 
or later in the night. When we come out 
of the water we shake our feathers, ruffle 
them all up and cannot fly well for a time; but 
It pays, for when we get dry again we feel so 
clean and so refreshed that with renewed 
vigor we go to hunt for field mice. The 
mice can scarcely stir after dark without 
being seen by some of my relatives, and 
during the season we catch thousands of 

My cousin, " Horned Owl," wears a pretty 

white collar round its neck. It is a giant 
bird, sometimes two feet or so in length. 
One time a man caught two orphan little 
owls and carried them on his summer ex- 
cursion for several hundred miles. He said 
they did not hoot until they were four months 
old, although they had two notes before this, 
one to express loneliness or hunger and the 
other one to express anger. These little 
ones were tied up during the day, but were 
let loose at night. Sometimes they re- 
mained away all night looking for food, but 
returned to the man's tent for shelter during 
the daytime. They never hooted excepting 
when enjoying perfect freedom at night. I 
don't remember how old I was when I began 
to screech, but I can screech big now. Do 
you want to hear me? 

We have been called " feathered cats" and 
"feathered nimrods.*' Perhaps we do re- 
semble cats, because of our staring eyes and 
because our eyes are fitted for night vision 
like those of the cat. We are certainly 
hunters and seldom return home without 
something for our little ones. We catch our 
prey with our talons, not usually with the 
beak. Some of our relations toss up the 
little mice and then let them fall head first 
into their mouths, but when the food is large 
we all pull it in pieces before swallowing. 
Our folks are fond of flesh, fowl and fish, 
and we destroy so many rodents and insects 
that we are worth millions to the agri- 
culturists. We are members of the "four 
hundred " good birds' grange. We make 
little noise or display, but we are doing 
steadily and persistently a good work for 
farming interests. I believe with that poet 
Lowell, who said : " As for birds, I do not 
believe there is one of them but does more 
good than harm, and of how many feather- 
less bipeds can this be said?" 

In''cold and hungry circumstances " we 
may seem to be mischievous, but we are not 
" misfits " in this world, neither are we all 
like Thomas Gray's " moping owl sitting in 
the ivy mantled tower complaining to the 
moon." We may seem to mope in the day- 
time because we are sleepy, but at night we 

" We know not alway 
Who are kings by day. 
But the king of the night is the bold, brown owl. " 

The old Romans thought owls were sacred 
and called them the birds of Minerva, or the 
Roman god of wisdom. In our own country 
some of my relations are thought worthy to 
sit in state at Washington, D. C, but not in 
congressional halls. In the Smithsonian 
Institute my kindred have sat, perhaps 
" mopingly," for years. Some of them are 
clothed in snowy-white feathers, others have 
on gray suits. Some are verily giants in 
size while some are but the pigmy owls of 
California, not much larger than a house 

The Indians say that an owl of the 
genus Nyctale was at one time the biggest 
owl in the world and had a very loud voice. 
Now it has only a low note that sounds like 
water slowly dripping from a height. The 
Indians call that owl " pillip— pile— tshish," 
which means "water-dripping bird." But in 
old times it Is said that this owl's voice was 
very loud. One day the owl perched near 
a large waterfall, and not only tried to imi- 
tate the sound of the water, but to drown 
the roaring of the torrent by its voice. 
This ambition was punished, for the big 
owl was changed into a little-bodied owl, 
and its voice was made to resemble slowly- 
dripping water, instead of the great roar of 
a cataract. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Asparagus is often served as a separate 
course, cold, as a salad, with a French dress- 
ieg, or it may equally be so served hot, with 
the ordinary cream sauce or the following, 
which is better: Melt two ounces of butter 
in a saucepan and sift into it a level table- 
spoonful of fliur, stirring all the time; add a 
gill of cold milk, salt and pepper; when the 
sauce is smooth and thick pour in a gill of 
cream and a teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar 
or lemon juice; mix well and add one-half 
ounce of grated Parmesan cheese. Serve 
hot at once. 

Grass stains on white goods can usually 
be removed in the following way: Wet the 
fabric, rub in some soft soap and as much 
baking soda as will adhere; let stand half an 
hour; wash out in the usual manner and the 
stain will generally be gone. 

The stains and discoloratioos made in 
marble basins from the dripping of the 
faucets can be removed with pulverized 
chalk. Dip an old nail or tooth brush in 
water, then in the chalk, and an instant's 
rubbing will do the work. 

The most nauseous physic may be given 
to children without trouble by previously let- 
ting them suck a peppermint lozenge, a piece 
of alum or a bit of orange peel. Many 
people make the mistake of giving a sweet 
afterward to take away the disagreeable 

taste. It is far better to destroy it in the 
first instance. 

To boil eggs so that the whites will not be 
hardened into a leathery, indigestible con- 
sistency, pour boiling water on them, and 
set the dish on the hack of the stove for 
about ten minutes. You probably won't hit 
it just right every time if yon prefer them 
soft boiled — they are really not boiled at 
all — but when you do, they are vastly more 
palatable and easily digested than when 
cooked by the three-minute rule. 

To polish enameled leather mix two parts 
of the best cream with one of linseed oil, 
making each lukewarm in a small pipkin 
over the fire. The leather must first be 
thoroughly cleansed from dust, and the 
polish applied with a sponge. 

To relieve pain from bruises, and prevent 
discoloration and subsequent stiffness, 
nothing is more efficacious than fomenta- 
tions ot water as hot as it can be borne. 

Most babies are bathed each morning and 
seldom oftener; many times a cross child 
may be soothed by a pleasant bath before its 
evening meal. All bathing should be done 
before meals, not after. Such an evening 
bath tends toward a good night's rest. Still, 
half the sleepless children would sleep if 
they were given exercise. A good practice 
is to let the baby lie on the flior and kick 
at the air; by throwing a sheet or quilt on 
the floor first, and having its edges raised, 
draughts may be avoided. Such exercise 
tires, but strengthens, and spine troubles 
and peevish nurses are not often seen in 
homes where this is the practice. 

— American Cultivator. 

Forefathers of the Presidents. 

The recent congress of the Scotch-Irish 
calls attention to the immense value of the 
element in the development of our country, 
and to the fact that it has furnished four 
Presidents — Jackson, Polk, Buchanan and 
Arthur. It is interesting to recall the racial 
lineage of all the Presidents. 

George Washington was of purest English 
stock, his father's family dating back in 
England to the 13th century. His mother 
was likewise of pure English stock. Both 
came from an agricultural ancestry. 

John Adams was likewise of pure English 
blood, but his forebears were generally me- 
chanics, merchants, ministers and small 

Thomas Jefferson came of pure English 
stock, his paternal ancestors being English 
farmers. His mother was a Randolph — 
also pure English. 

James Madison's father was of pure Eng- 
lish blood, and his mother, Elizabeth Con- 
way, also of English blood, with an admix- 
ture of Irish. 

James Monroe was of English blood, his 
grandfather having been a captain in 
Charles I.'s army. 

John Quincy Adams was pure English, 
his mother's name being Abigail Smith. 

Andrew Jackson was Scotch-Irish on both 
sides. His father was a farmer, and his 
mother, Elizabeth Hutchinson, belonged to 
a family of weavers. 

Martin Van Buren was of pure Dutch 
blood. His grandparents on both sides 
were farmers, and his mother was a Miss 

William Henry Harrison was English as 
far back as the family could be traced. His 
mother was a Randolph. 

John Tyler traced his lineage back to 
Wat Tyler, the great English rebel of the 
14th century. 

James Polk was Scotch-Irish on both 
sides, his mother having been a Knox. 

Zichary Taylor was English to the core. 

Millard Fillmore was of pure English 

Franklin Pierce was of English blood. 

James Buchanan's father was a Scotch- 
Irishman, and his mother the daughter of a 
farmer of Adams county Pa. 

Abraham Lincoln came of pure English 
stock on both sides. His mother was Nancy 

Andrew Johnson's parents were probably 
of English or Scotch descent. 

Both of U.S. Grant's parents were of 
Scotch descent. 

R. B. Hayes came of pure English blood. 

James A. Gxrfield's paternal ancestors 
were Puritan English, and his mother's 
Huguenot French. 

Chester A. Arthur's father was a Scotch- 
Irishman, and his mother an American of 
English descent. 

Grover Cleveland is of pure English blood. 

Benjamin Harrison comes of pure En- 
glish stock. — National Tribune. 

Most Interesting Thing In America. 

An English traveler passed through this 
city on the way to London. He had spent 
three months in the United States seeing 
things. A friend asked what was the most 

interesting thing he saw in the country, and 
he answered without hesitation that it was a 
mule ! Then he explained that he had 
visited certain mines where mules were used 
to haul tramcars, and their wonderful 
patience and intelligence had made on him 
a deep impression. 

Some of the tunnels were so low that the 
animals had to hold their heads down and 
partly stoop to go through, but there was 
never any trouble. He pointed out a 
characteristic of the mule that makes him 
unlike a horse. Many Americans have 
noticed it. If a horse touches his ears in 
going under a low bridge or through a tun- 
nel he will invariably throw his head up and 
receive a hard knock. When a mule's ears 
touch anything his head goes down. In 
some parts of this country it is a high com- 
pliment to a man to say that he has as much 
sense as a mule. — New York Tribune. 


To know before acting is our evil tempta- 
tion. — Desjardins. 

A soul occupied with great ideas best per- 
forms small duties. — H. Martineau. 

Oft expectation fails, and most oft there 
where most it promises. — Shakespeare. 

If you would have a house when you are 
old, lay a brick every day. — E. P. Day. 

The less a man thinks or knows about hit 
virtues the better we like him. — Emerson. 

For tasks in hours of insight willed 
May be in hours ol gloom fulfilled. 

— Matthew Arnold. 

The sum of all that makes a just man 
happy consists in the well choosing of his 
wife. — Massinger. 

Surely oak and threefold brass surrounded 
his heart who first trusted a frail vessel to 
the merciless ocean. — Horace. 

In an ill-organized society the laws are 
like spider's webs; little insects are stopped 
by them, but the great pass through. — 
Dumas Jils. 

He was a wise fellow, and. had good dis- 
cretion, that, bid to ask what he would of 
the King, desired he might know none of 
his secrets. — Shakespeare. 

Haste and rashness are storms and tem- 
pests, breaking and wrecking business; but 
nimbleness is a full, fair wind, blowing it 
with speed to the haven. — Fuller. 

Our nature is inseparable from desires, 
and the very word desire — the craving for 
something not possessed — implies that our 
present felicity is not complete. — Hobbes. 

Grief is a tattered tent, 

Where through God's light doth shine; 
Who glances up at every rent 

Shall catch a ray divine. 

— Lucy Larcom. 
To be able under all circumstances to 
practice five things constitute perfect virtue. 
These five are gravity, generosity of srul, 
sincerity, earnestness and kindness. — Con- 

Men of sense often learn from their ene- 
mies. It is from their foes — not their friends 
— that cities learn the lesson of building high 
walls and ships of war, and this lesson saves 
their children, their homes and their proper- 
ties. — Aristophanes. 

Waste cannot be accurately told, though 
we are sensible how destructive it is. Econ- 
omy on the one hand, by which a certain in- 
come is made to maintain a man genteelly, 
and waste on the other, by which, on the 
same income, another man lives shabbily, 
cannot be defined. It is a very nice thing; 
as one man wears his coat out much sooner 
than another, we cannot tell how. — Johnson. 

Overwork and Underwork. 

Everyone has heard of the danger of over- 
work, yet few understand just where the 
danger lies. A man can hardly overwork 
himself if he takes care of himself in other 
respects — secures a normal amount of sleep, 
breathes pure air, takes exercise, and eats 
food moderately. 

The main trouble is that the man who 
is overworking is violating fundamental con- 
ditions of health. He burns his candle at 
both ends. 

With due care a man of good heredity is 
capable of safely doing an almost incredible 
amount of solid work. Mr. Gladstone at 
83. with no show of weariness, carries the 
weight of the Bri'.ish Empire. The cele- 
brated John Wesley did more work than 
almost any other man of the last century; 
bnt he observed the laws of health, and, still 
active, reached his 88th year. 

Much of the so-called overwork is the 
overwork of worry, care, anxiety and haste. 
These make the severest draught on the 
vitality of the system. 

We seldom hear of a Quakers dying of 
overwork, and yet they are a very industri- 
ous people. The pupil who has permanently 
broken down in his studiei might have gone 
on under even heavier loads if there had 
been nothing to fret him in his home sur- 

Unto the Hills." 

O restless heart, so full of cares, 
Yet longing so for better things, 

Impatient even in thy prayers, 
And vexed at trifling happenings, 

Receive the strength that calms and stills, 

Lift up thine eyes '' unto the hills." 

They stand in silent majesty, 

Clothed with the morning's pearl and rose, 
Then solt white clouds about them lie, 

And purple lights no valley knows: 
Now by the sunshine they are kissed, 
Now wrapped Irom sight in veils of mist. 

Through summer heat, through winter snows, 
Strong and immovable they stand; 

The wild storm wind about them blows, 
By gentle breezes they are fanned, 

A thousand shifting shadows fall 

Upon them; they remain through all. 

Then restless heart take courage new, 

Think of the things which soall abide. 
The strength unchangeable and true. 

With which God's own are satisfied. 
Thank Him whose love his whole world fills, 
And lift thine eyes "unto the hills." 
— Miry Thompson in the Congregationalism 

What an Owl Screeched. 

July 15, 1898. 



roundings, and competition, examinations 
and scholarship markings had no place In 
our school system. The fact is, work, and 
plenty of it, is healthy in a high degree. 

And this leads us to say that a lack of 
work, with brain or hand, is highly injurious. 
Underwork may be as harmful as overwork 
to the brain if not to the body. Nations 
living in conditions in which the means of 
livelihood come almost without effort are in 
every way feeble. Close confinement in 
prison tends to idiocy. 

Further, where the mental faculties are 
not called into action, the moral also lie dor- 
mant, and the lower propensities become 
all-controlling. In all ages the corruptions 
of the higher classes are due to this fact. 
Few worse things can befall one than to 
have nothing to do. — Youth's Companion. 

the puppies made a heroic effort to save her 
offspring, and succeeded in carrying them 
all to a place of safety except one, which 
was roasted alive. She had to leap over a 
high barrier to get out of the stall, and the 
last one she carried out was all ablaze when 
she sprang from the flames with it in her 
mouth. Her grief at not being able to res- 
cue the last was evident, and she had to be 
held to keep her from rushing back into the 
flames for it. — Pittsburg Dispatch. 

" The flues are 
and they told 

me," said the 
" You tickle." 


What Jack Overheard In the Cellar 

" This cellar is awfully damp," said the 
Rat-trap. " I'm afraid I'll catch malaria." 

" If you don't catch malaria any better 
than you catch rats you needn't be afraid," 
said the Kindling Wood. 

" You seem to have a cold," said the Milk 
Pail to the Refrigerator. 

"Yes; in my chest," said the Refrigerator 
with a smile. 

I hate being locked up here in this dull 
place," said the Furnace. 

" O, I don't think it's so bad," said the 

" It's easy enough for you to talk," said 
the Furnace. " Fires can go out, but Fur 
naces can't." 

"How did you happen to see all these 
things you tell us about ? " asked the Coal 
bin of the Saw. 

" The same way I saw everything else," 
said the Saw; " with my teeth." 

" I hear you called on the Refrigerator 
yesterday," said the Wood-box to the Pail 
" Were you received pleasantly?" 

" No. The Refrigerator treated me with 
great coldness," said the Pail 

" This house is beautiful upstairs," said 
the Furnace to the Poker, 
going up there all the time, 
me all about it." 

" O, please stop poking 
Furnace Fire to the Poker. 

" I hear you are quite a sportsman, 
the Snow Shovel to the Coal. 

" Never handled a gun in my life," said 
the Coal. 

" Why I'm certain I overheard somebody 
saying that he'd seen the Coal chute," said 
the Snow Shovel.— Harper's Young People. 

Food Prices In European Cities. 
- A commercial return has just been issued 
in London, showing the average retail price 
per pound avoirdupois of various articles of 
domestic consumption, medium qualities, in 
some of the principal cities of Europe, dur- 
ing the last year. The cities selected are: 
Paris, Lille, Berlin, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Hamburg, Vienna, Buda-Pesth, Prague, 
Rome, Florence and Brussels. The price of 
prime beef varied very much. In Prague it 
could be obtained for 14c a pound, in Vienna 
for 16c, in Rome and Buda-Pesth for 17c, 
while in Paris the price fluctuated between 
24c and 32c and in Lille as much as 35c 
had to be paid. Flour ranged from 2c in 
Buda-Pesth to 5c in Paris, Frankfort and 
Florence. It is curious to notice that, while 
in Lille flour can be purchased for 4jc a 
pound and white household bread costs 3$c, 
in Berlin this was exactly reversed, bread 
costing 4JC and flour being ic cheaper. Po- 
tatoes were under 2c a pound in all the cities 
except Hamburg. Rice ranged from 2jc 
(in Brussels) to 10c. Sugar, " good white 
lump, cracked or sawed," from 7jc to 5c (in 
Rome and Florence), and coffee (Brazil or 
plantation, roasted and ground, without 
chiccory or other coff-e substitute), from 32JC 
in Berlin to 60c fresh roasted in Paris. In 
Brussels coffee from the Dutch colonies can 
be obtained for 2o$c a pound. 

The Devotion of a Canine Mother. 

Half a dozen small boys, a shepherd dog 
and her five puppies, and a box of matches 
caused a five-hundred dollar fire in Alle- 

The dog and her puppies were kept in a 
vacant stall in the rear of George W. Evans' 
livery and feeU stables on East street near 
Elm street, and the boys were looking at 
the pups through a knot hole in the side of 
the building, and in order to get a better 
view of them, held lighted matches to the 
knot hole. One of the lighted matches fell 
through the knot hole into the straw in the 
stall and set it on fire. The boys, seeing 
the blaze, ran away for fear, and did not 
give the alarm. The fire was discovered 
by a policeman. 

When the fire broke on' the mother of 

The Baby's Airing. 
It is well to send the babies out for an 
airing every day, if they are confided to 
competent hands. But often baby's tender 
little body is jarred and wearied by being 
rattled over a rough road, bounced into and 
over gutters, and thumped over crossings at 
headlong speed, until it receives more harm 
than good from its outing. Almost every 
one knows what a difference there is 
drivers — how one man will, however easy 
the carriage, take you to your journey's end 
(eeliog that you are black and blue from 
jolting about, while another will avoid every 
loose stone and moderate his speed at the 
rough places. Be sure that babies suffer 
quite as much as their elders from unskillful 

It is perfectly easy to guide a child's cab 
over the gutter without a jar, but it is seldom 
done by a servant, and often not by mothers 
themselves. Not only are the little ones 
jerked and bumped along in this tiresome 
fashion, but they are kept hours in their car 
riages without change of position, getting 
benumbed and cold in consequence. This 
is quite wrong. Young infants should take 
the air in the arms of an attendant. Very 
serious evils result from subjecting their 
tender bodies to jars. — Hall's Journal of 

A Promising Girl. 

A Marysville girl who is attending the 
intermediate department of the "B" street 
school, was yesterday requested by her 
teacher to prepare a short essay for the 
closing exercises which will take place at the 
schoolroom on next Friday afternoon in the 
presence of the parents and invited friends 
of the pupils. She chose for her subject, 
"The Boy," and this morning proudly placed 
the following on her teacher's desk: 

" The boy is not an animal, yet they can 
be heard at a considerable distance. When 
a boy hollers, he opens his big mouth like 
frogs, but girls hold their tongue till they 
are spoke to, and then they answer respect- 
ably and tell just how it was. A boy thinks 
himself clever because he can wade where it 
is deep, but God made the dry land for every 
living thing and rested on the seventh day. 
When the boy grows up, he is called a hus 
band, and then he stops wading and stays 
out at nights, but the grew-up girl is a widow 
and keeps house." — Marysville Democrat. 

Short Furrows. 

An ounce of brain is worth a pound of 

Gold-brick men bait for rascals and catch 

It is a great fault to be continually fault- 

You never get nearer heaven by stepping 
on other people. 

No ghosts are so hideous as the recollec- 
tions of one's own sins. 

A milking stool is a poor thing with which 
to quiet a fidgety cow. 

He that does not produce as much as he 
consumes is a deadhead in society. 

It is bad manners to be more polite to 
your neighbor's wife than to your own. — 
Marion Rambo in American Agriculturist. 

Waste of Force. 
A source of dyspepsia is emotional waste 
of nervous force. The nerve force is to the 
physical system what steam is to the ma- 
chine. In the normal condition of things, it 
renewed as fast as it is used. But nature 
makes no provision for the immense amount 
expended by excessive care, by fuss and 
worry, by hurry and drive, by explosions of 
passion and by the undue excitements of 
pleasure. All these are like a great leakage 
of steam. The stomach is the first and 
largest sharer in the loss. 


An Unfortunate Visit. 

Brain-work is specially exhaustive of 
nerve-force, and the exhaustion is greatly in- 
creased by the fact that high intellectual ac- 
tivity gathers to itself a most delightful mo- 
mentum, making a few hours of high-pres- 
sure work more productive than days of plod- 
ding. Moreover, a brain-worker generally 
neglects physical exercise and curtails sleep. 
He is like the careless engineer who, while 
driving at the highest speed, fails to supply 
he needed wood and water. He cannot 
help being a dyspeptic 

Said the Queen of the Cannibal Islands one day 

To the King of the Cannibal Isles, 
"I fervently wish you would take me away; 
My appetite's really becoming passe; 

I should like to go miles upon miles." 

So they ordered their boat, and away they set sail, 

And with talk both pleasing and witty, 
And a glimpse now and then at a sociable whale 
(With occasional pauses in order to bail), 
At last they arrived in the city. 

"Now the first thing, my dear," said the king to the 

"That we really, you know, ought to do — " 
"'Yes, dear husband," she murmured, "I know 

what you'd say. " 
So they entered a restaurant over the way 

And ordered a little-boy stew. 

"And, pray," said the king to the waiter, who 

With his eyes popping out of his bead, 
And who would have fainted right there had he 

"I trust you will see that it's ably prepared, — 
We're particular how we are fed." 

''Excuse me, good sir," said the waiter, whose hair 

Was beginning to whiten with fright, 
"But little-boy stew — Ol I hope you won't care — 
Is not to be found on our poor bill of fare; 
We're short of that order to-night." 

"Very well," said the king, "bring a little-girl .pie, 

And see that the crust is well done." 
Just then there arose a terrible cry, 
For the king, who was hungry, had fixed a keen eye 

On the waiter, who started to run. 

I really can't finish this pitiful tale. 

The police took the strangers in hand; 
And I venture to say if that sociable whale 
Had dreamed in the least how the journey would 

He would not have allowed them to land. 

— N. P. Babcock, in St. Nicholas. 

A Snake in the Nnrsery. 

HERE'S only one thing in the 
world that my wife's afraid 
of, and that's a snake," said 

Sir Philip D to three or 

four of his friends, with whom 
he was chatting in the spa- 
cious veranda of his pretty bungalow (coun- 
try house) among the mountains of Southern 
Ceylon. " I've known her almost to faint 
on seeing a spotted green ribbon hanging 
over the back of the chair, and only the 
other day, when our gardener, after water- 
ing the plants, left his hose pipe on the 
grass, instead of putting it away, she jumped 
half across the lawn at the sight of it, think- 
Dg it was a boa-constrictor." 

His friends laughed, for their charming 
hostess, though she had been only a short 
time in Ceylon, had already acquired a repu- 
tation for a cool courage that might put many 
a man to shame, and no one who had seen 
her facing a flood as tremendous as that 
which swept away Johnstown, or guiding 
her frightened horse through a burning for- 
est with the pursuing flames close behind 
her, would ever have suspected her of being 
a coward. In fact, small and slight as she 

was, one had only to look at Lady D 's 

firm lips and bright, fearless eyes to be fully 
convinced of the perfect truth of the charac- 
teristic compliment paid her by Mayor 
O'Mulligan of the Irish brigate, " She's a 
man every inch of her 1 " 

The house stood half-way up the face of a 
gently sloping ridge, and on three sides of it 
the jungle had been completely cleared 

away; for Sir Philip D , like most of his 

neighbors, had "gone into tea-growing." 
But at the back of it a bristling mass of 
black impenetrable thickets, dense enough 
to have hidden a buffalo or an elephant, 
came down to within a few hundred yards of 
the palisade that encircled the villa and its 
belongings, and this was a constant night- 
mare to poor Lady D , whose snake- 
haunted fancy peopled this obtrusive patch 
of jungle with every kind of serpent from a 
30 foot boa-constrictor to an adder no longer 
than her neck-ribbon. 

Early in the afternoon of that memorable 

day, when all the gentlemen had gone off to 
take the nap which is as recognized a feat- 
ure of a hot day in Ceylon or India as either 

breakfast or dinner, Lady D , stretched 

at her ease in a light hammock, was just doz- 
ing off to sleep likewise, when she suddenly 
heard, or thought she heard, her baby utter 
a cry. 

This was more than enough to startle the 
anxious mother into instant activity. Throw- 
ing herself out of the hammock she hurried 
off to the nursery (which was only two 
rooms away), quite forgetting, in her head- 
long haste, that she was herself doing the 
very thing for which she had so often blamed 
her easy-going husband, viz., going about 
the house barefoot, in defiance of all risk of 
snakes, scorpions, centipedes and other " in- 
genuous creepers." 

Little Phil was lying snugly in his small, 
white cot, all alone, for his careless ayah 
(native nurse) had slipped out as soon as 
she thought her mistress safely out of the 
way, and his mother (whose disturbed im- 
agination had pictured him to herself as 
stung by a deadly cobra, or struggling in 
the coils of a pvthon, the moment she heard 
him scream) was not a little relieved to find 
that the calamity by which he had been 
overtaken was to all appearance nothing 
worse than the kicking off upon the floor of 
the light sheet that covered him. 

The child stretched forth his tiny bands 
to her with eagerness, and she stepped 
hastily toward him, but in doing so she hap- 
pened to tread upon the sheet which he had 
thrown to the floor. 

Instantly she felt beneath her bare foot, 
with inconceivable horror, the furious writh- 
ing and struggling of some living thing, 
which, as she knew at once, could be noth- 
ing else than a snake ! 

It was even so. The sight of the hideous 
reptile wriggling across the floor had 
startled the child into uttering the cry 
which its mother had heard, and the ser- 
pent had either been covered by the falling 
sheet, or sought a hiding place there of its 
own accord. 

Expecting every moment to feel the 
deadly fangs in her flesh, but resolute to 
save her boy at whatever cost to herself, the 
brave woman pressed with all her weight 
and strength upon the writhing snake, shout- 
ing for help meanwhile with the full power 
of her voice. 

She did not call in vain. Alarmed by her 
cries, three or four native servants came 
bursting in, and the foremost of them, a 
bold and active lad from the mountains of 
Mysore, came armed with a heavy bamboo 
stick, which, guessing at once the cause of 
the tumult, he had snatched up as he ran. 

Signing to his mistress to spring back, 
the cool and courageous Hidoo tossed aside 
the sheet with the end of his stick, and dealt 
a heavy blow to the now motionless snake 
beneath it. But the stroke was not needed. 
The convulsive pressure of that small, white 
foot (which had fortunately alighted right 
on the serpent's head) had done its work, 
and the reptile, a cobra of the deadliest 
kind, and nearly five feet in length, was now 
harmless for evermore. 

The very next day Sir Philip began to cut 
away the snake-sheltering jungle at the back 
of the house, thinking, no doubt, that one 
visit from such neighbors was quite suffi- 
cient. But, curiously enough, poor Lady 
D 's terrible adventure, so far from in- 
spiring her (as it might naturally have been 
expected to do) with a greater horror of 
snakes than ever, seemed to have quite 
swept away her former terror of them, and 
from that day forth she never troubled her- 
self about them at all.— Harper's Young 

Historical Inaccuracy. 

A small boy with an inquiring and analyti- 
cal mind, residing on a farm about 16 miles 
in the country, sends this in: 

Dere Sur — I notise in the history that we 
are studdying that Rome was saved by the 
cackling of a lot of geese, but I don't believe 
it, for I hav lived on a farm all my life and 
I newer herd a goose cackle yet. Doant 
they mean a hen ? Yours trulv. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report. 




July 15, 189*. 


From Worthy Master Davis. 

If the Midwinter Fair is to come to Cali- 
fornia, why not get our grange forces into 
line for that exhibition? Each subordinate 
grange can do much to advertise the worth 
and the wealth of California. 

Deputy J. C. Purvine expects to bring one 
or two new granges to the State Grange 
next October. 

What has come of the effort to organize a 
couple of new granges in Kern and Madera 
counties ? 

Fresno county ought to have half a dozen 
subordinate granges. The same for Los 
Angeles county. 

Worthy Overseer Roache and Worthy 
Lecturer Huffman were unable to meet with 
Santa Rosa Grange, Saturday, July 8tb, 
though both were expected. Sorry they 
could not attend. 

Santa Rosa Grange has just bought a new 
piano. They got the start of Yuba City 
Grange on the piano business. 

About the only friend of financial profit 
that the California farmer has to rely on in 
1893, is the old hen and her brood of chicks. 

Farmers of California be careful of your 
nickels and dimes, for the Tax-Collector has 
to gather in about $6,000,000 this year for 
State purposes — " And the farmer feeds 
them all." 

With the establishment of creameries all 
over our State, the dairy industry is getting 
to be of great magnitude. It is one of the 
most certain sources of revenue to the 
farmer, and is destined to be more exten- 
sively developed in this State where climate 
and other conditions are so favorable. Cali- 
fornia has already won a prominent rank 
among the States, in the production of fruits, 
dairy products and poultry. 

Petaluma Grange passed a class to the 
Master's office last Saturday. All enjoyed 
the feast of edibles, of music, of wit and wis- 
dom. A good attendance and much enthu- 
siasm was manifested about the coming ses- 
sion of the State Grange. 

The assessed value of the cows of this 
country is reported to be $700,000,000, 
while all the gold paid up by national banks 
is placed at $640,000 000. Hurrah for the 
bossy cow! Who would have thought that 
the cow is "boss" of the national-bank busi- 
ness ? It is authoritatively asserted that 
the cows of the nation, in the year 1890, 
produced 1,200,000,000 pounds of butter, 
which sold for more money than the entire 
lumber, iron and wheat product for that 
year. Is it any wonder that the wise man 
wrote, "There is no distress greater for a 
family than to be without milk" ? 

What better service could the State 
Grange render to the boys and girls of the 
farm than to offer a yearly scholarship, say 
of $250, to the son or daughter of a patron 
who should pass the best examination for 
admission to our State Agricultural College 
at Berkeley ? The payment of this money 
to be conditioned upon a certificate from 
the president of the agricultural college, that 
the student had mastered the course of 
study in that college for the year just passed. 
Think about this and work out the details 
in the interests of higher education for the 
boys and girls of the farm. 

A call has been made by the Humane 
Association of Sacramento, for a State 
"Good Roads Convention," to assemble in 
the State Capitol building on the 7th of next 
September. No people are more directly 
interested in this subject than the farmers of 
the State. They are the ones who have to 
foot the heaviest bills, and they are the ones 
who are most inconvenienced by bad roads. 
It is to be hoped that the Governor will se- 
lect some of the very best farmers of the 
State as delegates to the convention, and 
that the boards of supervisors in the several 
counties will not overlook the practical men 
in their jurisdiction when it comes their time 
to select delegates. This convention may 
do great good to the State, or, by its influ- 
ence and resolutions, may do no little harm 
to the tax-payers of California. It is not a 
very good time, owing to the very low 
prices realized for products and the great 
stringency of the money market, to think of 
bonding townships, counties, or the State, 
even for so worthy an end as the better- 
ment of our public roads. Let wise coun- 
cils prevail, and let the man who has a per- 
sonal ax to grind be left at home to grind it 
on his own not the public's grindstone. 

For some unaccountable reason, there 
seems to be a strong desire on the part of a 
great many people to antagonize everybody 
who holds official station. This is not only 
true of those men who hold offices of honor 

and emolument, but it seems equally as true 
of those who hold office when trie only com- 
pensation is that of so-called honor — honor 
that, alas ! too often, is only empty honor. 
This condition of public sentiment is not in 
the right direction. It ought not to be al- 
lowed to expand. Public men are at all 
times subject to just criticism. They expect 
it; they deserve it. But there are men in 
public station who are honest, who are 
worthy, who are just and true; and these 
men ought to be selected from the mass, and 
their worth ought to be recognized. Honor 
to whom honor is due. Commend the hon- 
est man. Punish the rascal and the knave. 
It matters not though he be a senator, repre- 
sentative, governor, judge, bank president or 
cashier. Down with the sycophantic sym- 
pathy that goes out for a defaulting cashier, 
a bandit train-robber and murderer or a 
bribe-taking official, merely because he is 
one of the Four Hundred, and that would 
punish the starving tramp for stealing a loaf 
of bread or sleeping over night in an out- 
building. Equal and exact justice to high 
and low is the motto of the Grange. Let's 
have it at any price. 

Yosemite and Surroundings. 

To the Editor : — In accordance with 
the suggestion of Worthy Master Davis, 
that its patrons should write for the Rural, 
I considered it a possible matter of interest 
to-your readers to write something of my re- 
cent trip to the Yosemite valley, from which 
I have just returned overland with my family. 

We traveled with teams and camping out- 
fit via Tulare lake, Lemoore, Grangeville, 
Kingston, Fresno to Raymond. Suffice it to 
say that on about the 1st of June we reached 
Raymond, situated in the foothills at a fag 
end of the Southern Pacific railroad system 
and sixty-two miles southwest from Yo- 
semite. There is nothing of note about the 
place but some granite quarries surrounding 
and a gulch Intervening, on the sloping sides 
of which stand two stores, a stable and a 
hostelry, built half in the hill. From Ray- 
mond, climbing curved and circling roads, 
over rocky ridges and scrub-oak hills, the 
sawmill is reached, some twenty miles from 

Here pine and cedar timber has reached 
dimensions justifying active work of the big 
saw. At the sawmill we found the first toll- 
gate on the road which is controlled and 
operated by the milling company, as well as 
the road from this point to Raymond. From 
the mill to the Yosemite valley, a distance 
of over forty miles, the "Yosemite Stage 
and Turnpike Company " absolutely own 
and control not only the road, but every- 
thing valuable in the way of stages, hotels, 
lunch-houses and beer bottles. It is a 
monopoly of the most exacting nature. Con- 
tinually you see the assumption protruding, 
that, although a heavy toll-road, precipitous 
and indifferently constructed and main- 
tained, no one has any rights thereon that 
the company is disposed to respect. 

The mountains, generally steep and rug- 
ged, are heavily timbered through this vast 
region, cedar, fir and pine predominating. A 
few years ago the Government opened the 
country for entry. Dummies were placed 
on almost every quarter section of good tim- 
ber land which in time was proved upon by 
false swearing, dictated and encouraged by 
the manipulators, and now the whole timber 
belt, forty miles wide and scores of miles in 
length, is substantially in the hands of com- 
binations and speculators. 

Five miles east of Fish Camp," and 
thirty miles from the Yosemite valley, there 
is a stage stand. Here you leave the main 
road and make " the loop " around by the 
*' Mariposa Big Tree Grove," four miles out 
and four miles back on the same road. The 
first indication of " the grove" you discover 
is some dozen monster " sequoia gigantea " 
in a canyon. 

Being strangers to the situation without 
any knowledge of the ground, and no guide- 
boards to direct, we wandered around over 
the steep and winding roads in the endeavor 
to discover the several segments of the grove. 
After winding and climbing for an hour we 
came across the " Guardian's " habitation, 
a log cabin, one-story shaked, with chinked 
and daubed cracks, at the feet of " Governor 
Markham.'' An old Silurian, by the name 
of Cunningham, was in charge of the grove, 
who appeared to take no further interest in 
it than to sell his collected "curios "and 
brag of the big holes they had been enabled 
to burn in these giants of the forest. We 
complained to him that there were no finger- 
boards to direct strangers, and consequently 
not one in a dozen of such sight-seers, other 
than those under the guidance of the stage 
company, ever discovered half the segments 
of the grove. 

This riled the old fossil so much that he 
snapishly replied that " the stage company 
built and controlled the roads, and that he 

was not going to bother his head about sign 
boards." We inquired how it was that the 
grove had received such a destructive burn- 
ing. He replied " that there had been two 
severe fires since his association with it — one 
in the year 1864 and the second in the fall 
of 1890 — when, especially at the latter date, 
they fought fire for severai weeks." He said 
that the commission had concluded to have 
the underbrush, fallen trees and limbs 
cleared out in order to prevent future fires. 

When we suggested that the extent of the 
ground over which the Sequoias grew more 
or less thickly aggregated more than a thous- 
and acres, and consequently would employ 
forty men all the time to keep the debris 
cleared up, and as a substitute for this pro- 
posed annual and immense expense that 
the gushing streams, which have their 
source from the highest snow peaks of the 
surrounding hills, should be turned into iron 
pipes and run around through the several 
sections of the grove, with a hosebib set 
therein opposite every great tree, so that 
water could be thrown on the trees at will, 
thereby saving them from future injury, 
which could all be done for a few thousand 

The idea of " an old tramp of a man with 
two plug horses and a rattled-wheeled 
wagon " suggesting anything to him or the 
States' commission relative to the protection 
or government of the grove, was over-pow- 
ering to Mr. Cunningham. Consequently, 
he so far forgot himself and the respectful 
duties of his position as to grossly insuit 
Miss Luke and my children, who subse- 
quently visited the Silurian. 

It is a notorious fact that the average 
man, like the government mule, can be 
pampered to such an extent, and fed so long 
at the government crib, that he is disposed 
to bray and kick the life out of his master at 
the least provocation, regarding the rest of 
mankind, as his obedient subjects. 

Now Mr. Editor, thefnext time your artist 
goes to the " Mariposa Big Tree Grove " to 
sketch, photograph or engrave please instruct 
him not to always take the best side of the 
best trees for his representations, but rather 
have him give us a realization of the pres- 
ent situation, as blackened forest of in- 
numerable cedars, pines, oak and fir, with 
here and there a huge monster overtowering 
them all, with base charred around and holes 
burned to the heart of many of them. 

Hardly a single one of these giant trees 
remains unscathed by fire brands in the 
hands of vendals, who, it is said, three 
years ago set fire oftener than they extin- 
guished it, in order to make the government 
job last as long as possible. 

Wawona, situated onatributaryof theMer- 
ced river, twenty-six miles from the Yosemite 
valley, is the chief stage station and toll col- 
lecting depot on the route. A good hotel, 
stable, blacksmith shop, and a studio of 
Hill's constitute the improvements. A toll 
gate would be beneath the dignity of the 
place, instead thereof a notice is posted on 
a tree some hundreds of yards west from 
the station directing all travelers to leave the 
main road, call around by the hotel and pay 
the exorbitant toll charges demanded at this 

After ransacking the hotel for a collector, 
I ran afoul of a big slick, lazy looking 
fellow, who demanded and received thirteen 
dollars and a half as the toll in and out of 
the valley, for four horses. 

From Wawona we had an uphill grade for 
twelve or thitteen miles, much of it very 
steep and in places dangerous. The decent 
into the valley, seven miles, is also steep and 
precipitous. It is unnecessary to describe 
the valley here; everyone has at least read 
of its extent and wonders, our purpose 
being simply the giving of some insight as to 
the situation and methods prevailing there. 
Two or three years since the Examiner and 
Chronicle made war on the State commission 
tor its lax management of the valley and 
the favoriteism shown to the ghouls who in- 
fested it. Scathing articles were printed de- 
claring that the vandals were cutting the 
timber and destroying the beauty of the val- 
ley, and that they had been allowed by the 
commissioners to fence in the greater and 
better portions of the valley with barbed 
wire, for grain and hay fields, to the exclu- 
sion of the camper and general public. 
Subsequently the whole controversy quieted 
down, and the presumption of everybody 
was, that the vandalism complained of had 
ceased and the obstructions had been re- 
moved. Upon inquiry, we found that some 
fencing below the "Yosemite" known as 
"Barnard's Hotel" had been removed from 
around small inclosures, but in traveling 
over this valley we discovered that the main 
valley on the north side of the Merced river, 
between the Stoneman house on the east to 
and below Barnard's hotel on the west, a 
distance of nearly two miles, was substan- 
tially all fenced in with boards and barbed 
wire. The fields enclosed contained some- 

where in the neighborhood of 400 acres of 
the best meadow land in the valley — and 
about all that was out of the matter of this 
class at the time of which we write. The 
land within these inclosures, in conjunction 
with the great stables and other buildings 
near the Stoneman House, are all rented to 
"Coffman and Kenney" for a term of years, 
at the nominal rate of $750 per annum, 
about the price of a dozen tons of hay 
charged campers in the grove near by, who 
have no recourse other than to pay $75 per 
ton for ground barley and from $50 to $60 
per ton for hay. This same stable company 
have a monopoly of the sight-seer carrying 
trade of the valley, in which they employ 
from forty to sixty bronchos and mustangs 
daily, at the rate of from three to five dollars 
per day. The Stoneman House was built by 
the State some ten years since, at a cost of 
about $50,000, and rented presumably to the 
Monopoly Stage Company with J. J Cook 
as keeper — at the nominal rent of $1,200 
per aunum. Rates of board $4 per day. 

Mr. Galen Clark, "Guardian of the val- 
ley," so far as he has any authority to act — 
which is the control of anything that needs 
no control— is very gentlemanly and oblig- 
ing to campers, in locating them outside of 
any inclosure. 

I never realized the influence which in- 
duced Governor Markham to veto the bill 
passed by the late Legislature, providing an 
appropriation for building a free road into 
the Yosemite valley, from Mariposa, and up 
the Merced river, until my investigation of 
the situation. Had he signed said bill it 
would have broken up the railroad and stage 
monopoly rates, and reduced freight charges 
to such an extent as to have made it possible 
for campers and all other sight-seers to 
visit and live in the valley at prices not 
ruinous to the average citizen. 

J. V. Webster. 

Creston, July 9, 1893 

To the World's Fair ! 

WiiKLT Excursions ' 
Are you going ? If so, call on 
or write to the undersigned before 
arranging- for your trip. The •' SANTA FE ROUTE 
is the only line under one management 
from California to Chicago '. Palace and Tourist 
Sleepers through to Chicago every day 
without change ! Excursions every Tuesday. 
W. A. BISSELL, O. P. A., 860 Market 
Street, Chronicle Bldg., San Francisco, Cat. 

Fruit-Pitting Knives 




No. S, Steel blade, Polished Handle, per doz , $2.60. 


A '^2^: 

B ade 3-incb, per dor , $6.00. 



The Foreman Fruit Pitting Machine cuts fruit rapidly 
and evenly, leaving no ragged edgts^ It saves a great 
deal of labor and, compared with other machine*, Is very 
economical In its work. In pitting peaches the peach 
can be cut at a given point. Many pltters, while they 
work very rapidly, do unsatisfactory work for rannera 
and dryers, because the fruit is not cut clean and 
through the flower. 

We guarantee the Foreman Pltter to give good satis- 
faction, or it may be returned at our expense after a 
trial of one day. It is especially suitable for the wants 
of canncrs and dryers. 

PKICE 31X60 EACH.— We offer liberal discounts to 
the trade. 



July 16, 1893. 



Seeds, Wants, ttc. 







years by the large Dumber of trees sold by me tbat 
nursery stock grown on the river bottom of Sutter 
count} Is far superior to any grown In tbe State. I am 
prepared to supp.y In large or small quantities: 

Bartlett Fears, Plums and Prunes 

On Myrobolan Plum Roots. 

— ALSO— 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Apple, Almond 
Trees. Etc. 

Special Rates on Large Orders. 
Send for Price List for 1893-94. 

James T. Bogue. Marysville. Cal. 



Nursery Stock. 

Bend and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


For Rare new Tropical fruit 
and ornamental plants and 
trees. Palms, Ferns, Orange 
Trees, Pineapples, Bamboos, 
Aquatics, Eta 

Plants safely shipped every- 
where. Bend stamp for new 
and full oatalogue which telle 
all about this subject. 

Oneoo, Fla. 





Assoc. Prof. Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology, 
University of California; Horticultural Editor Pacific 
Rural Prbss, San Francisco; Secretary California 
State Horticultural Society; President Cali- 
fornia State Floral Soolety; President 
San Francisco Microscopical Society. 


Embodying the Experience and Methods of Hundreds 
of Successful Growers, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by which the Inexperienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for wUch California la Famous. 

Large Octavo— 599 Pages, Fully Illustrated. 




Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 
MO Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street 


I American Bee Journal, 

(Established 1861.) 

IS Oldest, Largest. Best, 
Cheapest and the Only 
weekly Bee-Paper In all 
I America. 32 pages, 81.00 
' a year. Send for Free Sample. 


OHIO W YORK & CO. M! Fifth »»«.. Chicago. II). 

la the Largest Illustrate, and Leading Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Weekly of the West 
Established 1870. Trial Subscriptions, 60c fo r 
S mos. or tXtO a year (till further notice). DEWEY 
PUBLISHING CO., 130 Market Street, San Francisco. 



EVERY ONE GUARANTEED and coBt no more than Common 






A MACHINE FOR SCALDING In hot lye water and 
RINSING In fresh water Plums, Prunes and Grapes of all 

Made for Hand or Power Use. 

Built with Circular Flue Furnace. 


Is one of the best labor-saving machines ever brought 
before the fruit-growers and driers. 

Send for Circulars. 

L. Cunningham, 


W. O. ANDER80N, Patentee and Sole Manufacturer. 

THIS WELL-KNOWN DIPPER is in use In almost every plum-growing 
seotion of the State and has given perfect satisfaction wherever tried. 

ditional heatintr capacity, facility for spreading the fruit, etc., which 
makes the machine indispensable both for the factory and the farm. 

We also keep a full line of FIELD CARS, TURNTABLES, TRANSFER 
CARS, Etc. 

For further information address the Manufacturer, 

P. O. BOX 970, SAN JOSE, OAL. 

I will ship you a SAMPLE 


Waslilns Silaolxliie 

In localities where as yet I have no Agents. I will ship Sample 
Machine on 60 days' trial, the party to pay for it at wholesale 
prices, and act as Agent, if found satisfactory; if not, return It. 
The New Ml ler is the leading Washing Maohioe In America. 
It is fast absorbing the large trade I have had for the Becker. It 
only needs to be seen to be appreciated, and for merits you have 
never seen its equal. A trial is convincing. You want one for 
your own use. I want yon as an agent. Write to-day. 



Proprietor and Manufacturer. 


17,05 19 FREMONT ST.. 

scription made to order. 


J Send for Illustrated Catalogue, mailed free. 


* • * •••• 



Corn Husker unci 

Husks the corn and cuts the fodder at 
same time. 



Two sizes: — 
Do fast and good work. 




Pu 1 v e r ize 
the soil, drill 
any grain 
and cover it. 



Pulverize the 
soil, broadcast 
the seed and 
cover it. 




The great 
for any 

Send for full descriptions. 


Sterling, III. 



Cheap, Durable and Effective. 

Pickets colored red by boiling In a chemical paint o 
preserve the wood. We make it 2 ft, 3} (t , 4 ft, 4J,i 
and ft, high, Send for circulars and prioe list to 


IS St 14 Fremont St San Francisco. 

The above cut shows a section of the Judson 2-ft, 
Rabbit-Proof Fence. By stretching barbed wires on the 
posts above it, it will turn any stock whatever. 


The numerous diseases tbat are usually 
prevalent among very Young Turkeys 
may be prevented by tbe use of 


Send for Circular 


SO North William Street. New York. 


Dovetailed H Ives, Sections, Comb Foundation, Founda- 
tion Machines, Extractors, Smokers, Honey Knives, 
Alley's Traps, Perforated Zinc Honey Boards. Shipping 
Cases, Cans and Cases for Extracted Honey, Bee Tents, 
ROOT'S OOODS, and everything required by the trade, 
wholesale and retail. 

WM. STYAN. Ban Mateo, Oal. 


If you want to know about California 
and the Pacific States, send for the 
the beet Illustrated and Leading Farming and Horticultural 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial, 60o for 3 mos. Two samite 
copies, 10c. Established 1870. DEWEY PTJBLISHINGOO. 
tlO Market St., 8. F. 



July 15, 1898. 


Diversify, but don't scatter and try to raise 

There is a good deal of difference between 
green fruit and green fruit. One is ripe and 
the other is not. 

Business without advertising is like potatoes 
without salt — fl»t, stale and unprofitable — 
sagely remarks the Yolo Matt. 

Speech is silver, and the correction is grad- 
ually forcing itself upon the country that 
somebody has been talking too much. 

Sanger, Fresno county, wants a packing- 
house, and is making arrangements to that 
end. Sanger also proposes to co-operate. 

There are a few— just a few, thank heaven — 
agriculturists who own good land and who 
don't know enough to raise an umbrella on it. 

The total fruit yield of the Snake river 
country, in Washington, will this year be 
about 65,000 boxes. Last year the prune crop 
aggregated 30,000 pounds, dried. 

Speaking of politics, there are one or two 
California gentlemen " mentioned " for the late 
Senator Stanford's shoes, who would fill the va- 
cancy a good deal like a joint of stovepipe 
stops a hole. 

First was the cowboy race and now comes 
the announcement that two young Iowa women 
will drive to the World's Fair in buggies, the 
winner to marry the young man both desire to 
wed. Why not make the destination Utah 
and give everybody a chance to be happy ? 

The Tribune of Madera regales its readers 
with a story of the slaughter of 32 snakes, each 
a foot in length, alongside a Madera wood pile, 
says the Fresno Republican. Can it be possible 
the newspaper man has corded up his breath 
stovewood length and carelessly left it out in 
the sun? 

A new wore by Mr. H. M. Wilson states that 
by irrigation 25,000.000 acres are made fruitful 
in India alone. In Egypt there are about 
6,000.000 acres, and in Europe about 5,000,000. 
The United States has but just begun the work 
of improving its waste area, but has already 
about 4,000,000 acres of irrigated lands. 

A Wild West Show at Visalia, last week, of- 
fered $5 to any one who would ride a vicious 
broncho. Ah Tie, a Chinaman, accepted, put 
blinds over the animal's eyes, mounted him 
and rode him all over a five-acre lot. Weeping 
Jerushy ! Has it come to this? A Chinaman 
beat our noble cowboy at his own sport ! Turn 
on the dogs of law and let the Geary law be 
enforced ! 

Blondie, a seven-year-old stallion, lowered 
the world's racing record for two miles at 
8alera, Or., July 5th, trotting in 4:48 fiat. This 
is the best time ever made in a race, but greater 
speed has been made against time. Blondie 
was foaled near Lagrande, Or. His sire was 1-e 
Monte, dam Mollie by Frank Chapman 
Blondie has a pacing record of 2:15, made last 
year. His trotting record for a single mile is 

The San Jose Orange recently had a discus 
ston on tue cultivation of orchards. The mem- 
bers were quite unanimous in the opinion that 
oftentimes the cultivation of cherry trees is a 
detriment. Their roots are very near the sur 
face of the ground, and, in plowing, large roots 
as well as small are broken. The orcbardists 
expressed confidence in prices, believing tha' 
the low offers made are in no way prophetic of 
continued low prices. 

It is expected that all the canneries through 
out the county will resume operations in the 
near future, says the Petaluroa Courier. This 
will be good tidings to those who had become 
greatly exercised over the late reports to the 
effect that all the canneries save Petaluma's 
had shut down for the season. It would have 
been a great calamity to the fruit-growers and 
the cannery operatives if those enterprises had 
not been able to handle this season's fruit crop. 

Following is a list of cars of fruit shipped 
East from Vacaville for the week ending 
Thursday, July 6ih: 


Earl Frutt Co 8 

Vacaville and Winters Co _ 8 

California Fruit Ass'n 4 

National Fruit Ass'n 

F. H. Buck „ 8 

Total 25 

Total shipped to San Francisco 10 

Secretary J. Sterling Morton never spoke 
a truer word than when he said that the diffi- 
culty with too many of our statesmen was 
that they were demagogues and afraid of the 
immediate eflect upon their political prospects 
of what they might do, says the 8anta Rosa 
Democrat. In spite of the fact that the most 
conspicuous political success of the last half 
century has been gained by Grover Cleveland, 
who is just the opposite from a demagogue, it 
must be confessed Mr. Morton is right. All 
parties have suffered from this evil, one as 
much as another. 

A grower of apples in Sydney, New South 
Wales, has just made an interesting experi- 
ment. Hewanteit to find out which was the 
shortest route to Chicago, east or west. So he 
packed a barrel of yellow apples and a barrel of 
red apples, and started one each way around 
half the world. The barrel of yellow apples 
passed through the canal, through the Mediter- 
ranean sea. up the English channel, and finally 
reached London. Here it was ttken from the 
boat and sent by railroad to Liverpool. Then 
the barrel of New South Wales fruit was loaded 
into an ocean racer, and started on its way 
across the Atlantic to New York, whence it 
went to Chicago by railroad. It was juit sixty- ' 

six days to an hour when they arrived at 
Chicago. In the meantime the red apples had 
crossed the Pacific ocean to San Francisco in 
twenty days. Then they were sent by freight 
to Chicago. After numerous delays along the 
way the apples arrived. They had been fifty- 
two days on the way. Now the globe-trotting 
apples sit side by side at the World's Fair. 

If it is impossible for our fruit men to coa- 
lesce in co-operaiive enterprises to handle, cure, 
preserve and market the product of their or- 
chards and vineyards, they must severally de- 
pend upon their own resources for salvation, 
says the Yolo Mail. They must study and im- 
prove themselves in the art of drying and 
bleaching their fruit in the orchard. Fruit 
canning and preserving in the same way is 
practical. Each fruit-raiser can, at small ex- 
pense and with a little experience, put up his 
own fruit fresh from and under the shade of 
the trees that bear it; and in this line be can 
score a splendid success if he honestly and per- 
sistently tries. 

The Biggs Argut is pleased to notice the 
readiness of a number of youDg ladies of Biggs 
to take employment in orchard work and who 
have the pride, self-reliance and industry to 
earn their own living and assist their parents 
in providing the staff of life. Twelve of our 
most intelligent and accomplished young 
ladies, who will be chaperoned by Mrs. Bald- 
win, will commence packing fruit for Warren 
Treat at once. They will occupy a tent at the 
orchard so as to work evenings when neces- 
sary to prepare a carload when hurried. They 
are paid two cents a box for packing, at which 
rate they can earn $2 per day. We are pleased 
to see the girls doing well. 

The Santa Clara "prune" horse is attracting 
as much attention as any other single California 
exhibit at the World's Fair. But some way 
the exhibitors have a hard time convincing vis- 
itors that the horse is really what it is. The 
common impression is that the prunes are rais- 
ins. One man wanted to know if " that horse 
wasn't made of pebbles," another if " it were 
not made of nuts," and many exclaim, "Just 
look at those dates !" The error has became so 
common that it has been necesary to put up a 
sign: 11 This here is made of prunes." Hereafter 
the common expression, "Don't know beans," 
ought to be changed in Santa Clara to " Don't 
know prunes," thus indicating the sublimity of 

The average duty on grain bags is $18 a 
bale. The tariff provides for a drawback on 
bags of American manufacture, or, rather, that 
domestic bags returned may be entered at the 
Custom House free of duty. It has been al- 
ways a prolific source of fraud, says the Santa 
Bo.- a Democrat. Late investigations prove that 
the government was robbed last year of about 
$250,000 duty on Calcutta-made bags, which 
were entered as domestic. Of course the im- 
porters bad to swear to a lie to get them in, but 
what difference does that make to those who 
think it no crime to steal from the government. 
The farmers who pay the taxes did not get 
their grain sacks a hundredth part of a cent 
cheaper on account of this roguery. 

The Hamilton Fruit Grader. 

Mechanical skill and inventive genius has been 
enlisted in making and devising implements and de- 
vices for gathering and marketing Iiuit. Prominent 
among these is the Hamilton Fruit (grader. This 
grader has been use five years, and with small im- 
provements added each year it seems, in durability, 
efficiency and rapid work, to have approached per- 
fection. Mr. W. C. Hamilton, the inventor and 
manufacturer, has a full force of help at his factory, 
in Sin Jose, making these graders on orders. Col. 
Hersey. of San Jose and President of the West Side 
Fruit Company and Santa Clara Fruit Company 
has placed an order for a five-foot fruit grader for 
the West Side Fruit Company and two three-foot 
fruit graders for the Santa Clara Fruit Company. 
Mr. Hamilton makes a specialty of manufacturing 
and dealing in implements and labor-saving ma 
chines for gathering and handling fruit, such as 
dipping baskets, field cars, transfer cars and turn- 

Baskets, Screen; and Graders. 

Within the last few years there has been great 
progress made in the manufacture of new and im- 
proved machinery for handling fruit crops, and this 
is more particularly the case in regard to prunes, 
both green and dried. The more rapidly and 
economically the crop can be prepared for market, 
the more satisfactory are the profits at the end of 
the season. D. D. Wass, 141 First St., S. F., 
makes a specialty of this class 01 mtchinery in the 
line of Graders, Biskets and Screens for prune- 
growers, and has the very best facilities for turning 
out this class of work on short notice. If you are 
in need of anything in this line, be can suit you. Do 
not fail to see his advertisement in this issue of the 
Rural Press 



rate of interest on approved security In Farming Lands. 
A. SCHULLKB, Room 8, 420 California street, San 

T/)e Monarch of 

greakfasf foods 







RAKES, and 
GANG and 

Cor. 10th and K Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 


km Self-Guidinpj3«s> Tongueless 

Our book— 

"Fun on the Farm," Bent 
Free to all wbo mention this paper 


Bide draft. 

neck weigh*. 
No lifting 

EnMrr"^.' / ^-^K at corners. 

Drtvina.^ GSeSU B^BK^ Ilrnkc provonts 
'Strniulit, r J'urrr.irS^SSS £t, p)ow runnlnu on team, 
ond JLIghter Draft than any plow on or on* wheels 
Equally adapted to Western prairies and hard, stony 
ground, or hillsides. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bend, Ind., or Stanton, Thomson & Go., Sacramento. 

EVSpeclal prices and time f"-»r trial given on first orders from points where we have no ;ent». 






ThlB 1b the Standard Work on the Raleln Industry In California. It baa been 
approved by Prof. Hilgard, Prof. Wlckson, Mr. Obaa. A. Wetmore and a multitude of 
Practical Raleln Growers. 

Sold only by tbe DEWEY PUBLISHING OO. or Its Agents at lhe uniform price of 
$3 OO, postage prepaid. Orders sbould be addressed: 


220 Market St., San Francisco, 

July 15, 1898. 




Of 1893 will be held at SACRAMENTO, 

SEPTEMBER 4th to 16th :::::::: TWO WEEKS. 

$20 000 IN CASH PREMIUMS $20,000 


AUNT 13 


Should make preparation to exhibit at THE ANNUAL FAIR as the opportunity is specially given to 


INVITE INVESTMENT of capital by showing the products of your section. 

INQUIRIES AS TO LOCALITIES are being constantly made. We reply by send- 
ing reports of exhibits, which speak for themselves. 

OBJECT LESSONS are valuable, and when written upon and their description 
heralded, thev become a standing advertisement. 

SHOW WHAT YOUR COUNTY can produce, and capital will flow in the direction 

LANDS HAVE BEEN IMPROVED by the hundreds of acres in tree and vine 
planting through capital attracted bv exhibits made at the State Fair. 

attracted by exhibits made at the State Fairs. 

THE STATE FAIR is the stimulating agent of progression. 

THE STATE FAIR is the medium that brings the two electrical currents — labor 
and capital — together each year. 

THE STATE FAIR aids all classes. It is the recreation ground of the farmer, the 
school of information for the breeder, the point of observation for the mechanic, and the 
period of investigation for capital. 

FAILURE TO EXHIBIT is an acknowledgment of weakness. 

KEEP YOUR PRODUCTIONS before the people, and the people will always keep 
your localitv in view. 

THE USUAL EXTRA ATTRACTIONS for entertainment of visitors at the State 
Fair of 1893 will be furnished in keeping with the occasion, that exhibitors may benefit 

Information furnished upon application to the Secretary, at Sacramento. 

JOHN BOGGS, President. 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 


Farmers Sboold 



In the dry climate of Cali- 
fornia there is great daogsr 
from Fire: that the loss of a 
crop or of a barn and con- 
tents, or a dwelling and con- 
tents, without Insurance, 
will seriously embarrass you. 





Dykes' Improved 

Medal and Diploma awarded at Mechanics' 
Industrial Exposition, San Francisco, 1893. 

me Best well Pump, Winflmrl Pnmp.lrri- 
gation or Drainage Pump. 

It is more simple than aoy other pump. Any 
one who can use a wrench and a hammer can 
take It apart and put it together with ease and 
correctness. It will very seldom need repair, 
and will rot break, except for rough u«age. 
But ab"ut three lines of instructions of how to 
set it up and use it are needed, as follows: 
Fasten it to your platform; attach your suction 
and discharge pipes; Dut in a bucket of water; 
start your power, and your pump will do its 
work. 14 will deliver more water with the 
same power than any other pump. 

Careful Inspcotion is what we want. Give us 
a chanoe to bid on the work you want. A ry 
size Pomp made- We were awarded two 
Flrrt Premiums at the California State Fair, 
1892, and one First Premium at the Stockton 
Fair. Send for circular. 

Manufacturers, West Berkeley, Oal. 





Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes 

Iron cut, punohedand formed, for making pipe nn ground where required. All kinds of Tools supplied for 
making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for ooatlng all 
sizes Of Pipes with a composition of Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

F. W. KROGH & CO., 






Steam and Irrigating 


^ m Pumping Machinery 


N \ y Also, several different kinds of 


F. W. KROGH <& CO 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 
Kindly mention this paper. 


■ WITH ■ 


Cheapest, Best and Only One to Protect Trees and Vines 
from Frost, Sunburn, Rabbits, Squirrels, Borers and Other 
Tree Pests. 

For Testimonials from Parties who are using them send 
for Descriptive Circulars. 

Sole Manufacturer of Patent Tule Covers, 



Never Requires Olllng-or^CIlmblng of Toweri. 

Guaranteed more durable without oil. than other mills that are oiled. 
Practically, these mills require no attention. Truly a Gsm, and worth iti 
weight in Gold. It combines beauty, strength, durability and simplicity. Gov- 
erns itself perfectly, is easily erected and is sold on its merits; in fact, it is the 
best mill on earth. Thev are geared back three to one— the wheel making three 
revolutions to one stroke of pump— making them run in the lightest wind or 
breeze. The mill Is made entirely of Steel and Cast Iron. Each one of oar Gem 
Wind Mills is warranted. If not satisfactory, freight will be paid both ways and 
money refunded. We also carry Pumps of all kinds, Tanks, Pipe 




July 15, 1898. 

^Agricultural J^otes. 


Register: John Edwards, a miner for many 
veare at Thompson's Flat, has shown the possi- 
bilities of the old mining ground in that vicin- 
ity. He has cleared, leveled, plowed and 
planted several acres to orange trees, corn and 

Register: Ex-Sheriff McClellan lately visited 
Durham, Dayton, Nelson and Biggs, and ex- 
amined with some care the grain in those sec- 
tions. He says he was surprised to note that 
the latter was so much better than the farmers 
had expected. The cool and pleasant weather 
has brought out the grain wonderfully, causing 
it to grow long after the usual season, and giv- 
ing time for the heads to fill out and the ker- 
nels to become plump and full. 


Sun: The first green frnit shipped from Co- 
lusa has been sold in Chicago, and the prices 
netted from one to four cents a pound here— av- 
eraged over $40 a ton. The growers think the 
next will bring better prices, but two cents a 
pound is good. 

Contra Costa. 
Antioch Ledger: What intelligent effort and 
persevering industry will accomplish is demon- 
strated by J. W. Fuller, who bought the old 
Metz place in the sand land about two years 
ago. He has a young almond orchard that we 
believe will beat anything in the State. The 
trees are two and one-half years old, and the 
growth is simply marvelous and almost passing 
belief. Every orchardist should visit this place 
and see this splendid growth, all produced with- 
out irrigation, but by intelligent cultivation, 
and thoroughly learn the lesson it teaches. If 
the splendid growth Mr. Fuller has secured 
does not prove that cultivation is more potent 
than irrigation, we don't know what it proves. 
The old Metz place is the pioneer of the chap- 
arral and sand land, and the first to demon- 
strate its adaptability to fruit culture. Mr. 
Fuller is digging up and replacing all the old 
vines and fruit trees, because he finds the varie- 
ties were not selected with the best of judgment. 


S. F. Chronicle: S. C. Lillis, the banker of 
Lillis, who has arrived here, reports that that 
part of the country has unusually large yields 
this year of grain and frnit, and that the fail- 
ure of Eastern banks has not alarmed the peo- 

Ele there any. " Everything is on a firm basis," 
e said, " but we ought to be assisted a little in 
marketing our crops. The merchants and 
others who have dealings with the people there 
ought to help them out in this. Through the 
reports of the failures of Eastern banks the 
people there did not lose their heads. As soon 
as our big crops can be sold, we will be in ex- 
ceedingly good shape." Mr. Lillis is at the 
Palace. "He proposes to establish his family 
here for several months, and is now securing a 
residence for them. 


Times: The Vance estate have in contempla- 
tion some very radical changes in their Lindsay 
creek property, to be made at no distant date. 
It is their intention to drain the Lindsay creek 
pond, and use the land thus reclaimed for 
dairying purposes. The pond covers an area of 
about 150 acres of as rich land as can be found 
in the county. This, with the rich hill slopes 
and 40 acres above the pond, already in clover, 
will afford pasturage for a large number of cows. 
It is also their intention to erect a creamery 


B. F. Hoy a few days since killed a rattle- 
snake on A. B. Robinson's place, near San 
Emigdio, which measured seven feet in length. 
The reptile was very prettily marked in black 
upon and old gold background, and dead was 
much more to be admired than living. He 
was exceedingly ferocious and showed fight as 
soon as discovered, but a well-applied rifle shot 
carried away his head with its dangerous fangs, 
and Mr. Rattler became quiet and innocent. 

Californian: Careful estimates of the cost of 
raising wheat in the Tehachapi country have 
been prepared by competent authorities, who 
give the following as the maximum figures per 

Plowing $1 00 

Seeding 1 00 

Harrowing 25 

Heading 1 25 

Threshing 1 25 

Sacks and sacking 80 

Total $5 65 

Seed varies from 50 to 100 pounds per acre, 
making the total cost from $6.30 to $7.05 on 
land which yields an average of ten sacks of 


Hanford Review: S. C. Lillis and family left 
the Laguna de T. die ranch on the 26th of June 
for San Francisco, where they will reside in the 
future. Dr. Thornton will take charge of the 
ranch on the Fourth of July, and the parties 
who bought the property over two years ago 
will have legal possession in October. Since 
the sale was made Mr. Lillis has shipped over 
15,000 head of cattle, and still has about 3000 
head on hand, which are being shipped at the 
rate of 300 per week. Mr. Lillis, having exten- 
sive interests in this valley, will probably be a 
constant visitor here. 

Los Angeles. 

Times: The last weather and crop report 
from the Southern California 'Weather-Crop 
Bulletin places the apricot crop in this valley 
at one-half or one-third of last year's crop. 

This is certainly a mistake. A careful investi- 
gation among buyers and orchardists places 
the crop at fully 800 tons, and the growers are 
receiving from $25 to $30 per ton for their fruit. 
Last year's crop amounted to about 1000 tons. 
The prospects are brightening every day. With 
the advanced prices being received this year it 
will be a much better year tban last, which is 
saying a great deal. The buyers are shipping 
fruit in the green state every day. 

Progress: The statement which we have made 
a number of times, that Pomona is getting to 
be a nursery center of no small magnitude, is 
pretty well substantiated by the following 
figures, furnished by Horticultural Inspector 
Atkinson, of the number of trees shipped out 
of this place during the past season. There are 
still a few small shipments to be made: 
Variety. No. Trees. 

Oranges 116,357 

Lemons 4,376 

Prunes 16,204 

Peaches 10,018 

Apricots 5,960 

Plums 633 

Apples 232 

Olives 615,642 

Total 769,422 


Democrat: Haying is in full blast. Those 
who have hay to sell this season can command 
a good price. About $12 is the ruling price, 
while it usually brings but $6 per ton at har- 
vest time. 


Watsonville Pajaronian: The beet crop of 
the Moro Cojo^ranch continues to look first- 
class. There are going to be some big beet re- 
turns from the Salinas valley this year, and the 
crop in this valley is going to be larger than 
many of the sharps were predicting two weeks 
ago. The outlook is encouraging, for a big 
campaign at the factory. 

San Bernardino. 

Ontario Record: The rabbit-hunt Saturday 
was an exciting event. J. T. Lindley's side got 
away with 128, and J. B. Moore's party with 
116. The best individual score was made by G. 
T. Stamm,;who.brought down 22. 


San Joaquin grain-dealers are offering to buy 
the new crop and loaning $15 to $18 per ton on 
stored wheat at Stockton, showing a better con- 
dition of money matters. All wheat coming 
in is being stored, as prices are too low. 

Santa Barbara. 

Experienced bee-keepers in Santa Barbara 
county predict that the honey harvest this sea- 
son will be the best for several years. 

Santa Clara. 

Fruit-picking will begin at Campbell; very 
soon. Both drier and cannery will be in readi- 
ness for all the fruit that will be brought in. 
The new stock in the drier is being taken 
rapidly, and any who may desire it must apply 
very soon or be left out. 


Dixon Tribune: The following horticultural 
statistics are taken from Assessor Schirmer's 
rolls for 1893: The number of acres of grape- 
vines in bearing is 2858, including table and 
raisin grapes 1483, wine grapes 1375. The 
number of trees of the various varieties growing 
is as follows: Apple 2248; apricot 227,695; 
cherrv 26,350; fig 13,987; olive 6378; peach 
299,596; pear 186,231: French prune 123,629; 
other prunes 51,428; lemon 208; orange 4452; 
almond 91,330; walnut 4291; other trees, 1559. 


A number of rattlesnakes have been killed 
on the outskirts of Downieville lately. There 
is said to be an unusually large crop of these 
pests this year in Sierra county. 


The early varieties of grapes are ripening and 
will be in market in a week. 

Farmer: Robert McMullen, the levee watch- 
man in No. 70, brought in 1100 gopher scalps 
and received the bounty of three cents per scalp 
as allowed by the Board of Supervisors. 


Santa Rosa Democrat: J. A. Kleiser of Clover- 
dale was a visitor here Wednesday. He says a 
great grape crop is looked for in the northern 
part of the county. 

Blucher Valley Cor.: Vineyards look rather 
seedy in some hilly localities, showing a lack of 
rain, but the grapes seem to be doing nearly as 
well as if they had been cultivated. Perhaps 
they will continue to do so until the summer 
becomes more advanced; then they will cer- 
tainly show the absence of cultivation and the 
necessary moisture. 

Blucher Valley Cor.: A comparatively new 
line of fruit-raising has been introduced. It is 
berry-growing, and the raspberry has the lead. 
There are several large tracts devoted to their 
culture, Mr. Cristy having one of the largest, 
and a fine quality of that fruit is picked each 
day and marketed. Strange there are not more 
currant and strawberry patches, for a scarcity 
is always noticed when fruit-canning comes, 
sometimes it being impossible to obtain them 
at any price, when the market is glutted with 
other berries. 

Vine Hill Cor. Republican: Our locality will 
be noted for its big chicken ranches some day. 
There will be one of two thousand and one of 
one thousand hen-power under way soon. 
There are already several five hundred power, 
and flocks of one and two hundred are too 
common to eggcite remark. The projectors of 
the latter (h)enterprise, of course, don't expect 
to come up eggsactly to the "scratch" with 

those numbers; but they mean to leave no egg 
unturned to secure the intended number when 
they start the incubators. Being eggsperienced 
poultrymen, they will succeed, as a matter of 
course. One party here having a flock of 500 
chickens took in $10 per day last season. The 
cut-cut-cut-a-cut of the American hen may not 
be as musical and alluring as the " lay " of the 
nightingale, but it's more business-like. 


People's Cause: The cannery has exhausted 
its fruit supply and closed down for a few 
days. When it starts up again it will make a 
run on peaches. 

Corning Observer: The Arbuckle Autocrat 
says that rabbits are multiplying in that part 
of the county, especially at the foothills, and 
doing much damage. Of course they will in- 
crease, as the coyotes have decreased. They 
are doing much damage west of Corning, and 
there are many of them. On the Maywood 
Colony there are none to be found, because the 
superintendent, Mr. Galliher, keeps several 
hounds. It is a cheap and easy method of de- 
stroying rabbits. It is much better to keep 
greyhounds than mangy curs and they can 
make their own living. 


Citizen: Word comes from Huron that 
some of the harvesters there have stopped 
work because no sacks can be had without the 
money and the wheat will not bring the 
money. Men who have tons of wheat at the 
depot cannot get sacks and are not able to 
finish their threshing. Some of the Lucerne 
farmers are in the same fix. 

Visalia Delia: Horace Demaree, who farms 
what is known as the E. O. Larkins' place, one 
mile southwest of this city, Monday brought to 
the Delta office a box of the largest blackberries 
that has been seen here. The patch of vines is 
not more than 30x60 feet in size, and every 
other day for the last two weeks he has been 
gathering an average of 50 pounds at a picking, 
and the vines are not yet as productive as they 
will be a week or two hence. 

Times: One of the most gigantic irrigation 
schemes ever devised in this country is con- 
templated by some capitalists of Tulare, among 
whom is Mr. Linder, the hardware man. The 
plan is to irrigate Round valley and the coun- 
try about Lindsay by water taken from the 
streams high up among the pines at the source 
of north Tule near the old Dillon sawmill. 
Flumes will be used much of the way east- 
ward around the mountains till the water is 
carried to the head of Lewis creek at the south- 
ern extremity of the Blue Ridge range. It is 
estimated that 6,000.000 feet of lumber will be 
required in the fluming. At Blue Ridge the 
water will be turned into Lewis creek and a 
large reservoir made lower down the stream. 
Work is expected to begin soon. 


Santa Paula Chronicle: A. D. Williams has 
begun operations ou a small scale at the drier 
Only a few apricots are coming. The crop 
promises to be fairly good and is rJaying $20 per 
ton now, but the outlook for future prices is 
not encouraging on account of there not being 
a demand for dried fruit. He will not run a 
large force until after the Fourth. 

Venturian: M. H. Mendelson is trying the 
experiment of putting his bees on bean blos- 
soms, and will move between 600 and 700 colo- 
nies to the valley. He says honey made in this 
way is very fine, and is as clear and white as 
can be desired. He hns extracted 30 tons so far, 
or about one-half of what he should have. 
The price, he states, is very low, but beemen 
are prepared to hold for six cents. He states 
that the crop through southern California is 
just about a half-crop, and there is no just reason 
for the low price. 

Venturian: J. H. Shepherd, the boss straw- 
berry man of Rincon, was visited this week. 
His brother, S. A. Shepherd, stated that from 
an acre and a half they had realized as high as 
$1800, but they could not depend upon doing 
so well every year. In speaking about his crop, 
J. H. Shepherd, the one who has the largest 
strawberry field, says : " This season I expect 
to have 12.000 boxes, and am realizing 11 cents 
a box for all I can supply. The best variety to 
grow I find is the ' First Season.' They ripen 
a full red and are a good keeper. Next season 
I will put out two acres. I am going into 
lemon culture as fast as possible, and about 
two years more will let me out of strawberries." 


Winters Express: Most of the fruit-growers 
are drying their fruit now, owing to the unsat- 
isfactory prices obtained for the fresh article; 
still, a large amount in the aggregate is being 
shipped each day. 

Dunnigan Cor. Democrat: Chas. Byrnes re- 
ports that the grain he is cutting now is yield- 
ing about 12 sacks to the acre. He has about 
1600 acres, one-fourth of which he has har- 
vested. He does not expect that all of his 
grain will yield so well, but it is nevertheless a 
good crop. 

Democrat: Chas. Byrnes is cutting barley for 
the Willow Oak Park farmers. He has already 
harvested for quite a number of them, and he 
informs us that the lowest yield has been 17 
sacks and the highest 21 sacks to the acre. 
That seems to us a pretty fair yield considering 
the general cry of short crops. 

Guinda Cor. Democrat: The fruit- growers of 
this vicinity do not employ Japs. . . . The 
fruit shipments from this place have been 
quite large for several days. ... A field 
of winter-sown grain east of town, which was 
harvested by the Hamilton brothers on the 
third of July, yielded an average of 8} sacks to 
the acre. ... I. MrGrew, as is his usual 
custom, spent the Fourth of July threshing out 
the golden grain. He was operating on the 

Foster ranch, in Hungry Hollow, this year, 
and 1364 sacks was the result of the day's 
work. The average per day for the machine 
since it started up has been 1150 sacks. We 
should be pleased to hear reports from other 
machines. The yield of the grain is much bet- 
ter than was anticipated before harvesting. 


Marysville Democrat: The disease known as 
"swelled head" is now making its rounds 
among the chickens on the Brown's Valley 
road. George Crossly has lost 600 hens in the 
last two weeks through its ravages. Other 
farmers in that section report that the disease 
has made serions inroads into their poultry 


Portland Oregonian: The apple trees in the 
orchard in Stephens' addition, where millions 
of caterpillars had germinated, are being cut 
down and will be burned. There was no use 
for the citizens of that section to try to exter- 
minate caterpillars on their premises as long as 
this breeding-place existed. 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of "A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enoshurgh Falls, Vt. This book 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves ot this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the " Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time 

Three and One-Half Dayi to the World's 

We take pleasure In ad vising the readers of the PACinc 
Rural Prim that the UNION PACIFIC in tbe most 
direct and quickest line from San Frandsoo and all 
points In California to the WORLD'S FAIR. 

It is the ONLY LINE running Pullman's latest Im- 
proved veetibuled Drawing. Room Sleepers and Dining 
Cars Irom San Franolsco to Chicago without change, and 
only one chaDge of can to New York or Boston. 

Select Tourist Excursions via the UNION PACIFC 
leave San Francisco every Thursday for Chicago, New 
York and Boston In cturge of experienced managers, 
who give their personal attention t> the oomforC of 
ladies and children traveling alone. 

Steamship Tickets to and from all points In Europe. 

For tickets to the World's Fair and all points east and 
for Sleeping-Car accommodati ns call on or address 
D. W. Hitchcock, General Agent Union Pacific System, 
No. 1 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

Hay Preuing. 

If you are interested in pressing hay write Truman, 
Hooker & Co., San Francisco. They wUl save you money. 

Horse Owners! Try 



1 safe Speedy and reelurs fin 
Tbe Sofeet, Beet BLISTER ever need. Takes 

tbe place of nil liniments for mild or severe action- 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes .from Horses 
OR FIRINC- unpossibU to produce sear or blemitn. 

Every bottle sold is warranted to give aatlafacti- ? 
Price II. SO per bottle. Sold by dramrlsta, or 
sent by express, chargw wild, with rail direction^ 
for IW uta Send for deecrtpUve circulars. 


634 Oal'forola Street, corner >aorome. 
Brjnch. 1700 Market Street, corner Polk. 

For the half year ending with 80th of June, 1893, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate cf five T5) per cent 
per annum on Term Deposits and four and one-sixth i U) 
per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, 
payable on and after Satuidav, 1st of Juh , 1893. 






9 Geary St. Uj 


s oftiob fs. ja 

July 15, 1893. 




Eli Challenge Full Circle. 
Champion Full Circle. 
Junior Monarch. 
Miller Lightning. 


Write for prices and get full particulars. 


On Hay Presses and Haying Tools. 



San Francisco and Fresno. 


The Monarch, Junior Monarch, and other 
kinds of Presses, made by the Celebrated 
Hay Press Manufacturer, Jacob Price, tor 


San Leandro, Oal. 


Porteons Improved Scraper 

Patented April 3, 1883. Patented April 17, 1883. 

Manufactured by G, LISSENDEN, 

The attention of the public is called to this Scraper 
and the many varieties of work of which it is capable, 
such as Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build- 
ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry its load to any 
desired dlstanoe. It will distribute the dirt evenly or 
deposit its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are In use In all parts of the country. 

ti~ This Scraper Is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $40 ; Steel two-horse, $81. 
Address all orders to O. LISSENDEN, Stockton, 





Indigestion, BlllounneBS, Headache, Con«tl* 
nation, l>yspepsla, Chronic Liver Troubles, 
Dizziness, Bad Complexion, Dysentery, 
Offensive Breath, and all disorders of the 
Stomach, Liver and Bowels. 

Ripans Tabules contain nothing injurious to 
the most delicate constitution. Pleasant to take, 
safe, effectual. Give immediate relief. 

Sold by druggists. A trial bottle sent by moll 
on receipt of Jf> cents. Address 



" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Insecticide. 

T. SKT . J^OKSON eh OO . . 

Sole Agents, 

No. 6 MarkM street. San Francisco, CaL 

Now that the interest in the culture of the orange is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience in parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
rood will be found of wide usefulness. 

"Orange Culture in California" was written by Those 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit. 
It Is a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and Irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

The b 00k is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 75 
oeots per copy, In cloth binding. Address DEWEY PUB- 
LISHING CO., Publishers "Paoiflo Rural Prow," 220 

arket St., San Francisco. 


A notable invention of the Columbian year, for transporting California's fresh fruit 
to market. Look into it I It is worthy of trial) Its advantages truly stated are: Fruit 
can be picked later and riper; requires no wrappers; no decay from pressure, bruising 
or rubbing; the ventilation is absolute and positive; it grades and counts the fruit in 
the carrier ; fruit all open to inspection ; no rehandling or repacking at destination ; no 
skilled labor for packing. Gives the grower all the advantage arising by arrival of his 
fruits in markets ripe, sound, luscious and attractive, Instead of half ripe, bruised or 
decaying. It isolates each piece of fruit by double, elastic walls, with air spaces 
between, over and around it. It is not an untried quantity. Messrs. Brown & . Wells, of 
California Market, San Francisco, say: " We have made shipments of green fruit In it 
to Honolulu, Panama, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Australia and Arizona, and 
have received report to the effect that the fruit arrived in perfect condition. We believe 
it Is surely destined to become in the near future the universal package for short or 
long distance shipments " Nothing to equal it for fine apricots, peaches, plums and 
pears. Will carry fresh figs successfully. Carriers now ready for delivery for apricots. 
Send in early orders to insure supply. 

PRICE (for ordinary standard package) $15.00 per hundred, Including outside and 
inside cases. Call on us or send for circulars. 

STEVENS FRUIT CASE CO., 307 Front Street, San Francisco, 

Agents for the Pacific Coast. 


P & B ^ ru ^ Dryer 



PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 






Some reasons why yon should keep H. H. H. Liaiment: 

1st— Because it is the best for Man or Beast. 

3d— Because it is the Cheapest. One bottle mixed with double its quantity of oil is then as strong as most 

3d— Because you don't have to wait for it. You can buy it anywhere. 

H H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 



Hay Baler ? If so. da yrju use □ur FatBirr 





Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 

San Francisco Office and Warehouse 
8 and 10 Pine Street. 

a. n. DEWEY. 

W. E. EWER. 

G. H. STRONft. 


Scieaiific hit 

Patent Agency 


Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Wash' 
Ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original oases in our office, we have 
)ther advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies. The 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability oi 
inventions t -ought before us, enables ua often, to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents npon inventions whioh are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
'ree on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 220 Market Sfc S. F. 





The Valves and work- 
ing parts of the Fulton 
Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the 
pump out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready 
to put in. 

Send for Circular and 
Price List to 

A. T. AMES, 




10, 13 and 14 ft. 

Cheaper than an; 
Flrst-Class Hill In 
the market. 
Every Ooa 


No bearings, no 
springs, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mill Id 
the world. 

10-foot Write 

12-foot for 

14-foot Prices 

Agents Wanted 


fRUMAN, HOOKER k CO., San Francisco or Fresno, 








Are WARRANTED to be 
strictly first-class In material 
and construction, to be the best 
regulated, and to produce more 
power than any other steel mill made. 


the Original Self-regulating Wood Wheel. 
Pumpa,Tanks, &c. Send for Catalogue and Prices. 




July 15, 1893. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at 60o per line per month. 


F. H. BURKE. 828 Market St, 8. F. Registered 
Holstelns, winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast. 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co. Importer & Breeder 
of Registered Shorthorn Cattle. Toung Bulls for Bale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Shorthorns. Young Stock for sale. 

PERCHERON HORSES.— Pure-bred Horses and 
Mares, all ages, and Guaranteed Breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake County, Cal. New 
Catalogue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

PETER SAXB & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

Lh V. WILLITS. Watsonvllle, Cal., Black Perch- 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 


O. BLOM, St. Helena. Brown Leghorns a specialty. 

Cal. Send for Illustrated & Descriptive Catalogue, free. 

JOHN McFARLINQ, Calistoga, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Choioe Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


FOR SALE at low pries— Three extra fine young 
thoroughbred Dishfaceu Berkshire Boars. T. Chitten- 
den, Cnlttenden, Cal. 

C. H. DWINELLE, Fulton, Sonoma Co., Cal. Shrop- 
shire ard Crossbred fehropshlre-Merino Rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT. Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Bams for sale. 

R. H. CRANE, Petalumt, Cal. Breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


J. E. ALSFORD, Woodside, Sau Mateo Co. Breeder 
of Berkshire Hogs and Toulouse Oeese. 

P. H- MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal.— Breeder of 
Short-Horn Cattle, Poland-China and Berkshire Hogs. 

T. WAl'l'E, Perkins, Cal., breeder of registered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 

J. P. ASHLEY, linden, Cal. Breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. 8ma>l Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior Stock, Low Prices. 

TYLEk BEACH, San Jose, cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 


W. A. SHAFOR, Middletown,Ohlo> 

Largest American Importer of 
O. D. Sheep, 

Is prepared to quote prices on the best stock of Oxford 
Down Sheep to be bad In England. Parties wanting 
flrst-olass stock should write for particulars and Induce 
their neighbors to Join them. Import will arrive in 
June. Write at once. 



EGGS $2.60 per setting; $i for two settings; S5 for 
three settings. White Leghorn pen headed by 
"Volante," score 96$ Brown Leghorn pen headed by 
"Imperial," score 93. Send for circular. Satisfaction 
guaranteed to all. 

Oare Santa Rosa National Bank SANTA ROSA. CAL. 



1S1* Myrtle (street, Oaklaid, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 




SIRED BY FIRST CLASS IMPORTED MALES. My Brood Sows, Imported from the East, are the admiration or 
everybody, being fine Individuals and, like the Boars, rich In such blood as Tecumseh, the most famous hog 
that ever lived, King Tecumseh. his greatest son, Tom Corwin 2d, whose owner refused (1000 for him, Cora Schel- 
lenberger, whose produce sold for 43300 before she died, and other prize- winners at Eastern State Fairs Inspec- 
tion Invited and correspondence solicited. Parties giving timely notice will be met at station. Ranch one mile 
from station. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles, Cal. 

f WEATHER I Ito tjj Cheapest f Grail life 

j VANES | s J^g [TRUCKS 

j COFFEE j ofanystyleltnowii I GROCERS' 
I MILLS ! to the trade j FIXTURES 


7fi Front SL, Portland, Or. S A S Front St., San Francisco 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Ooeta. 


Money advanced on Oraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

B. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 


SB^-aOKT Or* 1893, 



H. M. 

809-81 1 Sansome Street 

Send for Circulars 

NEWHALL & OO., Agents, 

.San Francisco. Oal 


Price #66, Delivered Anywhere In the 

United States. 
These Scales have STEEL BEARINGS, Not Wood— 

From 26 to GO per cent cheaper than any other 
Scales of like quality. All sites and kinds 
of Scales always In stock. 

Truman, Hooker ft Co.. San Francisco. 

Send for Price Lists 


And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 




Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 



Baden Station, San Mateo County, Oa)< 

Only three-fourths mile from the terminus of 
the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road. 

Dr. A. B. BUZ ARD, 


ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon In the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press. " The diseases ot 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronlo Lameness and Surgical 
Operations. 406 BRODERICK ST., 8AN FRANCISCO. 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephonr 
Ho. MOT. 



Two 3-year-old Imported Shire Mares 
in foal. Also Imported English Coach 
Stallion. Address W. W. RUSHMORE, 
Importer and Breeder of Draft and 
Coach Stallions. P. O. Box 80. Stable, 
Brovlway and 32d St., Oakland, Cal. 

The Kansas City Veterinary College 

Incorporated by the State. 
JjpOR catalogue .address J B. WATTLES, D. V. 8. 

810 East Twelfth Street 

The Most teurcessful Itemedr ever discov- 
ered as It is certain lu its effects and does not 
blister. Read proof below. 


Stockton, Cai_, Dec. 19th, '92. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co. 

Gentlemen.-— Having read one of yonr Treatise 
on the Horse and seeing the Spavin Cure adver- 
tised, I thought I would try It. I had one horse 
with a prominent Spavin of 12 months standing. 
I removed it with bottle. I tied uponefore foot 
on same side the spavin was and compelllngthe 
horse to reston lame leg while I took a surcingle 
and drew it ncross the hook or spavin until the 
hock or spavin got very warm with the friction, 
then putting on Spavin Cure. I had a mare that 
had a running from her none for 12 or 14 
months. I rubbed the Spavin Cure from her eves 
down to nostrils, then from back of Jaw bone 
down under the throat for a week. I have not 
seen any discbarge for two months. 

Yours truly, HUGH McDADK. 

Price Sl.00 per bottle. 
Enosburgh Falls, Vermont. 

Back Files of the Paoimo Rdkal Press (unbound 
can be had for $3.60 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) 84. Inserted In Dewey's patent blader 
If cents additional per volums. 

Commission Merchants. 


Commission Merchants, 

ajts iului u 


Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hidei, Beans and Polatooi. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
808 * 810 Davis 8t„ Ban Francisco. 

[P. O. Box 1988.) 
SSTConilgnmente Solicited. 


404&4-06 DAVIS STS.F. 


501, 608, SOS. S07 & BOO Front St. 
And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 







AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., 8. T. 
Members of the San Franolsco Produce Exchange, 

SSTFersonal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of Interest, 





80 Olay Street and 38 OommeroiaUStreet 
Sam Fxancisoo, Cal. 




Authorised Capital SI.OOO.OOO 

Capital paid up and Ktwrrt Fund MOO. 00* 
Dividends paid to Ntoek bolder*. . . . 7»0,0«a 


A. D. LOGAN President 

L O. STEEL K Vloe-Prralden t 

ALBERT MOXTPELLIER Cashier and Mauser 


General Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 

Bills of Exchange bought and sold. 

Loans on wheat and country produce a specialty. 

January 1, 1893. A MO NTPELLIER, Manager. 



810 Market St.. San Francisco, 

HKBrl.E-s OAS WORKS. New process, 
safe and Inexpensive, from $100 upward. Light cbeape r 
than coal oil. Sand for catalogue and prices. 

'July 15, 1898. 



The Jndson 
Fruit Company, 

308 and 310 
San Francisco, Cal. 

== We are now better than ever prepared to 
receive consignments of all kinds of perishable 
products, such as Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs, etc. Our 
facilities for cool, dry storage and packing for long- 
distance shipping cannot be excelled. It Is our con- 
stant aim to make our consignors and our customers 
stay with us. 

Market Review. 

San Francisco, July 12, 1893. 

The better tone in the monetary situition, it 
would seem, ought to have a corresponding effect 
on the wheat market, inasmuch as a serious de- 
pressing factor in the grain situation has been and 
is the hard times. But the market is slow to im- 
prove. During the week prices have shown some 
improvement in New York and Chicago, and a 
slightly better feeling has developed in the local 
market; but it has not been material, nor does it 
give confidence that a general advance all along the 
line is about to occur. 

Harvest is well under way in the State, and re- 
ports are that the yield in northern portion of Cali- 
fornia will be better than expected, while in the 
upper San Joaquin and in the lower part of the 
State generally the yield will be full. Serious trouble 
to producers was threatened because of inability to 
secure advances on the new crop sufficient to secure 
grain sacks, but the State Board of Prison Directors 
has attempted to relieve the situation by announcing 
that they will sell grain bags on credit. Ten per 
cent cash only is required, the remainder being by 
promisory note payable in 90 days. This determi- 
nation is contingent upon tne opinion of the State's 
Attorney-General as to whether it is legal. Trade in 
the local market has been of small dimensions. 
For the most part sellers are disposed to hold on as 
long as they can, and buyers are in no hurry. The 
lack of readv money prevents purchases that other- 
wise might be invited by prevailing low prices. 

During the six months ending June 30, 1893, the 
exports from this port were 795,126 centals more 
than for the corresponding period in 1892. There 
was, however, a falling off ot 2,390.714 centals for 
the past cereal year, as compared with 1891-92. 
The average export price last year was $1.31 per 
cental, against $r.68 in the previous year, resulting 
in an apparent net loss of $7,993,572 for 1892-93. 

The condition ol the Amendn and European 
crops shows no important changes, except that 
spring wheat in the Middle West is in poorer condi- 
tion than a month since. The average condition of 
wheat in the United States, however, shows just a 
little improvement over conditions a month since. 
July returns to the Department of Agriculture show 
the following averages of all grains: Corn, 93.2; 
winter wheat, 77. 7; spring wheat, 74. 1; oats, 88.8; 
rye, 85.3; barley, 88.8; potatoes, 94.8; tobacco, 93.0. 

The condition of winter wheat <s 77.7, against 
75.5 of last month and 89 6 in July of last year. 
The principal States' averages are: Michigan, 79; 
Illinois, 66; Missouri, 77; Kansas, 46; California, 
88; Oregon, 96. 

The condition of spring wheat is 74.1, against 
90.9 iu July of last year. Last month it was 86.4. 
State averages are: Iowa, 95; Nebraska, 63; South 
Dakota, 89; North Dakota, 73, and Washington, 91. 

The condition of wheat July 1, 1893, was 76.6; on 
June tst it was 78.8. The condition of oats remains 
about the same as last month, being 88.8, as against 
88.9 June 1st. July returns show a slight advance 
in the condition of rye from 84.6 on June ist to 85.3 
this month. Winter rye stands at 83 9 and spring 
rye at 89, the combined average as stated above be- 
iug 85.8. The condition of barley has changed but 
little during the month. The average is 88.8, 
against 88.3 on the ist of June. 

The European Crop. 

Beerbohm's for June 23d contains a statement of 
the condition of European crops, from which we 
condense the following: The end of the long drouth 
has been reached at last, being broken in England 
by copious rains. A heavy thunder shower is re- 
ported in Austria. The wheat crop in England is 
rapidly maturing under the forcing of the drouth, 
and a very early harvest is the result. The yield 
will be very short. 

France— Unsatisfactory; not sufficient rain. 

Belgium and Holland— No improvement. 

Germany — Fair. 

Hungary — Improved; medium. 

Italy — Better; fair. 

Spain — Better. 

Roumania — Damaged by copious rains. 
Russia — Satisfactory. 

In brief, the trouble with the wheat market is the 
financial situation, the excessive carry-over stocks, 
and the fact that no country except America shows 
a heavy deficit in the growing crop. Europe will 
doubtless have, as a whole, a yield much below 
average, but the shortage is pretty well distributed. 
A wet harvest would increase the damage very ma- 

Other Grains. 

The depression in the wheat market has turned 
the attention of dealers to barley, and trade has 
shown some activity during the week, resulting in 
an advance of quotations. There is moderate de- 
mand for feed purposes, and offerings are not neg- 
lected. Brewing quality meets with tolerably good 
favor, and holders of lots suitable for export pur- 
poses can find customers within the quoted range. 
Nothing doing in Chevalier. It is a little too early 
for business in that line. 

Oats are dull. Prices have recently gone down, 
but they do not seem to have stimulated trade. 


There is not much new to be said about the fresh 
fruit market. All kinds of seasonal fruits make an 
abundant showing, and prices are reasonable through- 
out the whole list. The demand is good, but the 
supply is better. Apricots have not been as high 
as expectation seemed to warrant, and canners are 
able to get a very good quality for i5£c per pound, 
the range being Cherries are very plentiful 

and easy, and berries also are abundant. White 
cherries are a drag. Peaches ar»" low and weak. 
Grapes have been received from Vacaville, but they 
are small and sour. Cantaloupes have appeared but 
receipts are light as yet. 

Watermelons are in the Los Angeles market 
from Cahuenga. This is very early for that section. 
They retail at from 5 to 20 cents each. 

Two or three weeks ago Riverside people were 
offered $1.85 per box for Mediterranean Sweets, 
which they refused. They are now trying to get 
$1.75. Colton people are congratulating themselves 

on having accepted the former price when it was 

Navels have disappeared from the San Francisco 
market, and only a few Seedlings are left. 

The dried fruit market is reviewed elsewhere in 
this issue. New apricots have appeared here and 
found sale at 9c per pound. Quotations for old 
stock are nominal. 

Fruit Crop Notes. 

A letter from White Plains, N. Y., says: "The 
apple crop in Westchester county is being seriously 
affected. Peculiar insects are lodging themselves on 
the leaves of the trees and the lite end color of the 
leaves soon disappear. The apple blossoms have 
also felt their withering touch, and in many cases 
the growth of the apple has been nipped in the bud. 
A number of well-to-do farmers are treating their 
fruit trees to a wash of Paris green water in hopes 
of allaying the work of the destructive pests." 

St. Louis Cor.: The California fruit season, 
which has just begun, promises to be a memorable 
one in every respect. The crops will be larger, the 
quality of fruit better, the price to the consumer 
lower, and the profits to the grower more adequate 
than any previous year. The large reduction in 
freight rates has contributed to the latter feature. 
The growth of the industry when told in figures is 
absolutely startling. 

The Farmers' Club at Grand Rapids, Mich., re- 
ports that the early apples will probably be a fair 
crop; winter apples very promising; cherries a good 
crop; plums fair if the murculio is kept down; 
peaches good; pears and quinces good; grapes and 
all the small fruits promise good cheer — to the eater. 
Inquiries were made for a patent medicine to kill 
all the host of the farmers' and fruit-growers' ene- 
mies — worms, weeds, bugs, fungi and moths — and 
nobody bad anything to offer and warrant it. 

There will be big money in apples this season for 
parties who can properly or correctly gauge the 
situation. It is clear that the crops of Missouri, 
Illinois, Kansas and most of the Western States 
will be small. A Cincinnati firm, writing a St. 
Louis commission merchant on the subject, says : 
"The crop in this section will be very light — almost 
a complete failure." — New York Fruit Trade 

Estimate of the Peninsula Peach Crop 

At present the outlook of the peach crop will 
exceed the estimate of 1891, but full returns have 
not been received yet, which may change the 

In i89t there were very few peaches south of 
Felton, Del., while this year the estimates below 
that point are heavy. 

There is falling off in the estimate on the N. Y., 
P. & N. R. R. ( and a slight decrease on the middle 
part of the Delaware R. R., and Newcastle county 
is showing a slight deerease. 

Through the kindness of I. N. Mills, special 
agent of the P. W. & B. R. R. Company, we give 
their estimate as follows, in baskets : 

Delaware R. R 2,300,000 

Q. A. & K. R. R 1,000.000 

D. & C. Railwav i.ioo.oco 

D. M. & V. R. R 500,000 

Baltomore & Delaware R. R 690,000 

N. Y. P. & N. R. R io.coo 

Total 5,600,000 

— New York Fruit Trade Journal. 
Dried Fruit In England. 

At Tuesday's meeting of the State Board of 
Trade, E. W. Maslin, the manager, read a report 
upon the reception the fruit shipped from here to 
England met in London. 

In speaking of the report, Mr. Maslin said they 
had endeavored to send the fruit in a commercial 
manner and not in any way as a curiosity. They 
had shipped the fruit in a way in which more could 
be shipped with a profit. The green fruit was 
packed in pine boxes and the dried fruit went in 
sacks in just the way it is shipped to New York. 
When it gets to New York the dealers place the 
fruit in fancy packages themselves, and it was with 
the same intention that the experimental fruit was 
sent to England. 

Regarding the age and the odor of the fruit sent, 
Mr. Maslin said the fruit was all young, some of the 
dried fruit being just from the drier, and that it was 
all in good condition when it left here. About the 
odor of the plums and prunes, be said that was 
something frequently complained of at first by pur- 
chasers, but on a slight acquaintance it was not con- 
sidered a detriment. 

Upon serious consultation it was decided not to 
bring up the matter of the relations between the 
fruit-growers, the canners and the banks. 


Potatoes are coming in with greater freedom and 
the range of quotations is lower than a week since. 
Onions have shown no change. Supplies of tomatoes 
are plentiful and cucumbers make a very liberal 
showing. Peppers are also plentiful. Eggplant, 
which has made a somewhat light showing, is in 
larger supply. Summer squash is very weak. 
Green peas are received freely. 


There is no change in pork products, though the 
range of prices in the East is lower. Bacon is firm, 
and lard and hams are weaker. The Cincinnati 
Price Current, in its review of the market for the 
week ending July 6th, says : " Changes in values 
during the week have been moderately toward lower 
figures. The comparative plentitude of hogs has 
bad some influence in unsettling the speculative 
sentiment. There is some talk of disposition to 
hold hogs back in the country because of shrinkage 
in prices, but it is doubtful if this policy will prevail 
to any important extent, for, although current 
prices are lower than had been counted on, still they 
yield a good margin for feeding operations." The 
pack at Western houses for the week ending July 
6th was 260,000, against 250,000 the previous week 
and 245,000 the same week last year. 

Poultry and Eggs. 

Poultry is in fair demand and choice stock finds 
a very ready market. Turkeys, however, are weaker. 
Inferior stock is quite abundant and has an im- 
portant effect in reducing prices. Eggs show im- 
provement as receipts fall off. The prediction was 
ventured by one dealer this morning that the mar- 

ket would stiffen materially in a few days as the hot 
weather interferes with production. 

Receipts of eggs at this port in June were as fol- 

lows : 

Source — Dozen. 

California 172, 920 

Oregon 1.35° 

Eastern 260,290 

Total 434 560 

May 675,071 

Decrease 240,511 

Butter and Cheese. 

The general tendency of butter is toward improve- 
ment, though there has been no change in quota- 
tions during the week. Receipts continue liberal 
for the time of year, though the proportion of choice 
and fancy grades is not large, and is likely to be- 
come smaller for the remainder of the summer 
months. Quotations for faultless qualities are firm, 
but for medium and poor grades the situa'ion is al- 
together in favor of the buying interest. 

The weakness of cheese has again lowered prices 
for Young America and choice cream; but supplies 
are becoming less liberal and improvement may 
fairly be expected before long. 

The receipts of Butter and Cheese at this port in 
June were as follows: 

Sources — 











35*. 7°° 



There is nothing new to report in wool. Occa- 
sional small sales are made, buyers almost having 
their own way as regards terms. Asking prices are 
considered low, but the situation will have to 
brighten materially before any business of conse- 
quence can be expected. 

Advance consignments of hops are at hand, hut 
no business of consequence can be expecpd for 
several weeks. From 15 to 18c is offered, but deaWrs 
appear in no hurry for trade. 


The tone of the hay market shows improvement, 
and choice quality of stock brings an advance over 
recent figures. 

The exports of flour during the first six months of 
this year were nearly the same as for the correspond- 
ing period in 1892, being 435,954 and 437,930 bar- 
rels, respectively. For the year ending June 30, 
1893, the exports were 1,113,291 barrels, against 
1,083,577 barrels in 1891-92. But while there was 
a gain ot 29,714 barrels in the past year, the export 
value was $893,383 less. Prices of mill products 
have been unchanged for some time past. 

California Products In New York. 

Nsw York, July 9.— Trade In groceries is limited to 
prompt wants, and summer living is easiest for the 
m,asses. Tardy collections from the interior are re- 
ported, but not many account losses have appeared. 
Canned fruits are immovable, prices indefinite. New- 
crop prunes are offered at 5c, four sixes. Buyers are 
cautious, and likely to be so until crop possibilities 
are more definite. Turkey and France will unques- 
tionably yield largely, and all prune- will have un- 
usual dried-fruit competition this coming season. 
Unpeeled peaches receive bids of 8c. but holders will 
not break stored lots at that figure. Georgia and 
Delaware will co-operate to some extent, but not to 
the displacement of the Coast. 

Raisins— Bags nominally quoted at 6 cents as ex- 
treme for the best. 

Apricots— Nothing of an instructive character to 

Thirty cars of California fresh fruits made a showy 
assortment. The quality ran well, though some was 
too ripe to ship away. With good weather and 
numerous Fourth of July visitors here, sales were 
prompt and averaged well for the times. Present 
Georgia peaches are of a higher color than your 
Alexander sort, which makes the latter a little Blow. 

Porter Bros.' Company sold 16 cars Royal Anne 
Cherries, in box, 65c@82.10; Tartarian, 60c@$1.30; 
Bigarreau, 81@1.55; Republican, 82.40; Oregon, *1.65 
@1.60; others, 45@75c; Alexander Peaches; 60c@81.70; 
Pears, $3.25; Figs, 82 12@3.12; Apricots, 60c@*1.45: 
some of the Montagu met, $2.20; Tragedy Prunes, $1.85 
@5.25; Clyman Plums, $1.75@2.45; Cherries, 65c@81.65; 
Claude, 8l.65<a>2.60; Jackson, $2.62: Native. St. 76; Brill, 
$1.55@2.22; Abundance, *4@5.62; Mixed, $1.65@3. 

Earl Fruit Company sold ten cars of Royal Anne 
Cherries in box at $1.36@2.30; Tartarian, $1.20(a2.S5; 
Bigarreau. $1.60<*2.25; Apricots, 65c@$l.30; Alexander 
Peaches, 65c@$f; Tragedy Prunes, $5; St Catherine 
Plums and cherry Plums, $2@1.90; Clyman, $1.40® 

Sgobel & Day sold three care Royal Anne Cherries 
in box at 65o@$l.l5; Black Oregon, 81. 06@1. 25; Apri- 
cots, 65c@Sl 16; Alexander Peaches, 60c@«2; Clyman 
Plums, $1.55@1 65; St. Catherine, 81.15@1.36. 

E. L. Goodtsell sold four care Royal Anne Cherries 
in box at 85c(»$1.35; Black Republican, $1.15@1.26; 
Royal Apricots, 66c@$1.35; Peach do, 65c@81.lO; Alex- 
ander Peaches, 66c@$1.50; Cherry Plums, $1.16(31.40; 
Natives, $1.15@2.40. 

Louisiana expects to pack about 200,000 boxes of 
oranges this season. Growers there propose to make 
their fruit more of a market item than heretolore, 
and are arranging systematic preparations with that 
view. They can be put in the market almost, if not 
quite, a month ahead of Florida. 

Wool— Prospective easier money removed some 
gloom from the market, but sales are light. Boston's 
transactions were unusually small. Neither buyers 
nor sellers appear anxious for large deals. Sellers 
examine paper with great prudence, and manufac- 
turers regard the situation in goods unfavorable for 

( Continued on next page.) 


(A Corporation). 
Principal Place of Business, 108 Davis 8t., 
San Francisco, Cal. 


There are delinquent upon the following de°c>ibed 
stock, on account ot assessment levied on tbe 8th day of 
May, A. D. 1893, the several amounts set opposite the 
names of the respective shareholders, as follows: 

No. of 







$20 00 



40 00 


2 60 


25 00 



60 00 



10 00 



2 50 



6 00 

W. H Frye 



50 00 



10 00 

Joseph Huntly 

. . . . 170 


10 00 

Mrs. Joseph Huntly 



10 00 

H. M Hollenbeck 



20 00 

Mrs. H. M. Hollenbeck 

. . . . 239 


20 00 

C. H Holiday... 



15 0" 


95 (10 



6 00 


25 00 

Mrs. T. E. Ketchnm 



16 00 

T. E. Ketchum 



36 00 


160 00 

Mrs. L. E. McMahon. 



60 00 



60 00 



70 00 



36 00 



70 00 

Thomas B. Pilkington . 



2(1 00 

E. M. Smith 



25 00 


60 00 

Mrs. Julia E. Sylvester. . 



10 00 

J. B. Sheat 



20 no 


26 00 

G. W. TillotsoD 



in oo 

A. A. Van Saodt 



5 00 



12 60 



135 00 


20 00 

And in accordance with law, and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 8th day of May, 1893, so many 
shares of each parce' of such stock as may be necessary 
will be sold at the office of the Corpnrati n, 108 Davis 
Street, San Francisc", California, on WEDNESDAY, the 
12th day of Jul.i, 1893, at three (3) o'clock p. M. of such 
day, to pay delinquent assissments thereon, together 
with costs of advertising and expenses of sale. 

Secretary Grangers' Business Association. 

Office, 108 Davis St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Notice is hereby given that the above and foregoing 
sale is postponed until the 26th dav of Julv, 1893 at the 
hour of three o'clock p. h., and said sile will take place 
and be held on said 26 h day of July, 1893, at the hour 
of three o'clock, P. M , at the office of the corporation, 
No. 108 Davis Str et, in the City and County of San 
Francisco, State of California. 
By order of the Board of Directors. 

Secretary Granger*' Business Association. 
Office, 108 Davis St., San Francisco. 

Julv 12, 1S93. 




Davis & Son's Horse Collars are 
not filled with Self-Pulverizing 

The U. S. Inspector of Harness Supplies and Horse 
Collars seleoted Davis & Son's make— both harness and 
collars. And so will all persons who want a solid, 
broad-faced, smooth collar which does not pinch tbe 
neck nor roll about unsteadily for three months before 
it settles down to a fitting shape or set squarelv baok on 
the shoulder. If you want a collar not stuffed with 
wads buy our collars, as all other makes on this coast 
are wad collars. All wad stuffed collars flatten down in 
a short time so that a sweat collar Is needed to protect 
the horse from the wads or ropes of straw. Davis & 
Son's Collars are all put under a powerful shaper or press 
before finished which solidifies them Into a perfect 
shape, which allows the collar to set with Its whole face 
against tbe shoulder. When a wad-stuffed collar is 
brought under this force It shows the o'd wad-stuffed 
collar to be merely a Puff Ball. Send or bring in to our 
factory In this city any collar and see this done, and see 
what a Pan Cake you have been felling to the people for 
collars. Our Boston Team long straw collars have no 
wads.. The Rod of our Great Machine Is supplied with 
small teeth on Its lower surface like a fine saw. It picks 
up and carries with It is it flies through the straw a long 
straw in each tooth, all of which are deposited in the 
collar, one behind the other, with more precision and 
regularity than human skill could ever accomplish, thus 
avoiding all lumps and wads, not even two straws cross- 
ing each other. 


No Collars on this Coast or else- 
where have as good Hame 
Room as the Davis & Son's 

410 Market St., San Francisco. 

fi Metal EngTa-'jif Etectrotyplng and Stereotyping 
done at the ofPce of this papei. 



July 15, 1898. 

The Markets. 

(Continued from preceding page.) 

buying material above special wants, Supplies are 
moderate, but there Is pleuly to come forward If the 
market took a spurt, or If dealers could widen the 
lines of advances. The Madison Woolen Mills, the 
largest in Maine, has shut down. The output, not 
flrsi-clibs, will be sold at aunilon. Sales at New 
York were 221,000 pounds domestic, mainly unwashed. 
Territory and Spring Texas ranged ll<ai6c. Phila- 
delphia reports little ouiside of coarse wool selling, 
range at lOigltc, a few selections at 17@18j. Boston 
Bold only 867,000 rounds domest c, mainly unwashed. 
Territory sold at ll(<rl6c; Texas, 15@16%c; 110,000 
pounds California spring in tolal. private terms; sales 
of foreign 66 000 pounds Austral, an at 31@37c. 

Honey— One car light amber sold here at 5C free on 
board . 

Lima Beans— Market lower; close, 822 for spot. 
Mont ol the recent arrival of 13,000 bags went upon 
and weakened the market. 

Tomatoes— Canned California tomatoes sold at 

$1.17K@1 20. 

Hops— Country pressure to realize softened the 
market for a time, but at the close it worked back to 
19@22c for Pacific and 8tate, with fair export in- 
quiry. Exports for the week, 867 bales; receipts at 
New York for the season, 114 200 bales. For the same 
time In 1892 the recelots were 114,900 bales. Exports 
lor the season, 56.600 bales; for the same time in 
1892 , 60 725; receipts of foreign hope to date, 663S 
bales; same last year, 6726 bales. 

canned Salmon— Buyers get what they need at 
• 1.12% for Red Alaska. 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closing prices paid for wheat optlona 
Der otl. for the pant week: 

Aug. Sept. Oct. 
5alW d 5slu d .Mi .1 
5st<9 d 5sl0}t 
fslWjd .Mfjd .Mild 
6s09jd 6el0}d 5sllid 
6sl0 d 6s) 1 d :■ 1 


Thursday.... 5e0?id 

Friday 6»"8 d 

Baturday.... 5s08J 1 

Monday fisl'8 d 

Tuesday 5)09Jd 

6s'J0 d 
BiOO d 
6s01 d 

>* I'd 


(MR Jd 

6s01 d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt snlpments for the past week; 

O O. P. 8. ,f. D. Market for P. 8 

Thursday... 29s0d 30sOd 28 9d Inactive 

Friday 29s0d 30s"d J9s0d Easier 

Saturday.. 29sJd 30s0d 29sUd Urmer 

Monday 29s0d 3 sOd 2^0d Wuiet 

Tuesday .... 2S»Ud 30s0d 29s0d Firmer 

To-day s cablegram Is as follows: 
Liv ekpool, July 12. - Wheat - Firm but not active C 
fornla spot lots, 6s Hid; ofl oast, 29s; Just shipped, 30»; 
nearly due, 29i; cargoes on* coast, steady; on passage, stead- 
ily held; Mark Lane wheat, very slow. 

Eastern Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices per bushel of wheat 
the past week at 

New York. 

Day. J^y- A_ u ff- 


Friday "J 

Baturday '«! 

Monday Hi 

TueBday >' , 

The following 1b to day's telegram-per bushel: 
New York, July 12 — July, 774: September. 751; Dece 

ber. »H. 

Day. J"! 
Thursday .... 

Friday » 

Saturday *H 

Mouday 66| 

Tuesday 6, s 

The following Is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
Ohu-aqo, July 12,-July, 65|; September, 69i; December, 


Local Markets. 



Thursday, higb-st \ \ 19i 

" lowest J 1 18i 

Friday, highest Wj 19 

" loweBt ' ' Jjj 

Baturday, highest } Jjji 

" lowest 1 19 

Monday, highest 1 l|i 







SI 3"! 
1 29{ 
1 30j 
1 595 
1 %l 
1 31 j 
1 31) 
1 :; i 
1 3i, 
1 30 

lowest 118| 

Tuesday, highest 1 ;{ 

lowest 1 171 


Th» following are to-dav's recorded sales on fall: 
Wheat Morning— Informal Session December, 100 tons, 
SI 3 i- 100, «1 304; 1200, S1.30i per cental. Regular Session - 
D-ceuiber, 400 tons. 81.3 J; 80\', 81.30}; 1100, Si.30,: 2200, 
SI 31 nt-r ctl Alternoou Session December, 60'» tons. 
If 31- 100, SI 314: lf00. 81.3IJ; 610 $1 31J. Sell-r 1893, new. 
atter August 1st- 2)0 tons, SI 20: 100, SI 19i: 100. 81.201. 
Seller Hai, uw - 100 tons, S 19 per ctl 

Thursday, highest 8 83| 92'j 

lowest 83 »l| 

Friday, highest 84 92J 

" lowest 81 91 

Saturday, highest 8li 9J, 

lowest 8l! 92] 

Monday, highest 8ll 92. 

lowest 81} K2* 

Tuesday, highest 83| 924 

lowest 83 91| 

Th» following are to day's recorded sales on Call: 
Barley -Regular 8ession— Seller 1193, new-100 tons, 83Jc; 
310, 831 1. October -100 tons, 41.044; 1900. S104| per ctl. 
December — 6K) tons. 92c per ctl. Afternoon Session-De- 
cember— 100 tons, 92|C. No. 1 Brewing, October-100 tons, 
SI 031 per cental. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected, iu good packages fetch an advance on the 
luot-ktions, while very poor grades sell leas than the lower 


Strawberries, chest 

Longw >rth 6 00 (8 8 00 

Sharpless 3 50 <g 5 00 

i ■ i rrles, lb 2 @ 3 

Raspl>erries - 

chest 3 00 (3 4 60 

Blackberries ... . 3 00 (g 6 00 
Cherries, box- 
Black 30 @ 60 

Royal Ann 25 @ 60 

White 30® 60 

Limes, Mex . ... 4 00 W 4 60 

Do Cal 75 I 1 00 

tiemons, box.... 1 60 <a 3 00 
D ) Santa Bar. . 4 00 @ 5 00 
Do Sicily choice 4 50 (a 5 50 
(Ireeu Apples, • i . 35 
Rod Apples, bx.. 50 @ 1 00 
Currants, chest. 3 00 (tf 5 60 
Ap'icots box- 
Royal «5 @ 50 

Plums 25 (g 60 

Pears, hskt 20 (3 35 

P-ars, Bart , bi 1 00 (9 1 25 
Peacues, box... 25 S 50 
Peaches, hskt . 20 @ 43 
Klgs, Black, box 25 @ 1 00 

July 12. 1393. 
Eitra choice fruit for special 
purposes sells at an advance 
on outside quotations 

Heets, sk 

parrots, sk 

lira, dry, lb 

Parsnips, ctl. . . . 
Peppers, dry, lb 

Peas, lb 

Turnips, ctL .... 
Cabbage. 100 lbs 
Garlic. 9 lb 

Tomatoes, box. 
String Beam... 
Rhubarb, bx . . . 
Asparagus, box. 
flucumbers. doz 
Artichokes, doz 
Eggplant, m ... 
summer squash, 


Green corn, dr.. 
Corn, held, Bk.. 
Corn, bay, doz. 

1 25 

85 <g 

1 25 

15 (<t 

60 @ 

7 00 

5 <a 

2 <a 


1 00 

65 <§ 



61 @ 


60 <a 


50 @ 


i (& 


30 (a 


60 <S 

1 25 

25 (a 


50 <f 


8 @ 


25 ® 


10 (* 


75 w 

1 00 

20 ® 


Worth Noting. 

W. E Hampton, 27 Be*le street, San Frincisco, 
mikes a patent non-shrinkable water tank that is 
attracting considerable attention. Itiswortb noting, 
and any one contemplating such a purchase, as well 
as those who have had trouble with their tanks, 
would do well to write to Mr. Hampton, the 
patentee and manufacturer, at the above address, 
for catalogue and information. 

General Produoe. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 


Bayo, ctl 2 40 in 2 50 

Butter & 

Pea @ 

Red 2 75 @ 3 00 

Pink 2 75 (g 2 85 

Small White... 2 55 (B 2 65 
Large White... 2 65 & 1 65 

Lima 2 70 @ 2 90 

Oal., poor to 

fair, lb 

Do g'd to choice 
Do Giltedged.. . 
Do Creamery... 
Do do Glltedge. 
Oal. Pickled ... 

Cal. Keg 


7 m 

9 @ 
5 @ 



Oo fair to good. 
Do Oiltedged.. 

I>. Skim 

Young America 


Store 17 » 19 

Ranch (g 25 

Eastern — 18 (a 19 

Outside prices for selected 
large eggs and Inside prices 
for mixed sizes— small eggs 
are hard to sell. 


Bran, ton 16 60@ 17 00 

FeedmeaL 23 50® 24 50 

Gr'd Barley. ...19 OOia 19 50 

Middlings 20 60® 22 00 

Oil Oake Meal . . -@ 35 00 


Compressed ... 7 00@ 11 00 
Wheat, per ton. 9 00® — 

Do choice @ 12 00 

Wheat and oats 8 00® 11 50 

Wild Oats 8 00® — 

Cultivated do . 7 00® 10 00 

Barley 7 00® 9 00 

Alfalfa 8 00® 11 00 

Clover 8 00® 10 00 


Barley, feed, ctl — ® 

Do good — ® 

Do choice 824® 

Do brewing 90 ® 1 02J 

Do Ohevaller. . . 90 & 

Do do Glltedge. 1 15 (a 

Buckwheat 1 76 ® 

Corn, white.... 1 10 @ 
Yellow, large... 974® 

Do small 1 024 'a 

Oats, milling... 1 40 :<i 
Feed, choice.... 1 35 «t 

Do good 1 SO <S 

Do fair 1 25 @ 

Do common. ...1 20 ® 

Surprise 1 474® 

Black feed 1 15 ® 

Gray 1 25 ® 

Rye 1 074® 

Wheat, milling 
GIHedged I 20 

July 12, 1893 
Standard Calc Grain. 

Spot 6 ® 64 

June & July delivery 64 ® — 
Potatoes, gunnies. .14 (2 15 

Wool. 34 It. 304 ® - 

Wool, 4 lb 324 ® - 


1892, fair 16 ® — 

Good 16 ® — 

Choice 18 @ — 

F.xtra,clty mills 4 10 @ — 
Do country m'ls. 4 10 ® 
Superhue 2 90 ® 


Walnuts, bard 
shell. Cal. lb.. 
Do soft shell... 
Do paper-shell.. 
Almonds, sftsh^ 
Paper shell ..... 

Hard shell 


Pecans, small.. 

Do large 


Hickory ... 
Chestnuts . 

3 00 

Red . 

8 ® 


12 @ 

12 ® 


16 @ 


15 ® 


7 ® 
10 ® 


8 ® 


10 @ 




10 ® 


7 ® 


8 ® 



55 @ 


93 @ 1 10 

2 00 
I 15 

New, ctl. 
Early Rose... 75 ® 1 00 

Peerless 1 00 9 1 10 

Burbank. 90 y 1 25 

Garnet Chile. 90 ® 1 00 

Hens, doz 5 00 ® 6 00 

Roosters, old... 6 60 ® 6 00 

! Do young 7 00 ® 9 00 

Broilers, small. 2 00 ® 3 00 

Do large 3 00 ® 4 50 

Fryers 5 00 

Young Ducks... 4 00 

Old Ducks 3 60 

Geese, pair 1 00 

Turkeys, gobl'r. 16 @" 
Turkeys, hens. . 16 _ 

All kinds of poultry, if poor 
or small, sell at less than 
quoted; If large and in good 
condition, they sell for more 
than quoted. 

1 031 Manhattan Egg 
1 071 Food (Red Ball 

1 45 

1 50 

1 20 
1 30 
1 10 

_ 1 25 

Sblpping.choieel 174® 1 20 

Off Grades 1 05 ® 1 12* Alfl ,, fa , 

9uD0 ™ 1 >0@ 1 15 Olover Red'. 

10 @ 


Food (Red Ball 
Brand) in 100- 
lb. Cabinets. . . — @11 50 
Oal. bacon, 
heavy, per lb. 




Cal am'k'd beef. 

Hams, Cal 

Do Eastern — @ 


8 @ 
15 ® 

WOOL. IWhite 30 jj 

California, yearns fleece 9S10c Flaiseed 21® 

Do, 6 to8 monthB 9al2cHemp .. 4 @ 

Do, Foothill 10913c Uo brown 5 ® 

Do Northern 12@l4c HONEY 

Do, extra Humboldt White comb, 

and Mendocina 14WI'c 2-lb frame — <B 

Nevada, choice, light. .12®l4e Do do 1-tti frame 12 ® 

Do, heavy lVtf 12c White eitracted 64® 

Oregon, Kast'n.cholce.l2M15c Amber do E @ 

Do, Eastern, poor 9(al0c Dark do 6 <§ 

Do. Valley 14@16c Beeswax, lb.... 22® 


Live Stock. 


itall fed 64 

Clrasi fed, extra.... 

First quality 5{ 

Second quality 5 

Third quality 4 1 

Bulls and thin Cows.. .2 I 

Range, heavy 4 1 

Do fight 5 1 

Dairy 6 1 





Light, 9 lb, oents 6il 

4J Medium 7 1" 

iHeavy 7 

1 Soft 


Stock Hogs 


The Cunningham Dipper. 

California generally, and Santa Clara county par- 
ticularly, promises this year a large yield of prunes, 
and it is well to suggest to intending driers one of 
the latest as well as one of the most economical in- 
ventions, and that is the dipping machine invented 
by Luther Cunningham of Stratoga, California, and 
patented December 8, 1891. The machine is more 
especially adapted for dipping prunes, but can be 
used equally well for other varieties of fruits. Some 
idea may be gained of the immense advantage this 
machine has over all other methods by the fact that 
the cip*city is ten (ro) tons of prunes per hour, and 
the self-spreading a'one saves about 90 per cent of 
the cost of spreading the fruit. A few of its many 
advantages may be enumerated as follows: It is 
easily operated. It can be used either with hand or 
steam power. 

It is the only dipper that can be attached to a 
grader, thereby enabling the grading, dipping and 
spreading to be done in one operation. The use of 
it reduces the cost of handling more than one-half. 
There is no disagreeable work over hot lye water. 
There is no friction on the fruit consequently the 
Iruit is not masbed in the process of dipping. The 
fruit is fed into the machine evenly and gradually, 
and, coming into immediate contact with the hot 
lye, is more thoroughly scalded than is possib'e by 
dipping in any other way. A large number of 
testimonials have been received from well-known 
fruit-driers where they are in use expressing great 
satisfaction with the results obtained. Any one 
who wishes to dry prunes will do well to communi- 
cate with Mr. Cunningham in good time. 

San Jose Agricultural Works. 

This great manufacturing plant is pushed with 
orders on appliances for fruit-gathering, chief of 
which is the celebrated San Jose Fruit Wagon. A 
new device for gathering prunes is being manufac- 
tured, which Mr. Adell, the manager, thinks will 
save over one-half the expense. It is a huge um- 
brella placed on a cart and run under the tree, the 
trunk of the tree being the handle for the time. With 
a small hook the operator shakes the limbs and the 
fruit rolls into the baskets, leaving the leaves on the 
inner surface of the umbrella. We expect to give an 
illustration and fuller description soon, as two of 
these devices are now in use and the third one being 


The New California Fruit Grader 


Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Applee, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apri- 
cots, Cherries and Grapes; also Potatoes. Onions and Walnuts. 



Which cury it along smoothly until reaching the prmer 
space, ic slides into the boxes waiting to rec-ivs it. The 
Roller keeps the Fruit gently re 10 viog until it Is per- 
fectly assorted according to s'ze. Gravity no longer 
depended upon, but perfect, accurate an 1 rapi 1 grading 
a icurei. 

Write f or Description and Price List. 

The Latest Development We Offer 



Wraps 50 fruits automatically per 
minute in wrappers cut and printed 
by the machine. 

Of great importance to large 
shippers, and sure to come into 
general use. 



For Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots, Etc. 


The fruit is simply placed into the two cups as the 
machine revolves and the pitting Is done automatic illy. 
made, very simple and durable. Will save its cost every 
day used. Sant cheaply by express. Urder at least a 
sample. Price complete ouiy $S. 


As now Imprived, comes nearer to mee'.inr all require- 
ments lor rapid and effectual work than any other parer 

Evaporators demand a parer that his sufficient sta- 
bility to run three months without requiring twice 
the original cost In repiire They want a parer 
that an ordinary persou can keep In order and not 
be required to hire an expert machinist. One that 

is neat and clean to run, and does not spatter the 
operator from head to foot. Tbey want a ptrer 
th t will separate the apple cores and skins, leaving the 
apples on the tr,mmiug tible and dropping the cores and 
skins In separate b irrels ; odi that will pare 10) buihels 
of apples a day. Toe parer that meets the wants best is 
the parer tba.will pare the greatest amount in ths 
shortest space of time. 

The SUN PAKelt is the only practical lever machine 
maie; it will pare as fist at the operator can pickup 
apples and put them on the fork. So draw your own 
coticlutions as to the quantity it will pare in a day. 
Price $18. 


(Jives the bast satisfactbn of any sllcer on the market 
It is the moit rapid Hand Sllcer In use. For cost of 
labor ana quintuy of work done with It, we challenge 
comparison with any Slicer made. A number of users 
state that it takes a Utile longer to sli e the apple* than 
with the foot-powrr machines, but it does it- wjik so 
much better that they gain four times tue differenoe of 
time In drying. Price $5.00 


mrtKR Mil l." AND PFES8E9. 
Send for H irticulturil PamphUt and Testimonials. 


Strong and Reliable Steam Drlrlnj Power furnished 
with the Most Economical Consumption 
of Fuel. 



Especially Adapted for 

Agricnltaral and Farm Purposes. 

we Build seven siz* i j wo -Horse Power Engine, 

with Vertical Steel Boiler 

from Two to Niae-Horse 
Pjwer. - - - • 

These EDglnes 
are Suitable for 
any Purpose Re- 
quiring; Cheap 
and Reliable 
Power. - ■ - 


Cheap ! Reliable ! Safd ! 

Automatic Boiler Peed, Auto- 
matic Pop Safety Valve, Steel 
Boiler. Cost of running guaran- 
teed not to exceed fire oents per 
horse power per hour. Nothing 
equal to It ever before offered for 
the prioe . 


8 cto Front St., S. IF"., Octl , 

231 So. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 141 Front St., Portland, Or. 

July 15, 1893. 



California Crops. 

[Summary of Report of Observer James A. Barwlck 
for Week Ending July 8, 1893.] 

The continued heat deficiency in connec- 
tion with the cold northwesterly winds in 
the San Joaquin valley during June and up 
to present time have retarded the rapid 
ripening of fruits and had to a considerable 
extent injured the first crop of raisin grapes 
in Tulare county, and also caused the prune 
and peach trees to drop considerable of 
their fruit, but the trees being so heavily 
loaded they could stand the loss very well. 
A correspondent in the Visalia Delta says 
the extraordinary cool northerly winds have 
effected a loss of at least 6o per cent of the 
first crop of raisin grapes. The second crop 
is likely to be as large as needed. 

The heat deficiency in the Sacramennto 
valley though small has had a tendency to 
retard the rapid ripening of fruit also, but 
assisted late grown in filling out. 

Sutter County. — From the fields of wheat 
and barley which have been harvested the 
returns per acre are very good considering 
the year, and when the crop is all in there 
will be the greater portion that will be choice 
shipping or good milling, the kernel being 
plump and of good quality. 

Placer County (Newcastle) — Weather fa- 
vorable for orchardists. Hale peaches be- 
ing harvested. Crop good. 

Colusa County (Sites) — Harvesting con- 
tinues and the whole valley is about ready 
for the thresher. 

Yolo County (Winters) — The fruitmen 
have almost ceased Eastern shipments, es- 
pecially for apricots, and are now drying the 
remainder of their crop. The apricot crop 
is nearly all gathered, and the peach season 
is at its height. (Guinda) — The fruit ship- 
ments from this place have been quite large 
for several days. A field of winter-sown 
grain east of this town, which was harvested 
by the Hamilton Bros, on the third of July, 
yielded an average of Syi sacks to the acre. 

Solano County (Vacaville) — Apricot crop 
about all shipped; prunes dropping again; 
plums are being shipped and will finish in 
about a week. Peas looking well and 
weather cool. 

Sonoma County (Petaluma) — A little foggy 
weather is wanted by the hop-raisers to 
bring their product to the highest perfection. 
The fruit-growers throughout the county are 
making extensive preparations for drying 
fruit this season. (Stony Point) — The cherry 
trees are idle once more for the latest cher- 
ries are very scarce now. It is a very rare 
occurrence for the apple crop to be a failure 
in this part of the county, and if all could 
see the Woodworth and Hamilton orchards 
they would pronounce it an exceptionally 
fine outlook for the fall gathering. (Blucher 
Valley) — Mowing was finished some time 
ago, and field after field of hay is stacked, 
or left in the shock to be baled. Two 
presses are busy. The grain outlook is 
fine and no one can complain about the 
yield, especially the oat crop. Wheat is 
good but not so heavy a yield. 

San Benito County (Tres Pinos) — 35 bags 
to the acre, is what is estimated for the bar- 
ley yield in Panoche this year. (Mulberry) — 
Hot weather for several days, but grain will 
not suffer, unless some that is latter. Hay 
about all stacked or housed, and in good 
shape. Heading will commence now soon . 
The grain is well filled, and the grain will 
no doubt be good. 

San Luis Obispo County (Oak Park) — 
The ever-welcome fog has been rolling in 
among the hills, from which cause the grow- 
ing crops are showing the best of prospects. 

Monterey County — Threshing is already 
under way in the lower Salinas valley. 

Sacramento County (Sacramento) — Hops 
are growing finely with a prospect of a big 

San Joaquin County (Lodi) — The weather 
for the past week has been pleasant, westerly 
winds prevailing. Wheat harvest under 
way; output light, but the berry is plump 
and of excellent quality. Grapes are doing 
well and promise a full crcp. 

Tulare County (Visalia) — Apricots are 
pretty well marketed. The cool weather of 
June caused them to ripen slowly, and gave 
the growers an opportunity to ship their 
crop east, where it has been bringing tip top 
prices. This county has had a pretty fair 
apricot crop. June has been a hard month 
on prunes and peaches generally. The 
nights have been cold, and these fruits have 
dropped considerably. The trees were so 
heavily loaded they could stand it. The 
prospects are good now for an excellent 
crop of both fruits. The cold northwest 
winds prevailing in June have affected our 
raisin-grape crop; 60 per cent of the first 
crop of grapes is about all the vineyardists 
can count on this season. The dropping of 
the berries, leaving the branches ragged and 
irregular, will preclude the possibility of our 
raisin growers furnishing any very large 

quantity of clusters. The second crop is 
likely to be as large as needed. The "red 
spider " has come again. 

Orange County (Tustin) — The apricot 
crop turning out much better than at first 
expected, the fruit being so much larger 
than usual. 

San Bernardino County (Chino) — The 
foggy weather of late is keeping the beets 
fresh and growing. 

BELMONT SCHOOL, most delightfully and advanta- 
geously located 25 miles south of San Francisco, pre- 
pares for any college or school of science. The consoli- 
dation of the Hopkins Academy with it brings 366,000 to 
the $100, COO already invested, and bo greatly adds to the 
resources of a school already well eq iip ed as to place 
ltd permanence and its ability to off r the b-pt and the 
broadest instruction beyond question. Twenty scholar- 
ships invite earnest and able young men of Blen er 
means A gymnasium and athletic grounds, unsur 
passed by those of any secondary school in the entire 
country, under the direction of the present physical in- 
structor in Williams College, Insure unexcelled physical 
training. The school invites inspection References re- 
quired. Frr Citalogne address. W. T. Reid, A. M. (Har- 
vard), Head Master, Belmont, California. 

Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley. 

For Boys and Young Men. 

Special university preparation, depending not on time 

but on prcgress in ttudies. 
T. 8. BOWBN'S. M. A Head Master. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Tear. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assaj 
138; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of assaying, 160 


' Rend for eircular 



34 POST ST., S. F. 

College Instructs in Shorthand, Typewriting, Book 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all th 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teaohers, and glvi 
Individual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school hi 
Its graduates in every part of the State. 
tr Ssnd for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President 

O. 8. HALEY, Secretary 


Barrell Prune Machine! 

JAtTo Lye ! 

TXTo Fire ! 

No Water ! 



This machine prepares the fruit for drying at one op- 
erat'on. by sifting out the leaves and trash, perforating 
the f kin with hund'ede of fine holes and delivering the 
pruoes ready sprrad on the trays The fruit thus pre- 
pared dries quickly and evenly; is cleaner, heavier and 
of finer flavor than if nried by the lye proces<. The ma- 
chine Is simple, portable and durable. It will save 
enough in a week to pay for itself. Capacity one and a 
half tons per hour. For further particulars apply by 
letter or in person to 


8S9 West Santa Clara St.. - San Jose. Cal 




An Elastic 


Is thought by some to be the remedy for all financial 
troubles. Our unparalleled success with Elastic fencing 
is no "oubt lareely responsible for this feeling. We con 
trol Nature's bulls and bears. Why not those of Wall 
Street 1 

PAGE WOVEN WIRE FENCE fin. Adrian. Mice 



526 California Street. 

For the half year ending June 30, 1893, a dividend has 
been declared at the late of five and one-tenth (5 1-10) 
per cent ner annum on Term Deposits, and four and ore- 
quarter per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, 
payable on and after Saturday, July 1, 1893. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 

San Jose Agricultural Works, 

On the Alameda, Near Narrow Gauge Depot, SAN JOSE. 



SAN JOSE CULTIVATORS— Seven Kinds of Teeth. 



Two men do the work of ten. Send for prices. 



(PATENTED MAY 13, 1890.) 


It is Simple, Durable 
and Jifficient. 

JflT It has become the leading 
Fruit Grader of California. 

Col. Hersey has ordered three of 
these Fruit Graders this season. 
Send for catalogue and testimo- 
\ nials. 


Fruit Cais, Transfer Cars, Torn- 
tables and Dipping Baskets 





Golden Gate machine Works, 


Golden Gate Gas Engine. 







Raisio -packers are advised that we will make and cany in stock the "Azure Blue " " Top Wrap," which has been 
used for years by the packers of Spain 




HpOOU U 19th avenue and 17th street, East Oakland. 
Nine rooms Lot 40x130. Send for photograph. 
3Pj£UU Average 50x280. Level land. Easy terms. 
Two minutes walk from station. 

No. 42 Market St San Francisco. 


One Thoroughbred Jersey Bull One Thor- 
oughbred Cross Jersey and Holstein. 

H 3. KING HoWeter, Cal. 


Mining, Ditching, Pumping, 
WWind and Steam. Heating Boilers, Ac Wit 
■ ■ S» tmoay you to send 25c. for Encyclopedia, of 

•600 Engravings. The American Well Works, Aurora,IIL 

Wo, <:hU3i.ic \n , Dallas, Tex,; Sydney, N. & W. 



July 15, 1893. 



Our Recently Patented Vaporizer the Greatest Improvement 
Made on Gasoline Engines Up to Date. 



The Most Perfect Engine Made Anywhere. 















— IX. fimji.j 

library s-i "03 DLES AND 

itli I | I I I I iTTf^ GALVANIZED DIPPING ^nla. 











ever been introduced. Wherever it was used last season it gave perfect satisfaction, both in the quantity of fruit 
graded aod the way it did the wrrk. The capacity is practically unlimited, as it will grade the (ruit perfectly as 
fast as it can be fed into the machine. 

141-143 FIB8T STREET 

I MAKE THREE six - s OF THIS GRADER, from the large 30-inch cylinder down to a small band machine for 
use of grower ' wh se crops are sm ill. 

purchaser prefers to maunt it to suit himself. Send for circular* and prices. 

33. W ASS, 



JOHN A. LEDDFN, Manager; E. M. LEDDKN, Secretary. 


■ an FranrUra. Cnl.. June 7, 1*1(3. 

<;«'ntieni«*n: M #* mbe the liberty of ralllnv your attention 10 th«' following teallmonlata, from Nome ol'our leadlnr rnnarrle*. and Jt number ofolheni we could offer Ifircpusrr. 
iir a being > I he KfLTKK M •■ l> * I. at tbe In eehanlea' I nail lute tt urine their expoaiilon of 1*113. regarding; our Cllng-atone Praeh Fitter. If you are Interested In 1'tJTtINtl 
* M» I'lTn.VU ( LI V«.M OXK PEACHISII Mould be (laa lu hear froai jou. All eamninnieatloni w til receive our prompt attention. 


Sax Jobs, Cal.. Dec. SO, 1F9I. 
Gentlemen:— In reply to your favor of Dec. 3d, in 
which you request an expression of opinion from us 
as to the merits of your Cling Peach Pitters, would 
say that we have operated the Pitters quite exten- 
sively for t he past two seasons, and we found tbem 
to be all that they were claimed to be, and can 
recommend them as being the most rapia and prac- 
tical Cling Pitting Machine we have ever known of. 
Vours very truly. E. L. DAWSON, Manager. 


Oakland, Cal., April 29, 1888. 
The American Cling-S' one Pi ting Co., San F>an- 
cisco — Gentlemen: — I can cheerfully recommend to 
canners and others having cling-ttone peaches to pit 
the pitting machine made by you. I have used 
them for tne past two seasons and found them to do 
the work for which they are Intended far better than any pitters I have heretofore used. I will give you an order 
for quite a numbar of them this season. k. HICKMOTT. 


Sam Jobs, Cal., May 12, 1(93. — Gentlemen:— We used your Cling Peach Pitter this last season and can say thtt 
it does all you ask of it. Very truly, J. H. FLICKINGER, per H. A. FLICKINGER. 

112 California St , San Francisco, April 12, 1793. 

The American ( ling-Stone Pitting Co., 8an Fran- 
cisro, Cal.— Gentlemen: — We have used your pitters 
some three years In our cannery at Los Qatos, where 
they have given perfect satb faction. We have tried 
a . ret ma'iy others previous to these, and yours 
are tbe only ones that we have ever seen that we are 
willing to "tie" to. Take this opportunity of 
cheerfully recommending them to any one who has 
occasion to pit ctlog»etone peaches. We expect to 
use your pitters this year, just how many will de- 
pend on the number ot orders we take for this grade 
of goods. Tours trolv. 


Oakland, April 29, 1893. 

The American Cling stone Pitting Co., flan Francisco, Cal.— Gentlemen:— H gives us pleasure to say that we 
have used your Pf ach Pitters in our Cannery for the f ast two years, and they have given entire satiefaitlon. We 
have seen no machine that will do the work as well and economically as jcure, consequently it is an indiipcnslble 
article to ua in our business You may look forward to receiving our ordejs for more of your mat hinat for the 
coming season How many we shall need we cannot state at this writing; svervthing depends uron the volume 
of business which we may do In cling peaches. Yours respettfully, OAKLAND PRESERVING CO., per Naxso*. 

Vol. XLVI. No. 4. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

Lessons of a Failure. 

The failure of Senator De Long, a prominent fruit- 
grower, with liabilities amounting to more than half 
a million, seems to need a remark which will be made in 
all kindliness and for the 
public good. 

In the first place, such a 
failure may be given undue 
significance in one direction, 
and in another direction its 
lessons may go unheeded. 
The line in which the fact 
may be harmfully expanded 
will be through the jump at a 
conclusion, chiefly on the 
part of distant people, per- 
haps, that California farming 
and fruit growing are not 
upon a good basis, but are in- 
flated on the bubble plan and 
liable to collapse at any mo- 
ment. Although many of 
our fruit-growers are carry- 
ing mortgages more or less 
heavy, the failure in mind 
does not reflect at all upon 
the fruit growing and farm- 
ing situation as a whole. 
Evidently the unfortunate 
gentleman who was forced to 
make an assignment for such 
liabilities had indulged in 
speculations and other risks 
which are no part of the legi- 
timate production, and thus 
incurred debts which he could 
never hope, of his own 
strength, to meet. The fail- 
ure was in the course of the 
man, not in his calling. 

But we do not fear such 
a reflection upon the sound- 
ness and security of California 
farming so much as we do 
that the lesson in the present 
case may go unheeded. Evi- 
dently the lesson of the fail- 
ure is that a man who has an 
important producing enter- 
prise in hand and has hand- 
some capital involved in his 
business should have nothing 
to do with outside ventures 
of a speculative character. 
We have no doubt that this 
gentleman's attention was 
so largely given to other 
affairs that he could not con- 
duct the agricultural enter- 
prise with the care, acumen 

and conservatism which such interests demand. Accord- 
ing to the published reports he indulged too largely in 
recreations and sports, as well as in commercial specula- 
tions, and was also prominent in politics, which are too 
often a demoralizing and distracting agency in a man's 
life. Evidently too much was undertaken in business 
lines and too much time given to outside issues which also 
called for money to go with the time. 

N»w the lesson to all who have not yet entangled them- 
selves in too many diverse and expensive ventures, associ- 
ations and recreations is, do not do it. During the years 

when obligations hang heavily upon the shoulders of the 
producer he should brace himself upon economy, industry 
and self-denial in the way of dissipations or recreations 
until he swings his enterprise clear of debt. Probably 
having formed habits during this course of behavior he 

In the Redwoods. 


will go forward after that thirsting for no excitements, but 
calmly investing surpluses in enterprises which commend 
themselves to his judgment, full of energy and enterprise, 
and with a strong hand for the public benefit in building 
up needed undertakings, but not likely to become so en- 
cumbered, distracted and involved that relief can only be 
found in an assignment. Fortunately we have few cases 
like that which calls for these remarks. Fortunately, also, 
there is ample time for this estimable man to fully retrieve 
his fortunes and take the same lesson from his ill fortune 
that we urge for others profit. 

Such scenes as that upon this page can now be seen at 
various points in the great lumbering counties of our up- 
per coast region. It represents the movement of a train 
of logs from the slopes upon 
which they grew, either to 
the sawmills below or to the 
railways which run ! to the 
mills from various points ac- 
cessible over a working grade. 
After the trees have been 
felled and cut into proper 
lengths, the logs are hauled 
by oxen to the landings on 
sides of the railway tracks 
where they are placed upon 
cars for transportation to the 
mills. In some localities 
where there are no railroads 
the skids run direct to the 
mills, but this is impractica- 
ble for long distances. At 
most of the places on the 
northern coast the mills are 
at the mouths of the rivers 
and the logging is carried on 
some miles back from the 
coast. The skid roads are 
then used to haul the logs to 
the trains. These skid roads 
are made of small logs or 
limbs placed a foot or two 
apart. Along the center of 
the top a rounding groove is 
soon worn on which the log 
lies. This grooved part of 
the skid is usually greased 
with some cheap lubricant so 
that the log will slide easily. 

Of course these skid roads 
are down hill, the trees being 
cut on the ridges and sides of 
the canyons and dragged 
over the skids to the railroad 
at a low point. All the way 
from three to a dozen or 
more logs are hauled in a 
string, being connected by 
chains. These skid roads 
may be seen extending in all 
directions in the timber 
which is being worked up. 
On the steep hillsides they 
are not used as the logs move 
too freely and can be hauled 
down more easily on the 
bare ground. In some places 
it is not necessary to use lu- 
bricants and in others men 
go ahead with buckets and 
dippers wetting the skids. In the picture the train has 
evidently been stopped at the base of a steep grade for the 
convenience of the photographer. 

The orange season has practically closed, and it is 
proper just now to sum up results. The season, as a 
whole, has not been as profitable as in most past years, 
but, nevertheless, we think the majority of growers have 
made money. They might and should have made more, 
even in the face of adverse conditions. Effective organ- 
ization of growers has been the great want. 



July 22, 1893. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., San Francitco., Col. 

Annual Subscription Rate Three Dollars a year. While this notice 
appears, all «ubicril>ers paying #3 in advance will receive 15 monthB' (one year 
and 13 weeks) credit. For $2 in advance, 10 months. For $1 in advance, five 
months. Trial subscriptions lor twelve weeks, paid In advance, each 50 cents. 

J Week. I Month. 3 Months. I Tear. 

Per Line (agate) » .26 | .50 « 1.20 | 4.00 

Half Inch (1 square 1.00 2.50 6.50 22.00 

One Inch 1.60 6.00 13.00 42.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing In extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at 8. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

AST subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rural Press, with 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 

San Francisco, July 22, 1893. 


ILLUSTRATIONS. — Hauling Log6 in the Redwood Region of the Upper 
Coast of California, 65. 

EDITORIALS.— Lessors of a Failure; In the Redwoods, 65. The Week; 
The Freest Distribution Essential: Miscellaneous, 66. From an Inde- 
pendent Standpoint, 67. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Concerning Pensions, 67. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Trouble with ihe Prunes; Carrots as Horse Feed; 
Wine Yield of France; Gleanings, 68. 

HORTICULTURE.— Frultmen and the Tarifl, 69. The Olive-Growers' 
Convention; An Apricot Postscrlptum, 70. New Fruit-Diiers; Graft- 
ing the Apple on the Pear; Plcholine vs. Mission; A Sonoma County 
Prune Method; Work of the Ladybug, 71. 

THE DAIRY —Economical Dairy Appliances, 71. 

POULTRY YARD. — To Foster Poultry Interests; Turpentine for Roup; 

Object-Lessons to Beginners; Money in Small Things. 72. 
WOkLD'8 FAIR. — California at the Fair; San Diego's Silk Exhibit, 72. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY: — From Worthy Master Davis; From New 
Hampshire; From San Jose; From Grimes Grange; Field Day at 
Petaluma: Fmm Two Rock Grange; National Grange Meeting, 78. 
Secretary's Official ( lircular, 79. 





Buggies, Carts, Harness, Etc.— Deere Implement Co 84 

Sulkies— Truman, Hooker & Co 84 

Wagons— Parsons " Low-Down " Wagon Co., Earlville, N. Y 84 

The Pullman Hotel, Chicago 84 

Mortgages Bought and Loans Negotiated— Lindsay & Craig 83 

Sheep— C. H. Dwinelle, Fulton, Cal 80 

See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The rural resorts are lonely this year. The attractions 
at Chicago are too large for the average California spring 
or seaside outfit to compete with. The result is that the 
delightful camp grounds and the shady piazza are well- 
nigh untenanted. No doubt the greater establishments 
will receive patronage from the unusual foreign visitation 
which is expected after the World's Fair, but the little 
nooks will have to nestle down for another winter's rest 
without a summer's activity. It is too bad, but it happens 
so sometimes. 

Rural affairs are quiet and proceeding in due course. 
Some inconvenience is being experienced because of diffi- 
culty of securing loans for crop- gathering, but it is hoped 
losses will not ensue. California has a glorious climate 
for the harvester who has to work slowly and under diffi- 
culties, though even the climate seems dull when a man 
has a payroll to meet and the bank is out of funds. But 
nothing permanent or serious seems afloat, and time will 
cure most present ills. 

The Attornby-Genbral of the State is of opinion 
that it is not within the power of the State prison directors 
to sell grain-bags on credit to farmers. The provisions of 
the law governing the sale of bags are specific, and cannot 
be deviated from, even in a case so meritorious and at a 
time when a lenient construction of the statute is much 
needed. The Attorney- General suggests that "the 
farmers may yet take advantage of the State's manufacture 
of jute bags if some bank or banks will advance the 
prison directors money on the notes that the farmers may 
give for the jute bags purchased." The State would thus 
be paid cash, though the law would be technically vio- 
lated, or, rather, its provisions would be avoided. We 
fail to discover the value of the Attorney-General's recom- 
mendation. Banks which refuse to loan money on a 
staple like grain will hardly make a gracious exception in 
favor of grain-bags. The Attorney-General's suggestion 
would be all right if it would work, but it seems it 
will not. 

Op honors to horticulturists we know of none 
more worthily bestowed than that given a few weeks ago 
to Prof. Thomas Meehan by his fellow-citizens of Phila- 
delphia. Prof. Meehan has rendered so many public 
<?rvices that it is difficult in a few lines to specify any, 
out when it is said that more than 20 parks have been 

established in the city by his exertions, some idea of his 
enthusiasm in municipal horticulture can be gained. The 
Ledger says : "He has earnestly striven to carry out the 
wish of William Penn that Philadelphia should, with 
whatever progress is made in wealth, commercial im- 
portance or size, remain a 'green country town and 
always wholesome.' " The token given to Prof. Meehan 
was very properly a splendid silver placque upon which 
were engraved the original charter granted to William 

The Freest Distribution Essential. 

We alluded last week to an issue arising between cer- 
tain associated fruit-receivers and dealers in Chicago and 
certain other fruit merchants not within such association. 
The careless reader might conclude that the conflict is 
probably the result of local trade jealousy or rivalry and 
not of wide significance. We regard it very differently. 
In our view the issue in Chicago involves the whole ques- 
tion of the free and adequate marketing of California 
fruits and fruit products at the East. For this reason we 
are prompted to refer to the affair at greater length and 
we trust with such emphasis as its important bearings de- 

It has been seen for years with increasing clearness that 
our future in fruit-growing will be measured by the de- 
gree to which the products command general patronage 
from the millions of eastern consumers. If we were to 
produce food for the eastern epicures and wealthy pur- 
chasers we should have stopped planting trees and vines 
ten years ago. We long ago passed the amount of pro- 
duction which such gilt-edged demand could possibly re- 
quire. It has been wisely urged, time and again, that we 
proposed to produce fruit foods for the whole eastern peo- 
ple, that we would endeavor to secure the highest possible 
price for such fancy goods as appealed to the select trade, 
but at the same time we would send forward fruit for the 
million, of good wholesome quality, well grown and cleanly 
handled, but so manipulated by the aid of system and la- 
bor-saving devices that it could be furnished cheaply — 
just as cheaply as anticipated reduction of transportation 
charges make possible. It is upon this basis that the vast 
expansion of our orchard area has proceeded and its prod- 
ucts are now being realized. It is just now of momentous 
importance that nothing interfere with the freest possible 
access to the consuming population of the East. 

But there is interference, and it is of a kind most diffi- 
cult to overcome. All Californians who have looked 
about at the East to inform themselves of the progress 
California fruit is making among the masses agree that 
the millions of consumers are very slowly becoming ac- 
quainted with our products. They say that considerable 
centers of population are practically unreached; that in 
cities where the finer stores have the fruit on sale, the 
miles of back streets and thousands of corner groceries 
have none of it. In short, the distribution is faulty and 
inadequate, and the people, as a whole, are still ignorant 
of California fruit, or, if they know it at all, look upon it 
as a luxury which is beyond their reach. How shall the 
throng to whom our products must come, if our vast prod- 
uct is to be disposed of, be reached, pleased and supplied? 
This is the problem which our producers are earnestly at- 
tacking. Various missionary efforts are discussed, and 
some of them have been carried forward with gratifying 
success, but the great East is still out of reach. 

And now comes the Fruit-Dealers' Association of Chi- 
cago, advocating auction sales at which members only can 
bid and buy fruit — aiming apparently at holding the fruit 
shipments within their own control, securing supplies 
which they will dole out to vendors who shall be presum- 
ably owners of avenue fruit stores with marble-fountain 
attachments, carrying on a fancy trade with rich pur- 
chasers — a race of merchants who wear boiled shirts and 
big watch chains and are acceptable companions for the 
swell merchants' clubmen who propose to make the Cali- 
fornia fruit trade a sort of a social affair and its partici- 
pants a mercantile four hundred. Does it require argu- 
ment to show that such a conception of the Eastern trade 
in California fruits is diametrically antagonistic to the 
producers' interests ? Can the grower who has carloads 
of fruit in sight and hundreds of acres coming into bear- 
ing have any patience with a fruit-dealers' monopoly in 
Chicago which plans to limit and restrict and enjoin, when 
the very necessities of the case are for unlimited, unre- 
stricted and frictionless movement of the greatest possible 
amount of fruit at such reasonable prices that all can 
patronize it? 

From such information as is now at hand of the ambi- 
tions, plans and purposes of the Chicago combination, we 
hold that the California fruit-growers should make short 
work of it. There seems to be merely a geographical 
shift of the same old ambition and purpose. Those who 
seem prominent in the effort to control the California fruit 

trade in Chicago are the same gentlemen who did their 
utmost to control it here. Failing to hedge it in Cali- 
fornia, they dug a last ditch in Chicago and hope to pull 
the fruit into it there. They will fail there as they failed 
here. The California fruit trade is too large to be con- 
trolled by any set of men for restrictive purposes. That 
idea has had its day. The broadest freedom to run its 
commercial course to the uttermost parts of the consuming 
world is the only policy on which the business can prosper 
and go forward. 

We do not imagine that the California growers will have 
much tolerance for the claims of the Chicago dealers that 
they should not be compelled to do business on the same 
basis as the crowd of unwashed foreigners who gain a 
livlihood by driving their spavined steeds and ramshackle 
vehicles through alleys hawking fruit to the lowly dwell- 
ers in cottages and tenements. We do not expect our 
swell Chicago dealers to make boon companions of these 
vendors. We do not object to their social resort where 
they can turn a part of their great profits on California 
fruit sales into perfumed Havanas and sparkling wines. 
They have a right to Buch association if they pay their 
bills, and they can make their doors into guillotines which 
shall chop the heads from all intruding Greeks and bar- 
barians if the Chicago criminal code permits, but when 
these merchants go so far as to combine for the purpose 
of saying that their coterie alone shall buy California fruit, 
they overstep their rights and privileges and take position 
which California cannot tolerate. 

A few years ago, after special investigation in which the 
Rural Prbss bore honorable part, and which the same 
prominent Chicago dealers studiously discouraged, Cali- 
fornia fruit-shippers appealed to the auction-room as the 
broadest, freest platform known to commerce. The appeal 
was successful. California fruit moved into trade chan- 
nels more widely and freely than ever before. And now 
we have a combination of reputable merchants apparently 
invading the freedom of the auction-room and closing its 
doors to all save their own set. It seems to us this is a 
sort of commercial crime. Of course, as an exchange, this 
body of merchants can sell what property they had control 
of and restrict buyers as fully as they see fit; but when 
they attempt to put a gag in the mouth of the public auc- 
tioneer, they are guilty of commercial misdemeanor. It 
would not serve their purposes to organize an exchange, 
because the California fruit-grower would not make ship- 
ments to such a concern. Their plan is to lead on the 
California producer with the idea that he is shipping to a 
public auction sale, and at the same time so operate the 
auctioneer that he shall close his ears to all voices save 
those which come from beneath high-rolling collars and 
polished shirt fronts. This is commercial misrepresenta- 
tion; it is a matter of false pretenses which we should 
suppose an auction-house with any reputation as a public 
institution would refuse to engage in. 

Probably enough has been said on this matter to show 
the fruit-producers that there is something going on in 
Chicago which needs their attention. Movements for per- 
sonal advantage and against the public interest have been 
quietly checked when their dangerous nature was brought 
to light. If this should be such a movement the growers 
should know it. They really hold the key to the situation. 
They can ship their fruit to be sold at a really public 
auction if they see fit, and possibly even a threat to do so 
would so discourage the enterprise now brought to light 
that its projectors would abandon it. We advise investi- 
gation. We do not advise any one to change his Chicago 
receiver until the whole matter is more clearly understood. 
There might be such a thing as going from a bad condi- 
tion to a worse if the grower should fall into the hands of 
irresponsible receivers. It is quite feasible, as eo many 
fruit-growers are going to Chicago this summer, for each 
to look into the Chicago method of sale and form his own 
opinion of efficiency and value. If a number of those in- 
terested do this there will be abundant data upon which 
the growers' convention this fall can proceed with what- 
ever measures seem necessary and desirable. 

The orangb-gbowebs of Riverside have perfected their 
organization for handling next year's crop. A final agree- 
ment and contract has been entered into,, and signed by 
ninety-five per cent of the Riverside growers, thus making 
the union practically unanimous. The essence of the 
compact is that growers shall deal directly with consumers, 
avoiding the middlemen. The experience of the past year 
was unprofitable from a financial view, but it has not been 
without value. It has taught the necessity of co-opera- 
tion. The growers of Riverside have had a practical 
demonstration of the manner in which a sensitive market 
may be demoralized by lack of organization and unity of 
action; and now they propose to return to the other 
method. They ought to be nearly as successful in future 
as they were in seasons previous to 1893, notwithstanding 
the heavy increase in volume of the crop. 

July 22 1893. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

The convention held in this city last week to consider 
the rights and promote the interests of California fruit- 
growers under the tariff policy of the country, got off on 
the wrong foot and chiefly gave its time to demonstrating 
what everybody knew before, namely, that the horticul- 
tural interests of the State are largely bound up in the 
protective tariff. Not the protective principle but the 
tariff situation was the proper theme of the meeting; and 
if this fact had been remembered there would perhaps 
have been less talk, but more to the purpose. The im- 
portance of protection to the fruit interests of California 
is a thing established and beyond dispute. Our olive in- 
dustry, our prune industry, our fig industry, our wine in- 
dustry — not to mention others relatively important — 
could not live without protection, and anybody who has 
any knowledge of the State ought to know it. It was 
upon this assumption that last week's meeting was called. 

Although the convention wasted much of the day in 
proving a fact already familiar, it chose so wisely in nam- 
ing Gen. Chipman as the representative of our interests 
before Congress that it deserves the approval and thanks 
of all whose fortunes are in anywise related to the pros- 
perity of horticulture in California. It will be Gen. Chip- 
man's mission (or that of Mr. Frank A. Kimball as alter- 
nate, if Gen. Chipman cannot act) to put into digested 
and effective form the facts which illustrate the necessity 
for protection to the California fruit industry. He will be 
able to show that our products, as compared with the im- 
portations with which they compete in the Eastern mar- 
ket, are purer in quality and more wholesome; that the 
California grower pays from two to five times as much for 
labor as does his European competitor; that the California 
packer pays from one and one-half to three times as much 
for his materials as does his European competitor; that 
the California shipper has to pay from two to ten times as 
much for freight as the European shipper; that horticul- 
ture in California is locally the paramount industry and, 
broadly speaking, essential to the completeness of our 
national life; that to destroy it would involve industrial 
retrogression and that to reduce its conditions to corre- 
spondence with the conditions of horticulture in Europe 
would be a serious blow to the dignity of American life and 
character. Our people do not ask for protection in such de- 
gree as to give them the American market at arbi trary prices; 
all they want is such protection as will allow them to 
compete upon equal terms. Give them a fair chance and 
they will take care of themselves. Our people do not ask 
for protection as a gratuity, but as a right. They cheer- 
fully pay protected prices for manufactured goods, prices 
which make a good twenty per cent of the cost of their 
living, and they demand in return nothing more than a 
fair share of the advantages of the protective system. 

As matters stand in the political world it is the part of 
prudence to look to this matter; but in our judgment there 
is really little danger of such modification of the tariff as 
will seriously affect us. The dominant party is pledged 
to tariff reform but it will not be required to accomplish 
the impossible; and we cannot see how free trade or any- 
thing even remotely approaching it is possible at this 
time. To explain: The Government needs annually be- 
tween four hundred and five hundred millions of dollars 
and cannot do with less, since the pension list alone calls 
for two hundred millions. It has only two sources of in- 
come, namely, the tariff and the internal revenue. Now 
since it is impracticable to increase the latter, it is 
impossible to do away with the former, for to do so would 
put the Government in a position where it could not meet 
its current obligations. True, it is possible to exchange 
the protective tariff for a revenue tariff — for example, to 
take the duty from wool, fruit, etc., and restore the 
duty on sugar, coffee and tea — but this would be a grave 
political blunder and it is safe to say that it wiJl not be 
done. In our judgment the tariff will for the present be 
left practically where it stands to-day; and its final limita- 
tion will follow — follow, mind, not lead — the gradual de- 
cline in the annual charge for pensions. Security for the 
present tariff policy or for something like it for many years 
to come, rests safely, we believe, upon the necessity for a 
large annual revenue to meet the obligations of the Gov- 
ernment to its pensioners; and in this view of it the great 
pension expense does not seem so serious a matter as we 
are sometimes disposed to regard it. Whatever may be 
said against it we shall hardly be willing to condemn 
as wholly ill a wind which fills the sails of the California 

We would not, in view of these facts, omit taking such 
steps as will protect our interests in case tariff revision 
should be forced through Congress without respect to the 
conditions of the treasury. It is right to take every pre- 
caution, to be prepared for any emergency; and we cordially 
approve the project to send Gen. Chipman to Washington. 

There is, however, comfort in the belief which we do not 
conceal, that he will find the situation favorable to our in- 

All of Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, and the min- 
ing part of California, persist in regarding the silver ques- 
tion in its local phase only. They base their theories of 
money legislation not upon world-wide financial condi- 
tions, but upon their own special and local necessities. 
Times are hard with them because the price of their chief 
commodity is low; therefore, they demand that the Gov- 
ernment buy silver in such quantities as will raise its 
value. It would be just as reasonable for the farmers of 
California, because times are hard with them, to demand 
that the Government buy wheat in such quantities as to 
advance its price to a dollar a bushel. The Government 
owes nothing more to the producers of silver than to the 
producers of wheat, or the producers of hop?; and its policy 
should be and must be based upon the broad interests of 
all the people rather than upon special and local necessi- 
ties. In other words, the policy of the Government, if it 
is to have a sound and permanent basis, must deal solely 
with general and financial as distinct from local and in- 
dustrial considerations. 

The interest of the silver-producers, fortunately for 
for them, is bound up with the interest of the world of com- 
merce; both rest upon the concurrent, universal use of silver 
and gold as mediums of exchange — in brief, upon bi- 
metalism. Not because it will help the special and local 
interests of Colorado, but because it will give the world a 
just standard or measure of values, is the right and the 
reason of bi-metalism. 

Instead of demanding arbitrary and tentative legislation 
for private advantage, the so-called silver States should 
join in the bimetallist effort to restore to silver its old-time 
money character. In the failure of the Bland measure and 
of the later enactment called the Sherman law, to hold up 
the price of silver, tbey ought to see how unsubstantial 
is any success based upon compromise or upon anything 
save sound principles of finance. If they — the silver 
States — are going to help their own cause they must quit 
pleading their local necessities, let go the idea that the 
American money policy can be arranged for their private 
benefit, quit talking about "fighting" for questionable 
"rights," and join in the effort to reorganize the world's 
finances upon a bi-metallic system. 

The more deeply we study this question the more we 
become fortified in the judgment that the United States 
cannot alone uphold the value of silver and that our true 
policy is to take such a course as will force England to 
join us in a bi-metallic league. And the first step should 
be the repeal of the purchasing clause of the Sherman law. 
The operation of that clause steadily weakens us by 
draining our treasury of its ready gold. While England, 
broadly speaking, gains through the shrinkage of values 
due to enforcing the single gold standard, many of her 
people are suffering terribly, notably the manufacturers, 
the agricultural classes and the wage earners. If we 
repeal the purchasing clause of the Sherman law, the im- 
mediate effect will be to force down silver still further and 
create such a situation in England and India as will make 
the British Government cry " Hold, enough ! " It is the 
judgment of an able bimetallist who has just returned 
from Europe that if we quit buying silver in August, 
England will be found in November at the reassembling 
of the Brussels Monetary Conference, ready to join in bi- 

A temporary adjustment of this currency question is in 
reality no adjustment at all. It is like paying an 
old note with a new one bearing an increased rate of in- 
terest. Such a settlement is to pile up wrath against a 
day of wrath — to make matters easier now at the cost of 
deeper sacrifices in the end. Nothing short of an adjust- 
ment upon the sound principles of bi-metallism will 
suffice, because any other arrangement will not cure the 
injustice which the single gold standard imposes upon the 
seller, the debtor and the producer. 

The San Francisco money market continues tight, so 
tight that securities which would have been entirely satis- 
factory as collateral six months ago are now valueless for 
the purposes of credit. Not one of the city banks is let- 
ting out money except; to its regular customers; and to 
them only in limited amounts and subject to special ar- 
rangements. Local merchants find it impossible to get 
usual accommodations; and the farmer, to borrow the 
slang of the day, isn't "in it" at all. The Grangers' is the 
only bank that is avowedly putting up money on ware- 
house receipts, and even here there is discrimination 
against all excepting regular customers. In the interior 
the situation is equally tight. At Stockton favored cus- 
tomers get advances of seven to ten dollars per ton from 
the local banks; but only five dollars is nominally allowed. 
The banks are doing a little better by the fruitmen than 
by the grainmen, owing to the greater urgency of their de- 

mands; but none of the canneries are running up to their 
full capacity, and probably none of them will be able to 
during this season. 

For this condition of affairs you can get about as many 
explanations as there are bankers. One says one thing 
and another something else, but all are together in declin- 
ing to let go of their cash. All deny that there is concert 
of action on the part of the banks, and, technically speak- 
ing, this denial is no doubt true enough; but they are 
practically acting together and to one end; namely, to 
force an early sale of the season's crop. It is very plain 
that if the farmers of the United States let go of their crops 
early in the season, it will bring a vast amount of foreign 
money into the country and so ease up the money situation; 
and this is what the banks want. If the usual door of ac- 
commodation—the local bank — is kept tight-shut, then 
the farmer will be forced to early sales to raise funds for 
his fall payments. It is hard luck, indeed, that the 
grain-grower is not to have even his usual poor chance 
for better prices later in the season, but must sell for what 
he can get. However, there may be a little negative com- 
fort for him in the fact that, in these trying times, the 
merchant, the shipper and the banker, as well as himself, 
are " in the hole." 

Concerning Pensions. 

To the Editor: — Your editorials are so timely, interesting and 
able that I appreciate and commend them. 

Underlying your remarks on pensions is. I believe, a mistaken idea 
of the pension law and its execution, and I take the liberty of calling 
your attention to the principles involved. The pension law granting 
a pension for life to a soldier on account of disability entered into and 
became a part of the contract between the soldier and the Govern- 
ment on enlistment, as much so, indeed, as the law authorizing pay- 
ment for services. 

The contracting of a disability in the service fixed the absolute and 
continuing liability of the Government, under the contract of enlist- 
ment, without any conditions whatever, to pay a pension to the 
soldier during the continuance of his disability, even for life. The 
right of the soldier to a pension, and the obligation of the Govern- 
ment to pay the pension, rest in contract, and the pension money 
due. and to become due, is the absolute personal property of the late 
soldier, and cannot be taken from him by the Government. A pen- 
sion is not a gratuity or a charity, but a payment of money by 

I entered into two such contracts myself and served out my terms 
of enlistment and know whereof I speak. The pension legislation of 
this country has been based on right, and not charity, and therefore 
no attempt has been made to pauperize the pension roll by making 
pauperism a condition precedent to the payment of a pension. 

In the Senate debates, Hon. John Sherman, a cold financial cal- 
culator, never questioned the right of a soldier to a pension for a dis- 
ability, irrespective of whether he was rich or poor, and never based 
the claim of a pension on charity. 

The obligation to pay a pension is higher and more sacred than to 
pay a Government bond, as the sealing with red blood is above the 
sealing with red wax. Suppose upon presentation of Government 
bonds at the U. S. Treasury by Secretary Gresham, Senator Mander- 
son and Governor Baaver for payment, the insulting question should 
be asked by the Government official, "Are you in such destitute cir- 
cumstances that you have to apply for payment of this bond, even if 
your bodies are dismembered and health shattered, have not you 
brains enough to make a living?" 

It is enough to say that the bond contract of the Government to 
pay has no conditions attached, neither had the soldier's pension con- 
tract presented by these patriot soldiers, and it is not within the 
power of the Government to attach any such humiliating condition as 
poverty and pauperism. You are mistaken in saying that a pension 
should be really needed as well as rightfully earned — the pension laws 
have never raised the question of need, only that of right. All honor 
to the brave men who take from the Government their just dues for 
services rendered during the war and thus make the pension roll a 
" Roll of Honor " rather than to relegate it to the mean and ignoble 
position of a roll or squad of unfortunate paupers to be pitied for 
serving their country, not honored. It is fair to presume that pen- 
sioners now on the rolls are rightfully there for the execution of the 
pension laws and regulations have been almost cruelly strict and hard 
with nothing presumed in favor of the claimant, not even common 
veracity and honor that govern men in life. 

I he medical examinations and reports upon which the rate of pay- 
ment is fixed have frequently been so ungenerous and false in fact 
that a majority of pensioners are allowed the paltry sum of two and 
four dollars per month to live upon. 

The statute of limitations set up by the Government against the 
payment of pensions from date of discharge for wounds and disabili- 
ties contracted in the service and line of duty according to contract 
of enlistment, is a wrong that only might in the stronger could make 
right. Hundreds of millions of dollars, the property of disabled sol- 
diers, by solemn contract have been confiscated and withheld under a 
statute that pension claims made sinre July i, 1880, shall not be paid 
from date of discharge, as all others had been, but only from date of 
application. The soldier who delayed making claim for pension and 
binked his money with the Government till he wanted it, lost it all 
and had to be content with future payments. It is some satisfaction 
to know that rebel property confiscated has been returned or paid for, 
notably Arlington Heights, General L°e's property near Washington, 
so there is some hope for confiscated pension money. 

In closing I desire to assure vour readers that no pension laws will 
be repealed or regulations much changed as long as a generous peo- 
ple pay twelve dollars per month to Mexican war soldiers, without 
disability, a majority of whom were probably Confederates. 

Your thoughts have recalled mine from prunes to pensions, so I 
write. W. H. Aiken. 

Wrights, July io, 1893. 

Two difficulties are reported in the way of a more 
profitable marketing of California fruits in New York; 
viz , slow railroad service and the financial stringency. It 
may be impossible to remove wholly the latter trouble for 
the present year, but it is possible to expedite railroad ser- 
vice. The Southern Pacific railroad, it would appear, is 
quite as much interested in the profitable sale of Califor- 
nia products as any one. Profitable sales mean a direct 
increase of shipments and freight receipts, to say nothing 
of the beneficial effects of the general prosperity of the 
people of California. Prompt railroad service is an in- 
dispensable factor in reaching the Eastern markets in 
season. The railroad companies have done much in the 
past; but we hope they will do more in the future. 


Trouble With the Prunes. 

General Chipman, of Red Bluff, is in receipt of the fol- 
lowing communication from Dr. R. B. Blowers, of Wood- 
land, in relation tn the trouble which is now being had wiih 
prunes in Berendos and St. Mary's Paik. Dr. Blowers 
writes under date of July 8th: 

" Yours of July 6th at hand, containing prune. On con- 
sultation with Mr. Bowman, my foreman, he tells me that 
my own trees have suffered slightly from the same cause. 
Aud we agree that the cause is a suddenly increased heat. 
It is usually worse after a cold spring. Then suddenly a 
hot north wind comes on, raising tne temperature to a high 
degree. This heated air, propslled by the north wind, in- 
jures the shaded fruit almost out not quite as much as the 
fruit exposed to the direct rays of the sun. Fruit is fre- 
quently blackened at the pit, while it does not show on the 
skin. Apricots are sometimes rendered unfit for sh ; pping 
f-om this same cause. Tckiy grapes are also injureu in a 
like manner. I do not think the disease will sp-ead much 
after this time, unless we have exceedingly hot weather. 
The apparent spread of the disease is because the scald 
does not appear immediately on the suifice injury. 
The only remedy I know fir this condition is a vigorous 
flow of sap through the leaf and fruit, caused by thorough 
cultivation or irrigation. A great ev poration from the 
leaves thus provided for reduces the temperature and 
lessens the injury." 

Carrots as Horse Feed. 

The virtues of carrots as a food for horses are not fully 
known to many people, says Henry Dahlman of Petaluma. 
Carrots fed to horses contribute to their strength and en- 
durance, and, in the case of indisposed horses, they aid 
materially toward recovery. 

The way I feed carrots is to slice and mix with chaff or 
cut straw. A half-bushel is a good daily allowance. When 
first given, the feed is slightly laxative, but horses soon 
come to relish it and all bad effects from it cease. Carrots 
tend generally to promote a sound, healthy condition, 
whether the animals are at work or standing idle in barn 
or pasture. 

To grow carrots, select a sandy soil and plow deep, and 
sow seed in drills; cover about a half an inch deep. The 
rows should be about two and a half feet apart to permit of 
cultivation. Cultivate as soon as possible and keep the 
ground loose. 

When ripe, and sufficient rain has fallen to prevent the 
roots from shrinking when dry, pull the crop and cut the 
tops off. The roots may be piled and covered with the 
green tops or straw. It is better to store under cover, as 
the roots should be kept dry. Carrots can be kept fresh 
from three to four months after harvest. I like the long 
yellow Belgian best. 

Wine Yield of France. 

The following comparative tables will give an idea of the 
total wine yield of France, the total yield of wine in the 
Gironde and the extent of land planted with vines, together 
with the average yield per acre of certain departments ly- 
ing in the immediate vicinity of Bordeaux. It will be seen 
that the year 1892 is one of ordinary yield: 




Yield, Gal». 



Yield, Gals. 
662 6*8 344 






Yield, Gals 



Yield. Gals. 


1887 26,077,487 1 1892 40.682]l48 

Experiment With Sisal Hemp. 

A. Barnett writes as follows to the Nuevo Sentinel: 
" Sisal hemp comes principally from Central America, 
but large quantities are grown in Florida, where it is said 
to be a profitable crrp. I understand it to be a large vari- 
ety of the Spanish bayonet, which grows so abundantly in 
alt the southern country, thrives on poor, dry soil, needs 
cultivation only two years, and then he crc p; can be cut 
for years without futrher cultivation. It is Sdid that $12,- 
000,000 worth of binding twine was sold in the United 
States last year. This, and nearly all of our rrpe, is made 
from sisal hemp. They have irr proved in the process of 
preparing the material and in manufacturing it, and it is 
ihought by some that f irmers will soon make their own 
twine, and if we can grow it in southern California to a 
profit it will be a big thing. I intend to get some plants to 
experiment with and hope others will do the same." 

Eucalyptus Leaves vs. Lice. 

Under this head, Mrs. Scarborough, in the California 
Cultivator, tells her experience in testing the popular belief 
that eucalyptus leaves were a preventive against chicken 
lice and mites. She positively asserts that the popular be- 
lief is totally unfounded, and that the eucalyptus affords 
breeding places galore, and that the mites rather seek than 
avoid the eucalyptus. 

Horticultural Commissioner Upton, of Fresno, is 
engaged in the highly commendable work of distributing 
gratis colonies of vedalia cardinalis among the orchardists 
of that region. The cottony cushion scale must go and 
the vedalia will assist the work of removal in very effective 

An International Irrigation Congress is to be 

held in Los Angeles in October. It is expected that the 

meeting will be of great value and importance. Prepara- 
ns for a large attendance are being made. 



The Chicago Inter-Ocean says the crowning glory of Cali- 
fornia's exhibit is its display of fruits and vines. 

The Penniman Fruit Company's cannery at Santa Maria is 
about to start np. It takes more than hard times to scare the 
Penniman people. 

It took a veby little jao op bilver to make money tight, 
but tbe gold cure is coming is the sobering reflection of the 
Santa Maria Timet. 

Two carloads of peach E8 arrived at Chicago last Friday 
(July 14th) from Georgia. They were the first solid shipments 
from Georgia for the season. 

It takes more than good grapes and plenty of sunshine to 
make good raisins; it takes a thorough knowledge of how to 
cure them properly, says an exchange. 

The movement is becoming widespread. The Oregon State 
Horticultural Society had a meeting last week and discussed co- 
operation. Nothing co-operates like co-operation. 

New Jersey has recently sent some greenhouse figs to the 
New York market which sold for $1 a dozen. They are said to 
have been of excellent quality and del'cious flavor. 

The fruit-growers or 8onoma county have organized and 
are ready for business. We are not organizing this year, re- 
marks the Santa Maria Timet. We need one more year's ex- 

Late statistics seem to prove that about 3,500,000 acres are 
devoted to cocoanuts in the world at large. The acreage in 
Ceylon is given at 500,000, and that of South America at 1,200,- 
000 acres. 

San Miguel has formed a stock company to erect and put in 
operation a $25.00u cannery at that place. That's good. There 
won't be hard times, financial stringencies and such things 
every year. 

The Sonoma County Hop-Growers' Association will hold a 
special meeting on the last Saturday in July for the purpose of 
discussing matters pertaining to the industry, establishing 
price of picking, etc. 

The recent high price of potatoes has some embarrassing 
consequences. It has, for instance, prevented tbe operation of 
the starch factory at Petaluma. But preparations are now 
being made to operate just as soon as the crop matures. 

Good, early, sweet corn is hard to get in some parts of Cali- 
fornia, and when it may be so easily produced as an intercul- 
ture in young orchards it is strange that so little is grown. 
Many a family could thus easily take in a neat little sum by 
supplying the local market with this needful article of food. 

The Co-operative Fruit Company of Newcastle is about to 
open a branch fruit-shipping house at Penryn, and proposes to 
extend to their customers in that section the same facilities in 
the marketing of their fruit as are enjoyed by those who find 
it more convenient to do business through the present house at 

"JohnSontag Laid to Rest " is one of the sorrowing news- 
paper headlines over a recent mournful event. Mr. Evans is 
also taking a long-needed vacation in the Fresno county jail, 
and the people of Tula-e find it impossible to escape an im- 
pression that the time is now at hand when they may sleep a 
little o' nights themselves. 

N. W. Blanchard of Ventura is trying the experiment of 
shipping a carl jad of lemons to Chicago in a refrigerator car 
properly packed with ice. This is the first trial of shipping 
lemons to Chicago by Mr. Blanchard, and, if successful, it will 
open up a new way of disposing of the lemon crop. The lemon 
must be bandied with much care. 

The Earl Fruit Company sent a carload of grapes to Chicago 
from Palm Springs, July 12th. The grapes were of the Lady 
de Cjverley variety, and were grown on H. F. Wheaton's 
place. Another carload from the Palmdale vineyard went the 
first of this week. They were Muscats. They were the first 
grapes shipped out of this State this year. 

So far as known, the first carload of watermelons for the sea- 
son was shipped from Lodi, July 14th, by Sprague & Gillespie. 
California may be a little behind Georgia on this thing, but 
then we bave no large colored population, and the necessity of 
catering to a 120-horse power demand for watermillions at the 
earliest possible moment is not so pressing. 

C. M. Blowers has an orchard of 49 prune trees near Han- 
ford, and he will wager hard coin that it will out-yield this 
season any prune orchard of like extent in the territory of 
Kings or Tnlare counties. When a man offers to wager coin 
and exhibits the collateral thpse times as Cash does, he cer- 
tainly is " blooded," says the Hanford Sentinel. 

It seems necessary to repeat to some of our valued con- 
temporaries that no such law exists in California as the " Wide 
Wagon-Tire" ordinance, allowing rebate of tax for using tires 
of certain width. What is alleged to be the full text of the 
law is being widely circulated in the State. Who started it? 
It is the mere figment of some one's disordered fancy. Stop it. 

Chino is to have a barrel factory in connection with its 
beet factory. Tbe barrels are to be made of strawboard ob- 
tained from San Francisco (most probably board from the Cor- 
ralitos mills), and are to hold 250 pounds of sugar. They will 
be used for the shipment of the crude sugar to the 8*n Fran- 
cisco refinery. The Chino factory has abandoned the refining 
of sugar. 

Fruit may be grown without irrigation, but not without 
cultivation, says the Ontario Observer. Whether irrigated or 
not, trees must be properly cultivated in order to produce satis- 
factorily. Frequent stirring of the Boil will keep the ground 
moist throughout the summer months, but cultivation has 
other virtnes. It aerates the soil, promotes the formation of 
plant food, kills the weeds and discourages the squirrel and 

The latest phase of the differences between raisin-growers, 
packers and brokers at Fresno is the meeting of packers at 
Fresno, last week, at which half tbe pack of the State was rep- 
resented. The recently framed agreement for growers and 
packers, adopted by the California State Raisin Association, 
was snbmitted and discussed, but no action was taken. The 
sentiment of the packers, however, was clearly against the 

July 22, 1893. 

agreement. A committee of three, representing the commis- 
sion, growers' and brokers' packers, was appointed to arrange 
a plan of action, and the meeting adjourned to meet in San 
Francisco one week from next Monday. 

Sonoma county has been asked to appropriate $2000 for an 
exhibit at the Midwinter Fair, and other counties are expected 
to take similar action. Judging from the activity of people of 
California, and tbe enthusiasm of San Francisco particularly, 
the fair is a " go." Work on the site has begun, and canvassing 
for subscriptions is proceeding with a fair measure of success. 
It will be the greatest event of the kind ever on the Pacific 

The National Swine-Breeders' Association will hold its 
annual meeting in Assembly Hall, World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, on Friday, October 13. This meeting, occuring during the 
last and most important week of the swine exhibit, will be 
largely attended. The program, consisting of papers from lead- 
ing breeders and prominent scientists, and treating on practical 
rather than theoretical matters, will be interesting and in- 

The Lucerne Valley Horticultural Society has passed the 
following resolution: "Resolved, That it is tbe sense of this 
society that wages for saving the present fruit crop should be: 
For cutting apricots, 20c per hundred pounds: for nectarines 
15c, and peaches 10c to 15c per hundred according to size; for 
picking grapes, 2jc per tray of 20 pounds, or $1 per day aud 
board; for day labor, $1 per day and board or $1.50 per day 
without board." 

George Hushman, in the American Agriculturist, has the fol- 
lowing to say concerning the California raisin: " California 
raisins now compete with the choicest foreign importations, 
even driving them out of American markets. This may be 
ascribed to better methods of cultivating, grading, drying and 
packing. Fresno is the banner county, leading all others, but 
Tulare, Kern, Merced. 8an Diego, Stanislaus, Yolo, Satter and 
Yuba all grow raisin grapes." 

C. J. Berry, Horticultural Commissioner of Tulare county, 
has a remedy for the common pumpkin or "stink" bugs, 
which are destructive to pumpkin and cantaloupe vines, eating 
them off at their roots. The remedy is: One-quarter pound of 
common soap dissolved in two quarts of water made hot. Add 
one pint of kerosene and stir it very violently for five minutes; 
then add li gallons of water to the above mixture and put it 
on the vines at their trunk or base of their stalks. 

In the past two months over 100 colonies of the Australian 
ladybug have been distributed through southern California. 
Tbe white scale has been so well cleaned out' at Los Angeles 
that the breeding station is having trouble obtaining enough 
white scales to feed the Iadybugs. If conditions were to 
become such in California that 'he ladybug would be in danger 
of death by starvation, we could hardly regard it as an unmixed 
calamity, though out of common gratitude we might try to 
devise some substitute that would suit her ladyship. 

A representative of the Cudahy Packino Company, in con- 
versation with a Santa Ana Blade representative, stated that 
the packing-bouse was not supplied with nearly as many hogs 
as could be used, and that the worst feature of the matter was 
that the porkers were not to be found in the county. " There 
will always be a heavy demand for hogs," said he, " and I can- 
not see why the farmers here do not engage more extensively 
in raising them. Money in the business? Of course there is. 
There is a very fair profit in raising hogs for market." 

Eugene Bolton, of hen-plucker notoriety, comes to the front 
with another hen story, says the San Benito Advance. He has 
11 hens and a rooster, and in three days he gathered six dozen 
and three eggs. He accounts for tbe remarkable yield by tbe 
fact that he purchased a sack of blue grass from the county, 
and fed it to the hens by force. His brother Frank, however, 
says that Gene plays roots on the hens. As soon as it is dark 
Gene turns on the electric lights and shoos the hens off the 
roost, making them believe it is daylight. This accounts for 
the poultry doing double duty. 

TiproN irrigation district has called an election for August 
2d upon the question of issuing additional bonds of the district 
in the sum of $20,000, says the Tulare Register. Tipton district 
has done a large amount of hustling and has worked to good 
purpose. There was much at stake. They tried dry farming 
to their satisfaction and finally concluded it was either water 
or emigration. They decided <n favor of water, as that is a fine 
section. Prosperity will follow the introduction of water. The 
people there cannot afford to go back. They will make their 
system complete if it does cost money. 

N. W. Motheral sold his apricots last week to Charles King 
for 8} cents per pound, says the Hanford Sentinel. On actual 
investigation, he found that 8} cents at the date of the sale was 
better than cents a week later, as the fruit would shrink in 
weight more than that difference. He has two acres of ground 
in apricots, but a few trees are lacking to make it a complete 
stand. From this he got 4500 pounds of dried fruit which, at 
the price, brought him $382.50, or $191.25 per acre. He says it 
cost him about $20 per ton to pick ana dry it, which leaves a 
net profit of $170 per acre, which is good enough, indeed. 

From the Newcastle News we take the following summary 
of fruit shipments from Newcastle for the first six months 

of 1893: 

January 78,205 lbs. 

February 45,275 " 

March 8.406 " 

April 5 2e6 " 

May 274 8J8 " 

June 1,720,393 " 

Total 2,127,187 " 

The June shipments for this season exceed those of last year 
by 777,955 pounds. 

The orange and lemon shipments from Ontario for the past 
seven months have been as follows : 

Boxes. Carloads. 

December 1,839 7 

January 8,119 11 

February 3,266 11U 

March 9,457 84 

April 1 24.110 86 

May 10,820 SS}C 

June 2,690 9% 

Totals 66,400 

The shipments this month will bring tbe total up to 200 car- 

July 22, 1893. 




Fruitmen and the Tariff. 

A Convention of Fruit-Growers of California was held in 
this city last Thursday, July 13th, for the purpose of dis- 
cussing the tariff duty and its relation to California fruit 
products and preparing information relative to the value, 
extent, income, etc., of the iudustry, for presentation to the 
California delegation in Congress, that they might make an 
effort at the coming session to retain the present tariff on 
fruits and secure protection for certain products now un- 
protected. The horticulturists of the State had been fully 
advised of the purpose of the meeting and had been re- 
quested to furnish in tabulated form facts and figures 
relative to the expense of fruit production, including 
original cost of land, nursery stock, care, replanting, etc., 
for a period of five years. They responded readily to the 
call for a convention, and the result was not only a repre- 
sentative attendance of the horticulturists of the State, but 
the presentation of a variety of statistical and other infor- 
mation of a most complete and valuable nature. 

The place of the session was Pioneer Hall and the time 
was 10 o'clock. Shortly after that hour fruitmen from all 
parts of the State and representing every branch of the 
industry were assembled in Pioneer Hall. Among them 
were noticed the following : A. T. Hatch, Suisun; Frank 
A. Kimball, National City; A. T. J. Schulte, San Luis 
Obispo; Elwood Cooper, Santa Barbara; Geo. T. 
Ditzler, Biggs; P. J. Hayne, Santa Barbara; F. Sanderson, 
San Jose; J. T. Bouge, Yuba City; Wm. Johnston, Court- 
land; L. Mosher, San Jose; H. W. Hathaway, San Lorenzo; 
Geo. Husmann, Napa; J J. Morrison, Loomis; J. L. How- 
land, Pomona; B. M. Lelong, San Francisco; C. H. 
Allen, San Jose, Alfred Holman, San Francisco; E. W. 
Maslin, San Francisco; Philo Hersey, San Jose; R. C. 
Kells, Yuba City; I. H. Thomas, of Visalia, and a number 
of others. 

The convention was called to order by Hon. Elwood 
Cooper, President of the State Board of Horticulture, who 
read the call for a meeting, heretofore published in these 
columns Upon motion the following were appointed a 
Committee on permanent organization : Wm. Johnston, 
J. L. Howland, J. T. Bogue, H. W. Hathaway, C. H. 
Allen. A short recess was taken in order to give the com- 
mittee time to prepare its report. It recommended the 
following as the permanent officers of the convention: 
Elwood Cooper, president; A. T. Hatch, vice-president at 
large; J. L. Howland, C. H. Allen, vice-presidents; R. C. 
Kells, treasurer; B. M. Lelong, secretary. 

The report of the committee was unanimously accepted 
and the new officers immediately installed. In assuming 
the gavel, President Cooper took occasion to make a few 
remarks regarding the tariff and its effect upon the Cali- 
fornia fruit industry. Said the president : " We want to 
protect our fruits and have them on the same footing as 
fruits from the Mediterranean. The tariff on some of our 
products is insufficient, on others we have none at all. We 
want the raisin, the prune, the almond and the walnut left 
where they are. The tariff on olive oil is too low; on the 
olive pickle there is none at all. The citrus fruits must 
not be forgotten. If we can secure such a duty that we 
t can land our fruits in New York at the same expense as 
* fruits are produced and shipped from Europe to New York, 
we shall have accomplished our purpose." 

There was some discussion as to the method of procedure 
for the day, and it was decided to appoint a committee of 
nine to prepare a program which should select and assign 
leaders in discussion on the various topics to come before 
the assembly. The following committee was named : 
Elwood Cocper, A. T. Hatch, R. C. Kells, I. H. Thomas, 
J. L. Howland, Mr. Hammond, Frank A. Kimball, J. T. 
Bogue, F. E. Owen. The committee was instructed to 
prepi'e a program to be followed out during the afternoon 
session. A letter to the convention from Gen. N. P. Chip- 
man was then read. It was in part: 

There is another view worthy to be considered. You have asked 
for detailed statements of the cost of land, of planting and caring for 
orchards, of gathering and marketing fruits. This involves also the 
productiveness of our orchards. If we make a showing from which 
very small profits are shown to be in the business, it will discourage 
fruit-planting. If we make a showing resulting in large profits to the 
grower, it may furnish an apparent reason for the removal of duties 
Irom that class of fruits which we produce, and that are imported. 

On the whole, it seems to me that your convention will have ac- 
complished the purposes for which it was called when you have* had 
a full comparison ol views and full report upon the points suggested 
in your circular, and these have been, or their results have been, 
placed in the hands of the committee which you may appoint to lay 
the subject before Congress, leaving with this committee full discre- 
tion to use the data in the most effective way. 

From what 1 have recently seen of published estimates covering the 
points you suggest, I am persuaded that a good deal of revision will 
be necessary to be made by a conservative committee in order to ar- 
rive at the approximate truth. For example, my recollection is that 
the recently published statement of the cost of producing an orchard 
n the end of the filth year, as stated by two such eminent fruit- 
growers as General Bidwell and Mr. A. T. Hatch, differs nearly 100 
per cent — that is to say, Mr. Hatch's estimate is nearly double that 
of General Bidwell's. An examination of General Bidwell's figures 
will show that he is manifestly wrong, and greatly below the actual 
cost under most favorable conditions, and that he has omitted some 
essential factors. I mention this to emphasize the point I am 
making. There is much to be said in the direction of upholding the 
present rates of duties, viewing the subject from a broad and patriotic 
standpoint, and in the interest alike of the consumer and producer; 
but I will not venture upon the discussion, for it really belongs to the 
duty of the committee which I have suggested. 

However, should my views not be found to be in harmony with 
those of your convention, I* shall be glad to co-operate in any way I 
may be able. Very sincerely yours, 

N. P. Chipmam. 

A recess was then taken. The first business at the after- 
noon session was the report of the Committee on Program. 
The following were the topics and speakers assigned to 
open the discussion in each: 

Prune — Col. Philo Hersey. 

Grape and Raisin — A. B. Butler. 

Olive and Olive Oil — Elwood Cooper. 

Nuts— A. T. Hatch. 

Citrus Fruits— F. A. Kimball. 
Fig— B. M. Lelong. 

Deciduous Fruits— R. C. Kells, J. L. Mosher and H. A. 

The report was adopted. 

The first topic considered related to olive culture and 
the tariff on the olive. The principal speaker, Mr. Cooper, 
said in part: " I have been requested to furnish a state- 
ment of the difficulties we encounter in cultivation of the 
olive tree. There is no trouble in planting the tree, for it 
is one of the easiest to plant and to grow, if proper care 
is taken; but the great difficulty in olive culture is the olive 
scale, known as the black scale, which is so prolific that 
destruction is certain to follow its presence if its ravages 
are allowed to continue. I have seen trees 20 years old 
which have never grown an olive. But this is not our chief 
trouble. After we have grown, picked, dried and crushed 
the olive and filtered the oil, and then paid the freight to 
Eastern markets, we find that we are undersold. I have 
tried to sell oil in New York at $12 a case (which I really 
ought to receive f. o. b. in California), and I find European 
oils offered there for $7. 50 a case. Their oil is not so good 
nor so pure, but people will not pay $1.50 per bottle when 
they can get the same quantity for 75 cents. The cost of 
labor in Europe is one-fourth what it is in America. The 
cost of labor here is so great, and so much is necessary to 
be used in the production of the olive and olive oil, that we 
absolutely are unable to compete with the foreign product. 
There is such a difference in the cost of freights between 
the Mediterranean and New York and California and New 
York (it is $1 a gallon) that the tariff should be at least 
$1,40 or $1.50 to place us on an equal footing with foreign 
growers. We ask no more. If the cost of our production 
and marketing can be equalized with that of foreigners, we 
are willing to rely on the merit of our article to invite its 
sale. We have no fear of the result. The tariff is now 35 
cents per gallon for olive oil. It was $1. 

" The production of the olive and olive oil is a rising in- 
dustry in California. The State is especially adapted to its 
growth. It is a health-giving product; it is a good food 
product; it has a great future. We do not want to be de- 
pressed, but encouraged. We don't want to ask special 
favors, but we do want to be able to reach the Eastern 
market as cheaply as do the people of Europe." 

Mr. Frank A. Kimball said: " I believe it is the duty of 
the country to place us on an equal basis with the foreign 
product. If we could compel all producers of olive oil to 
label the exact contents of the bottle on the outside, we 
would ask no more. Then you need not put any duty on 
it for me. But we can't do it. We tried for ten years to 
get such a bill through Congress. Our only recourse is a 
tariff duty. Besides olive oil, there should be a tariff duty 
of 25 cents per gallon on olive pickles, and we must ask 
that olive oil ' foots' now entered free be put on the list." 

Taking up the subject of citrus fruits, Mr. Kimball de- 
clared that the same laws which apply to olive oil also 
cover citrus fruits. The chief item of difference between 
the cost of production at home and abroad is labor. If we 
can secure labor in the United States as low as in Europe, 
we will ask no odds. " But," continued Mr. Kimball, 
' when the American people are willing to degrade labor 
from its present reasonable standard down to a range of 
from 7 to 25 cents per day, then they shall be in shape to 
allow foreign oranges and lemons to come in free of duty; 
but as long as we desire to pay our labor living prices, 
then we must have a duty. That's all there is to the 
question ." 

The subject of figs had been assigned to Mr. B. M. Le- 
long, and he devoted much of the time assigned to him in 
the discussion of the cost of labor in Europe and America. 
He produced a variety of statistics showing that the range 
of orchard and fruit labor in the old countries was from 17 
cents a day to $4 a week, while in California the average is 
$1.50 a day. " This item alone," said Mr. Lelong, " makes 
a very essential difference in the cost of fig production, and 
the p esent tariff of 2 cents per pound seems to be just 
about what is necessaiy to equalize conditions at home and 
abroad. Ten years ago there was not a pound of figs 
shipped in California, except a few of the old Mission 
variety. Four years ago a quantity of white figs, first 
shipped from Fresno, was sold at eight cents per pound, 
wh ch left a very small margin for the producers, but served 
to introduce the fruit. If we consider wages, prices, freight, 
boxes and so on, we can understand why the producer get- 
ting eight cents a pound does not realize as much profit as 
the European who sells for half as much. Our freight 
charges are ten times as much as they are in Europe. So 
far the production of figs in California has been small. We 
hope it will be much larger, for the market is wide, and, if 
properly encouraged, the industry can reach large dimen- 

When Mr. Lelong had finished, he called upon Mr. E. 
W. Maslin, secretary of the State Board of Trade, to fur- 
nish a more exact statement of the extent of fig production 
in California and of its market in the East, and of the 
necessity of a tariff to give it adequate protection. 

Mr. Maslin responded, as he said, very reluctantly, for 
he was not in sympathy with the object of the meeting, or 
rather, he thought the fruit-growers were not pursuing the 
right course. He announced himself as an absolute free- 
trader, and declared that it should be the effort of Califor- 
nia fruit-growers to produce such a quality of fruit that a 
tariff even of ten cents a pound on figs could not make the 
slightest difference in the price. " I don't care," said Mr. 
Maslin, " if there is not a cent of duty on figs. The pauper 
labor of Europe is more than offset by the intelligence of 
our labor, the superiority of our machinery, the excellence 
of our appliances, and the thoroughness of our methods. 
When we produce and pack a superior brand of fruit we 
shall have settled the question of market." Mr. Maslin 
made further statements in the same vein and said in con- 
clusion that California people should buy where they can 
buy cheapest and sell where they can sell dearest. 

Mr. Maslin's assertions did not meet with favor in the 
convention, and were combated by several speakers. 

The first to-speak in criticism of Mr. Maslin's remarks 

was Mr. Alfred Holman, editor of the Rural Press, Mr. 
Maslin, he said, appeared not to understand the purpose of 
the meeting. It was not to discuss the principle back of 
the protective policy, but to establish the interest of Cali- 
fornia under that policy. Protection was, he declared, the 
practice of the country, and since California was taxed to 
support protection she ought to have her share of its ad- 
vantages. This was a proposition which the most extreme 
free-trader ought to approve. Speaking for himself, Mr. 
Holman thought protection at this time the true policy of 
the country. The prosperity, in fact the very existence of 
our fruit industry was bound up in it. Take away the ad- 
vantages which protection gives us, he said, and the olive 
and prune trees of California are worth only their value as 
firewood, while the land upon which they grow would be 
worth fewer dimes than it is now worth dollars. If this 
convention were to approve the ideas set forth by Mr. 
Maslin, if it were to be given out that the fruit-growers of 
California did not want protection, it would do us incalcu- 
lable damage. The duty of this convention, he said, to 
represent the true interests of the California orchardists, 
was not to wrangle over principles which it could do noth- 
ing to change, but to devote itself to getting for California 
a legitimate share of the benefits of that policy which is the 
settled practice of the country, and which — no matter what 
politicians or party platforms may say to the contrary — 
must continue the practice of the country for a long time to 
come. Our representatives in Congress have asked us for 
primary information illustrative of our necessities. Let us 
give them what they ask and waste no time in discussions 
which can do no good, but which may do harm. 

Mr. Maslin explained that he had not intended to speak 
on the question at all, and had not intended to obtrude his 
views upon the notice of the convention, but being called 
upon to speak, he had considered it right to state his posi- 

Mr. Cooper remarked that inasmuch as it was necessary 
to raise five hundred millions of dollars a year by tariff du- 
ties, California wants a part of that duty imposed on prod- 
ucts that come in competition with ours. 

Mr. Lelong declared it to be simply the purpose of the 
convention to prepare arguments for the use of our Con- 
gressmen at Washington. 

Discussing the subject of nuts, Mr. A. T. Hatch said 
that our distance from market and the cost of labor in 
Europe made it necessary to have a tariff on that article. 
If we want to employ an increased number of people in 
the industry here at fair wages, we must not be discrimi- 
nated against. A fair tariff is needed to equalize conditions. 
The almond and walnut both require the best of our land 
and are two of our most expensive products. 

Mr. Cooper remarked that years ago we obtained 12 
cents a pound for English walnuts in the Eastern market. 
" One year the product of my walnuts was $12,000; last 
year it was $4000. Even with a duty on English walnuts 
of three cents a pound, the industry is not profitable, and I 
have destroyed 128 acres of trees because they did not 
pay. If you take the duty off there will not be 300 acres 
of walnuts left in California. Free trade in walnuts means 
no nuts for us. I have made an investigation of the 
nut industry in California, and find that before almonds 
were produced here they were never sold for less than 20 
cents a pound. Now, with a tariff, the price is one half 
that, showing that the consumer and producer have both 
been benefited. Remove the tariff, and the industry is killed 
here. Outside producers will combine and the price go 
back to where it was before." 

Mr. Hatch remarked, just now there seemed to be an 
effort to wipe out all our important industries. Silver is 
nearly killed, wheat is down to the lowest notch, and now 
our Democratic friends want to wipe out our fruit and nuts. 

Col. Hersey talked at some length in a very interesting 
manner on the subject of prunes. He said in part: " Un- 
less we have a prune tariff, we might as well cut down our 
trees and go into some other business. This is a great 
country, and it costs something to ship our prunes across 
the continent. The freight is $1.50 per hundred, and in 
boxes it is 15 cents more. If we are to contend with for- 
eign producers, we are handicapped by a difference in 
reaching the market amounting to nearly $28 or $30 per 
ton. The freights from the Mediterranean are from $3.50 
to $5 50 a ton. If we are to be put on an equal basis with 
them, we must have a difference in tariff equal to the freight. 
The present tariff of two cents a pound for prunes is not 
too high. Without it we shall be compelled to sell prunes 
for one cent a pound less in California than the French 
producer gets in France. He produces an article inferior 
to ours, that sells for less than ours and is in all respects 
cheaper than ours. If we receive less for the prune, where 
will we be? I repeat that we must then cut down our 
trees. The present tariff has cheapened the cost of prunes 
in the East from 22 to 10 cents a pound. It has therefore 
worked no hardship on the cousumer, but has been an 
actual benefit. Let us have a statesmanship equal to the 
breadth of the country, and then we can use all parts of 
the country for the producers of the country." 

The colonel then talked about the present condition of 
the prune market, and declared that even with the present 
tariff the price had reached the minimum. " We are now 
offered \ cents for prunes; if the two cents tariff is taken 
off, what happens ? We will give up our markets to some 
other country, and allow them to remain rich and us to be 

Mr. Hatch added that conditions always have been 
against the producers of this country, and if they did not 
work for themselves, he did not know who would. 

In discussing deciduous fruits, Mr. R. C. Kells said that 
it had not been proposed to place these products on the 
tariff list, but he thought they should be included. Present 
conditions favor the importer. We ought to be able to 
present such as array of facts to Congress that they will 
think it necessary to give us protection. We are yonng 
people and need encouragement. One way to encourage 
us is to compel foreign producers to label their preserves, 
jellies and jams (which have a tariff) with their proper 
titles. They are sent here as pure products, but they are 



adulterated. If they were properly labeled we would be 
all right. 

J. L. Mosher, of San Jose, spoke of the necessity of a 
tariff for deciduous fruits. He dwelt on the market phase 
of the question and also upon the matter of immigration. 
If the industry is to be crippled, then desirable immigra- 
tion will be stopped. 

Prof. Allen, of San Jose, gave a very intelligent and in- 
teresting review of the policy of the tariff. He contended 
that it should be so distributed that it will do the greatest 
good to our producers and consumers both. Certain inter- 
ests need to be fostered. If a tariff can do good to the pro- 
ducer and no harm to the consumer, the point is shown 
where the duty should be placed. "When I began to raise 
prunes,' 1 said the professor, "I received 20 cents a pound; 
now I get 6. Nevertheless, the producer has been pro- 
tected, and it is clear that the consumer has also been 
benefited. The industry has been fostered and the price 
reduced." Prof. Allen continued at some length in the 
same vein, and declared in conclusion that the ideal Amer- 
ican citizen should be a land-holder. There Is no hope in 
any other country that the laborer can become other than 
what he is. Here there is well-founded expectation that 
industry, integrity and a fair amount of intelligence will 
bring position, influence and property even to the hum- 
blest. If we degrade our labor, we destroy his hope of 
better things. 

Col. Hersey added that the policy of this country should 
be so shaped that we can market our own products in our 
own country. "Fifty years from now, when our popula- 
tion has enormously increased, let us hope that every inch 
of available land in California will be utilized in raising 
fruits for our own people in America. Then it may be 
necessary to call on France to supply a deficit. Till then 
there is no special reason for giving France an advantage 
over our own producer." This concluded the discussion. 
It was ascertained that the statistical information presented 
by the various growers was so comprehensive and so ex- 
tensive as to need reduction and revision before presen- 
tation to our Congressmen. A committee consisting of 
Messrs. Kimball, Hatch and Hersey was appointed for 
that purpose. 

It was thought also to be expedient to send an agent to 
Washington during the session of Congress to present the 
needs of the fruit- growers in a proper manner and to assist 
our delegation in securing proper legislation. Gen. N. P. 
Chipman, of Red Bluff, was unanimously selected for the 
mission, with Frank A. Kimball, of National City, as alter- 
nate. A finance committee of three to raise necessary 
funds was then appointed, and the convention adjourned 
Ine die. 

The Olive-Growers' Convention. 

Following the Convention of Fruit-Growers, the third 
annual meeting of California Olive-Growers met at the 
rooms of the State Board of Horticulture Friday, July 14th. 
The interest in the convention was made manifest by 
the large and representative attendance of growers of the 
olive and producers of olive oil from all important sections 
of the State. Among those present were the following: 

Eben Bo<lt. Palermo; J. L. Mosher, San Jose; Frank A. Kimball, 
National City; Wm. C. Parker, Kenwood, Sonoma Co.; Mrs. Parker; 
Capt. E. Kellner, Berkeley; Alfred Roncovieri, San Fiancisco: B. F. 
Walton, Yuba City; H. Pastsch, San Francisco; A. H. Cooms, Clover- 
dale; Mrs. H. E. Van Winkle, S»n Francisco; Mrs. L. P. Slocomb, 
Sjn Francisco; Mrs. A. M. Sherman, Oakland; Mrs. Louis Mel, 
Livermore; R. Jordan, San Francisco; R. Jordan, Jr. Napa; J. H. 
Bowman, Suisuti; Adam Douglas, San Francisco; Dr. O. V. Thayer, 
San Franc'sco; Solomon Sweet. San Francisco; Arthur P. Hayne, 
Berkeley; Edwaid E. Goodrich. Santa Clara; j. L. Howland, Po- 
mona; E. M. Thompson, St. Helena; Fred H. Busby, San Fran- 
cisco; Ju-\ H. W'lcox, Napa; C. A. Aiken, San Francisco; Geo. 
Turrell. Lincoln; S. C. I'rayner, Marysville; J. S. W. Schulte, San 
Luis Obii-po; Frtd C. Miles, Pertryn; P. S. Cillie, South Africa; Wm. 
P Edw.rds, Petaluma; J. T. Bjgue, MafysvilK; R. I. Blowers, 
Woodland; C. P. Howes, Mountain View; D. M. Pyle, Bikersfield; 
L. P. Benchl-y, San Francisco; W. D. Lawton, Sacramento; E. W. 
Maslin, Loomis; R. C. Kelts. Yuba City; Mrs. M. A. Van Scha'ck, 
Gilroy; Leigh Overman, Hanford; W. C. Fitzsimmons, San Fran- 
cisco; G. A. Putnam, Walnut Creek; Mrs. G. A. Putnam, Walnut 
Creek; I. H. Thomas, Visalia; W. P. Hammond, Biggs; E. J. Pringle, 
Jr., Oikland; E. C. Sessions. Jr., Oakland; J. M. Sweet, Bikers field; 
G. P. Rixford, San Francisco; Henry A. Bralnard, San Jose; George 
F. Ditzler, Biggs; A. H. Butler, Sin Francisco; Fred C. Smith, 
South Australia; F. C. Clarence, San Francisco; H. F. Bickel, San 
FrancLco; T. F. Giblen, Yuba City; L. Barzeltotu, Santa Clara. 

The session was most interesting. A number of valuable 
papers were read, and the discussions which followed were 
timely, instructive and profitable. Many were present who 
have either just begun the production of the olive or who 
are about to begin, and they had many questions to ask of 
those who are experienced in its culture. Mr. Cooper, Mr. 
Howland, Mr. Kimball, Mr. Goodrich, Mr. Lelong and 
several others admitted the assembly into several "ioside" 
secrets relative to olive-growing and preparing for market. 
There was nothing about the occupation, they said, which 
they desired to keep from the public, and they were very 
glad to spread information which might be of assistance to 

Elwood Cooper of Santa Barbara presided. The presi- 
dent, in his opening address, paid particular attention to 
the Act of the last Legislature which superseded the previ- 
ous law regulating the sale of olive oil. He explained its 
purpose and provisions. It was obligatory on any one 
placing an impure oil on the market to give it its proper 
label of " imitation olive oil," with the name and address 
of the manufacturer or compounder, and also the names 
and percentages of the ingredients contained in each bottle 
or vessel. A further preventive against fraud is provided 
in Section 7, wherein it is required that oils made outside 
of the State shall not bear any design or label conveying 
the impression that such oil was manufactured in the State. 
Hitherto no action has been taken toward the enforcement 
of the Act, but it was the sense of the convention that steps 
be taken in the future to protect the interests of the State. 
Nothing but common honesty is demanded by the terms of 
the Act. Much of the oil for sale when tested has alleged 
contained only ten per cent of olive oil. 

Mr. Arthur P. Hayne of Santa Barbara, a graduate of 

Berkeley and a student of the National Agricultural School 
at Montpellier, France, read a paper wherein was given the 
result of four years' study in all European countries except 
Russia. Mr. Haynes' observations, which were careful and 
thorough, led him to the conclusion that the olive-growers 
of California are superior in methods, skill and intelligence 
to those of Europe. The Rural Press will, at some 
future time, make more extended mention of Mr. Hayne's 

Dr. A. E. Osborne, superintendent of the State Home 
for Feeble-Minded Children, at Glen Ellen, contributed a 
paper on the value of olive oil in disease. 

Mr. J. L. Howland, a well-known oii-maker and grower 
of Pomona, then read a paper on percentages of oil to be 
obtained from different varieties. Mr. Howland's paper is 
in full as follows: 

At the request of Mr. Lelong I have prepared the following state- 
ments of my experiments in finding the percentages of oil in different 
varieties of olives. While I used an old-fashioned beam press and 
could not get all of the oil out of the pomace, I used the same pres- 
sure in each experiment, and the most careful and exact weights and 
measures. My percentages are only comparative, and with the new 
press which I shall use this year I shall be able to get a larger per- 
centage in each case, but they will rank in the same order. While I 
understand that the percentage of oil issued by the Berkeley Experi- 
mental Station in Bulletin No. 92 was only from chemical aualysis, 
mine are the results of actual piessure and show the average quantity 
of oil that any one might expect with a press of ordinary power. 

Alter two years' careful experimenting with the different olives, for 
bearing quality and percentage of 01), I find them as lollows: 

My trees were planted five years ago the 17th of last April, and 
were two years old when planted. The Penduiina, Oblonga, Uvaria, 
Columella, Rubra, Regalis and Precox commenced to bear the 
second year and have borne regular and steady crops ever since. The 
Manzanillo and Nevadillo Blanco bore the first time last year, though 
they were planted out on the same days as the others. In regard to 
size of pit, the Penduiina was the smallest. 

My Rubra and Penduiina trees averaged a gallon of oil to the tree 
last season, of the very finest quality. After fully one-third of the 
crop had been picked off the Columella trees, the balance was picked 
and weighed and averaged 51 pounds to the tree. The Uvaria is not 
so large a tree as the others but a very heavy and regular bearer, and 
the earliest to ripen of all — in October. The Uvaria, Oblonga and 
Penduiina trees are the most even ripeners, so that all the fruit on the 
tree can be gathered at one picking. All the bearing part of my 
orchard five years old returned me over $400 per acre last season, the 
fruit being made into oil; the Penduliua, Rubra and Columella about 
$7.50 per tree. 

1 he following is the per cent of oil of two years' tests which each 
variety yielded: Penduiina, 21; Rubra, 18%; Oblonga, 18; Mission, 
17 910; Uvaria, 1754; Nevadillo Blanco, 16)^; Columella, 16% ; 
Precox, 14; Picholine, 10; Manzanilio, . 

In my orchard, situated at Pomona, they ripen in about the follow- 
ing order: Uvaria, first of October; Polymorpbia, Macrocarpe, Atro- 
Vialacea, Manzanillo, last of October or first of November; Rubra, 
Columella, first of December; Regalis, Precox, middle of December; 
Mission, last of December or first of January. 

There was a short discussion following Mr. Howland's 
paper and then a recess was taken until afternoon. Upon 
teabsembling, Mr. Frank A. Kimball of National city read 
an exhaustive treatise on the subject ' Why Americans 
Should Cultivate a Taste for Olive Oil as a Food." The 
author of the paper was P. C. Remondino, M. D., of San 

Upon the conclusion of Dr. Remondino's paper, the 
convention was thrown open to general discussion. One 
of the first questions asked was as to the best olive to plant 
and grow. Mr. Edward E. Goodrich was called upon to 
answer the question. " I can only give my experience on 
my place in Santa Clara county," said Mr. Goodrich. "A 
few years ago I sent to Italy for grafts of high grades, and 
I find that the variety that seems all in all to be the best at 
my place is known as the Corregiolo." Other varieties 
tried by Mr. Goodrich are Morinola and Grossajo, the 
Frantojo and Inirantojo. The chief test of the value of 
the olive for oil was, in Mr. Goodrich's opinion, the ease 
with which the oil could be extracted. On his place 
he tound some difficulty with the Mission olive. He con- 
sidered that the question of varieties depended largely 
upon locality and soil. The soil on his place is light and 
rich, but he thought that for foothill land experience would 
probably prove that the Mission was the best. There 
ought to be a point between foothill and valley lands where 
the Mission would-begin to do better than other varieties. 

Mr. Cooper gave his experience as to different soils. 
He said, " I have six orchards at various elevations above 
the sea level and on different varieties of soil. The lowest 
is probably 60 feet above the sea level and is in black 
adobe soil. Another is 100 feet higher in black adobe. 
One is in sandy loam, one in the red lands, another in 
black adobe and the last in sandy loam 400 feet above the 
level of the sea. I make their products into olive oil as 
soon as they ripen. The oil I made two years ago I had 
in seven different tanks. In six of these, no living man 
could tell that there was any difference in the quality of the 
article. I use the Mission olive. When I began I got the 
Mission from various orchards in different localities and 
where they appeared to grow and ripen under different 
conditions and circumstances, but, on my places, they have 
developed into an olive of uniform quality, and I have 
made up my mind that the differences in olives come from 
different climates, for the various olives in the several soils 
on my place are just the same." 

Mr. Hayne told of the olive oil exhibit at the World's 
Fair. It was one of the most attractive and most talked 
about exhibit there. 

In giving his experience of the olive, Mr. Kimball said 
he had no success with any variety in size, shape or quality 
of oil except the Mission. One orchard on his place in 
San Diego county averaged one gallon of oil to 43 pounds 
of fruit. The general average throughout was about 62 or 
63 pounds. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Howland declared that the 
black scale had made no choice of varieties when it began 
its ravages on olive trees. Some people claim some va- 
rieties were more or less exempt; but he saw no difference. 

Some discussion followed as to the value of irrigation for 
olives. Mr. Kimball said that a good test for determining 
whether the olive would grow in arid land Is to take a hand- 
ful of soil two or three inches below the surface, press it 
hard and then drop it, and if it is damp enough to stick to- 
gether while falling, there the olive will grow. I 

Being asked as to his method of pruning, Mr. Cooper 
said that he had formerly pruned heavily, but since the 
introduction of parasitic insects he found that his method 
had to undergo a change. In order to secure the multi- 
plication of ladybirds, he allowed the brush to hang down 
on the ground in order to protect the eggs and early stages 
of the larvae. 

Mr. Lelong then gave the convention the results of five 
years' careful experiments in pickling the olive. The great 
desideratum, said Mr. Lelong, is to prevent scum rising on 
the liquid in the bottles. In the first place, he said, the 
berry must be perfect. It must be picked from the tree, 
not knocked or removed by any other process. It it is, it 
will be found afterward that a spot will develop in the 
berry. The tree should be gone over several times and 
the fruit taken when ripe. Pick in small baskets lined 
with burlap, and when half or nearly full drop contents 
into barrel containing water. The olives do not need to be 
assorted at this time, and the pickling process can be then 
begun. The liquid for pickling is prepared as follows : 
One pound of potash in ten gallons ot water. The potash 
used is powdered Greenbank, 98 per cent. It is b jst to 
boil the lye in about two gallons 01 water; then the liquid 
should be poured in the vats containing the remaining 
eight gallons, which should be shallow, say about 30 inches 
deep. These vats should be arranged in tiers, one above 
the other, with faucets so that as the lye is drawn from one 
it can be emptied directly into the lower one, and so on 
through the series of vats. Each vat is filled with water 
as the lye is drawn therefrom. The olives are left in the 
solution only four hours and the lye is removed by being 
taken successively through the various vats until the last is 
reached, where, after remaining four hours, it is removed 
altogether. As the liquid is drawn from the vats it is re- 
placed with pure water run through the casks in the same 
manner as the lye once or twice every day. It will be 
found that the water is at first very unclean, and the process 
should be repeated until it is absolutely clear and it is 
evident that mere is no more lye on the olives. After this 
the olive should be allowed to remain a week or ten days in 
water, changing the water every day. Then try the olive. 
If it is white near the pit it will be found to be still bitter 
and it is not perfectly pickled. Try the solution again, 
keeping the lyfc in motion through the various casks and 
pulling the plug every 15 minutes. Then let the water 
follow again. When this process is complete and the 
bitterness of the olive seems to be gone, they should be 
placed in brine — a solution of 14 ounces of salt to one 
gallon of water. 

After the solution Is prepared, place in a b